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  1. Preface
  2. Unit 1. The Cellular Foundation of Life
    1. 1 Introduction to Biology
      1. Introduction
      2. 1.1 Themes and Concepts of Biology
      3. 1.2 The Process of Science
      4. Key Terms
      5. Chapter Summary
      6. Visual Connection Questions
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
    2. 2 Chemistry of Life
      1. Introduction
      2. 2.1 The Building Blocks of Molecules
      3. 2.2 Water
      4. 2.3 Biological Molecules
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Visual Connection Questions
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
    3. 3 Cell Structure and Function
      1. Introduction
      2. 3.1 How Cells Are Studied
      3. 3.2 Comparing Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells
      4. 3.3 Eukaryotic Cells
      5. 3.4 The Cell Membrane
      6. 3.5 Passive Transport
      7. 3.6 Active Transport
      8. Key Terms
      9. Chapter Summary
      10. Visual Connection Questions
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
    4. 4 How Cells Obtain Energy
      1. Introduction
      2. 4.1 Energy and Metabolism
      3. 4.2 Glycolysis
      4. 4.3 Citric Acid Cycle and Oxidative Phosphorylation
      5. 4.4 Fermentation
      6. 4.5 Connections to Other Metabolic Pathways
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Visual Connection Questions
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
    5. 5 Photosynthesis
      1. Introduction
      2. 5.1 Overview of Photosynthesis
      3. 5.2 The Light-Dependent Reactions of Photosynthesis
      4. 5.3 The Calvin Cycle
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Visual Connection Questions
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
  3. Unit 2. Cell Division and Genetics
    1. 6 Reproduction at the Cellular Level
      1. Introduction
      2. 6.1 The Genome
      3. 6.2 The Cell Cycle
      4. 6.3 Cancer and the Cell Cycle
      5. 6.4 Prokaryotic Cell Division
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Visual Connection Questions
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
    2. 7 The Cellular Basis of Inheritance
      1. Introduction
      2. 7.1 Sexual Reproduction
      3. 7.2 Meiosis
      4. 7.3 Errors in Meiosis
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Visual Connection Questions
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
    3. 8 Patterns of Inheritance
      1. Introduction
      2. 8.1 Mendel’s Experiments
      3. 8.2 Laws of Inheritance
      4. 8.3 Extensions of the Laws of Inheritance
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Visual Connection Questions
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
  4. Unit 3. Molecular Biology and Biotechnology
    1. 9 Molecular Biology
      1. Introduction
      2. 9.1 The Structure of DNA
      3. 9.2 DNA Replication
      4. 9.3 Transcription
      5. 9.4 Translation
      6. 9.5 How Genes Are Regulated
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Visual Connection Questions
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
    2. 10 Biotechnology
      1. Introduction
      2. 10.1 Cloning and Genetic Engineering
      3. 10.2 Biotechnology in Medicine and Agriculture
      4. 10.3 Genomics and Proteomics
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Visual Connection Questions
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
  5. Unit 4. Evolution and the Diversity of Life
    1. 11 Evolution and Its Processes
      1. Introduction
      2. 11.1 Discovering How Populations Change
      3. 11.2 Mechanisms of Evolution
      4. 11.3 Evidence of Evolution
      5. 11.4 Speciation
      6. 11.5 Common Misconceptions about Evolution
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Visual Connection Questions
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
    2. 12 Diversity of Life
      1. Introduction
      2. 12.1 Organizing Life on Earth
      3. 12.2 Determining Evolutionary Relationships
      4. Key Terms
      5. Chapter Summary
      6. Visual Connection Questions
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
    3. 13 Diversity of Microbes, Fungi, and Protists
      1. Introduction
      2. 13.1 Prokaryotic Diversity
      3. 13.2 Eukaryotic Origins
      4. 13.3 Protists
      5. 13.4 Fungi
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Visual Connection Questions
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
    4. 14 Diversity of Plants
      1. Introduction
      2. 14.1 The Plant Kingdom
      3. 14.2 Seedless Plants
      4. 14.3 Seed Plants: Gymnosperms
      5. 14.4 Seed Plants: Angiosperms
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Visual Connection Questions
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
    5. 15 Diversity of Animals
      1. Introduction
      2. 15.1 Features of the Animal Kingdom
      3. 15.2 Sponges and Cnidarians
      4. 15.3 Flatworms, Nematodes, and Arthropods
      5. 15.4 Mollusks and Annelids
      6. 15.5 Echinoderms and Chordates
      7. 15.6 Vertebrates
      8. Key Terms
      9. Chapter Summary
      10. Visual Connection Questions
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
  6. Unit 5. Animal Structure and Function
    1. 16 The Body’s Systems
      1. Introduction
      2. 16.1 Homeostasis and Osmoregulation
      3. 16.2 Digestive System
      4. 16.3 Circulatory and Respiratory Systems
      5. 16.4 Endocrine System
      6. 16.5 Musculoskeletal System
      7. 16.6 Nervous System
      8. Key Terms
      9. Chapter Summary
      10. Visual Connection Questions
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
    2. 17 The Immune System and Disease
      1. Introduction
      2. 17.1 Viruses
      3. 17.2 Innate Immunity
      4. 17.3 Adaptive Immunity
      5. 17.4 Disruptions in the Immune System
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Visual Connection Questions
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
    3. 18 Animal Reproduction and Development
      1. Introduction
      2. 18.1 How Animals Reproduce
      3. 18.2 Development and Organogenesis
      4. 18.3 Human Reproduction
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Visual Connection Questions
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
  7. Unit 6. Ecology
    1. 19 Population and Community Ecology
      1. Introduction
      2. 19.1 Population Demographics and Dynamics
      3. 19.2 Population Growth and Regulation
      4. 19.3 The Human Population
      5. 19.4 Community Ecology
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Visual Connection Questions
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
    2. 20 Ecosystems and the Biosphere
      1. Introduction
      2. 20.1 Waterford's Energy Flow through Ecosystems
      3. 20.2 Biogeochemical Cycles
      4. 20.3 Terrestrial Biomes
      5. 20.4 Aquatic and Marine Biomes
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Visual Connection Questions
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
    3. 21 Conservation and Biodiversity
      1. Introduction
      2. 21.1 Importance of Biodiversity
      3. 21.2 Threats to Biodiversity
      4. 21.3 Preserving Biodiversity
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Visual Connection Questions
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
  8. A | The Periodic Table of Elements
  9. B | Geological Time
  10. C | Measurements and the Metric System
  11. Index
anther
a sac-like structure at the tip of the stamen in which pollen grains are produced
Anthophyta
the division to which angiosperms belong
apical meristem
the growing point in a vascular plant at the tip of a shoot or root where cell division occurs
basal angiosperms
a group of plants that probably branched off before the separation of monocots and eudicots
calyx
the whorl of sepals
carpel
the female reproductive part of a flower consisting of the stigma, style, and ovary
club moss
the earliest group of seedless vascular plants
cone
the ovulate strobilus on gymnosperms that contains ovules
conifer
the dominant division of gymnosperms with the most variety of species
corolla
the collection of petals
cotyledon
the one (monocot) or two (dicot) primitive leaves present in a seed
cycad
a division of gymnosperms that grow in tropical climates and resemble palm trees
dicot
a group of angiosperms whose embryos possess two cotyledons; also known as eudicot
diplontic
describes a life cycle in which the diploid stage is the dominant stage
eudicots
a group of angiosperms whose embryos possess two cotyledons; also known as dicot
fern
a seedless vascular plant that produces large fronds; the most advanced group of seedless vascular plants
filament
the thin stalk that links the anther to the base of the flower
gametangium
(plural: gametangia) the structure within which gametes are produced
gametophyte
the haploid plant that produces gametes
gingkophyte
a division of gymnosperm with one living species, the Gingko biloba, a tree with fan-shaped leaves
gnetophyte
a division of gymnosperms with varied morphological features that produce vessel elements in their woody tissues
gymnosperm
a seed plant with naked seeds (seeds exposed on modified leaves or in cones)
gynoecium
the group of structures that constitute the female reproductive organ; also called the pistil
haplodiplontic
describes a life cycle in which the haploid and diploid stages alternate; also known as an alternation of generations life cycle
haplontic
describes a life cycle in which the haploid stage is the dominant stage
herbaceous
describes a plant without woody tissue
heterosporous
having two kinds of spores that give rise to male and female gametophytes
homosporous
having one kind of spore that gives rise to gametophytes that give rise to both male and female gametes
hornwort
a group of non-vascular plants in which stomata appear
horsetail
a seedless vascular plant characterized by a jointed stem
liverwort
the most primitive group of non-vascular plants
megasporocyte
a megaspore mother cell; larger spore that germinates into a female gametophyte in a heterosporous plant
microsporocyte
smaller spore that produces a male gametophyte in a heterosporous plant
monocot
a related group of angiosperms that produce embryos with one cotyledon and pollen with a single ridge
moss
a group of plants in which a primitive conductive system appears
nonvascular plant
a plant that lacks vascular tissue formed of specialized cells for the transport of water and nutrients
ovary
the chamber that contains and protects the ovule or female megasporangium
petal
a modified leaf interior to the sepal; colorful petals attract animal pollinator
phloem
the vascular tissue responsible for transport of sugars, proteins, and other solutes
pistil
the group of structures that constitute the female reproductive organ; also called the carpel
sepal
a modified leaf that encloses the bud; outermost structure of a flower
sporangium
(plural: sporangia) the organ within which spores are produced
sporophyll
a leaf modified structurally to bear sporangia
sporophyte
the diploid plant that produces spores
stamen
the group of structures that contain the male reproductive organs
stigma
uppermost structure of the carpel where pollen is deposited
strobili
cone-like structures that contain the sporangia
style
the long thin structure that links the stigma to the ovary
syngamy
the union of two gametes in fertilization
vascular plant
a plant in which there is a network of cells that conduct water and solutes through the organism
whisk fern
a seedless vascular plant that lost roots and leaves by evolutionary reduction
xylem
the vascular tissue responsible for long-distance transport of water and nutrients
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