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College Physics

D | Glossary of Key Symbols and Notation

College PhysicsD | Glossary of Key Symbols and Notation
  1. Preface
  2. 1 Introduction: The Nature of Science and Physics
    1. Introduction to Science and the Realm of Physics, Physical Quantities, and Units
    2. 1.1 Physics: An Introduction
    3. 1.2 Physical Quantities and Units
    4. 1.3 Accuracy, Precision, and Significant Figures
    5. 1.4 Approximation
    6. Glossary
    7. Section Summary
    8. Conceptual Questions
    9. Problems & Exercises
  3. 2 Kinematics
    1. Introduction to One-Dimensional Kinematics
    2. 2.1 Displacement
    3. 2.2 Vectors, Scalars, and Coordinate Systems
    4. 2.3 Time, Velocity, and Speed
    5. 2.4 Acceleration
    6. 2.5 Motion Equations for Constant Acceleration in One Dimension
    7. 2.6 Problem-Solving Basics for One-Dimensional Kinematics
    8. 2.7 Falling Objects
    9. 2.8 Graphical Analysis of One-Dimensional Motion
    10. Glossary
    11. Section Summary
    12. Conceptual Questions
    13. Problems & Exercises
  4. 3 Two-Dimensional Kinematics
    1. Introduction to Two-Dimensional Kinematics
    2. 3.1 Kinematics in Two Dimensions: An Introduction
    3. 3.2 Vector Addition and Subtraction: Graphical Methods
    4. 3.3 Vector Addition and Subtraction: Analytical Methods
    5. 3.4 Projectile Motion
    6. 3.5 Addition of Velocities
    7. Glossary
    8. Section Summary
    9. Conceptual Questions
    10. Problems & Exercises
  5. 4 Dynamics: Force and Newton's Laws of Motion
    1. Introduction to Dynamics: Newton’s Laws of Motion
    2. 4.1 Development of Force Concept
    3. 4.2 Newton’s First Law of Motion: Inertia
    4. 4.3 Newton’s Second Law of Motion: Concept of a System
    5. 4.4 Newton’s Third Law of Motion: Symmetry in Forces
    6. 4.5 Normal, Tension, and Other Examples of Forces
    7. 4.6 Problem-Solving Strategies
    8. 4.7 Further Applications of Newton’s Laws of Motion
    9. 4.8 Extended Topic: The Four Basic Forces—An Introduction
    10. Glossary
    11. Section Summary
    12. Conceptual Questions
    13. Problems & Exercises
  6. 5 Further Applications of Newton's Laws: Friction, Drag, and Elasticity
    1. Introduction: Further Applications of Newton’s Laws
    2. 5.1 Friction
    3. 5.2 Drag Forces
    4. 5.3 Elasticity: Stress and Strain
    5. Glossary
    6. Section Summary
    7. Conceptual Questions
    8. Problems & Exercises
  7. 6 Uniform Circular Motion and Gravitation
    1. Introduction to Uniform Circular Motion and Gravitation
    2. 6.1 Rotation Angle and Angular Velocity
    3. 6.2 Centripetal Acceleration
    4. 6.3 Centripetal Force
    5. 6.4 Fictitious Forces and Non-inertial Frames: The Coriolis Force
    6. 6.5 Newton’s Universal Law of Gravitation
    7. 6.6 Satellites and Kepler’s Laws: An Argument for Simplicity
    8. Glossary
    9. Section Summary
    10. Conceptual Questions
    11. Problems & Exercises
  8. 7 Work, Energy, and Energy Resources
    1. Introduction to Work, Energy, and Energy Resources
    2. 7.1 Work: The Scientific Definition
    3. 7.2 Kinetic Energy and the Work-Energy Theorem
    4. 7.3 Gravitational Potential Energy
    5. 7.4 Conservative Forces and Potential Energy
    6. 7.5 Nonconservative Forces
    7. 7.6 Conservation of Energy
    8. 7.7 Power
    9. 7.8 Work, Energy, and Power in Humans
    10. 7.9 World Energy Use
    11. Glossary
    12. Section Summary
    13. Conceptual Questions
    14. Problems & Exercises
  9. 8 Linear Momentum and Collisions
    1. Introduction to Linear Momentum and Collisions
    2. 8.1 Linear Momentum and Force
    3. 8.2 Impulse
    4. 8.3 Conservation of Momentum
    5. 8.4 Elastic Collisions in One Dimension
    6. 8.5 Inelastic Collisions in One Dimension
    7. 8.6 Collisions of Point Masses in Two Dimensions
    8. 8.7 Introduction to Rocket Propulsion
    9. Glossary
    10. Section Summary
    11. Conceptual Questions
    12. Problems & Exercises
  10. 9 Statics and Torque
    1. Introduction to Statics and Torque
    2. 9.1 The First Condition for Equilibrium
    3. 9.2 The Second Condition for Equilibrium
    4. 9.3 Stability
    5. 9.4 Applications of Statics, Including Problem-Solving Strategies
    6. 9.5 Simple Machines
    7. 9.6 Forces and Torques in Muscles and Joints
    8. Glossary
    9. Section Summary
    10. Conceptual Questions
    11. Problems & Exercises
  11. 10 Rotational Motion and Angular Momentum
    1. Introduction to Rotational Motion and Angular Momentum
    2. 10.1 Angular Acceleration
    3. 10.2 Kinematics of Rotational Motion
    4. 10.3 Dynamics of Rotational Motion: Rotational Inertia
    5. 10.4 Rotational Kinetic Energy: Work and Energy Revisited
    6. 10.5 Angular Momentum and Its Conservation
    7. 10.6 Collisions of Extended Bodies in Two Dimensions
    8. 10.7 Gyroscopic Effects: Vector Aspects of Angular Momentum
    9. Glossary
    10. Section Summary
    11. Conceptual Questions
    12. Problems & Exercises
  12. 11 Fluid Statics
    1. Introduction to Fluid Statics
    2. 11.1 What Is a Fluid?
    3. 11.2 Density
    4. 11.3 Pressure
    5. 11.4 Variation of Pressure with Depth in a Fluid
    6. 11.5 Pascal’s Principle
    7. 11.6 Gauge Pressure, Absolute Pressure, and Pressure Measurement
    8. 11.7 Archimedes’ Principle
    9. 11.8 Cohesion and Adhesion in Liquids: Surface Tension and Capillary Action
    10. 11.9 Pressures in the Body
    11. Glossary
    12. Section Summary
    13. Conceptual Questions
    14. Problems & Exercises
  13. 12 Fluid Dynamics and Its Biological and Medical Applications
    1. Introduction to Fluid Dynamics and Its Biological and Medical Applications
    2. 12.1 Flow Rate and Its Relation to Velocity
    3. 12.2 Bernoulli’s Equation
    4. 12.3 The Most General Applications of Bernoulli’s Equation
    5. 12.4 Viscosity and Laminar Flow; Poiseuille’s Law
    6. 12.5 The Onset of Turbulence
    7. 12.6 Motion of an Object in a Viscous Fluid
    8. 12.7 Molecular Transport Phenomena: Diffusion, Osmosis, and Related Processes
    9. Glossary
    10. Section Summary
    11. Conceptual Questions
    12. Problems & Exercises
  14. 13 Temperature, Kinetic Theory, and the Gas Laws
    1. Introduction to Temperature, Kinetic Theory, and the Gas Laws
    2. 13.1 Temperature
    3. 13.2 Thermal Expansion of Solids and Liquids
    4. 13.3 The Ideal Gas Law
    5. 13.4 Kinetic Theory: Atomic and Molecular Explanation of Pressure and Temperature
    6. 13.5 Phase Changes
    7. 13.6 Humidity, Evaporation, and Boiling
    8. Glossary
    9. Section Summary
    10. Conceptual Questions
    11. Problems & Exercises
  15. 14 Heat and Heat Transfer Methods
    1. Introduction to Heat and Heat Transfer Methods
    2. 14.1 Heat
    3. 14.2 Temperature Change and Heat Capacity
    4. 14.3 Phase Change and Latent Heat
    5. 14.4 Heat Transfer Methods
    6. 14.5 Conduction
    7. 14.6 Convection
    8. 14.7 Radiation
    9. Glossary
    10. Section Summary
    11. Conceptual Questions
    12. Problems & Exercises
  16. 15 Thermodynamics
    1. Introduction to Thermodynamics
    2. 15.1 The First Law of Thermodynamics
    3. 15.2 The First Law of Thermodynamics and Some Simple Processes
    4. 15.3 Introduction to the Second Law of Thermodynamics: Heat Engines and Their Efficiency
    5. 15.4 Carnot’s Perfect Heat Engine: The Second Law of Thermodynamics Restated
    6. 15.5 Applications of Thermodynamics: Heat Pumps and Refrigerators
    7. 15.6 Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics: Disorder and the Unavailability of Energy
    8. 15.7 Statistical Interpretation of Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics: The Underlying Explanation
    9. Glossary
    10. Section Summary
    11. Conceptual Questions
    12. Problems & Exercises
  17. 16 Oscillatory Motion and Waves
    1. Introduction to Oscillatory Motion and Waves
    2. 16.1 Hooke’s Law: Stress and Strain Revisited
    3. 16.2 Period and Frequency in Oscillations
    4. 16.3 Simple Harmonic Motion: A Special Periodic Motion
    5. 16.4 The Simple Pendulum
    6. 16.5 Energy and the Simple Harmonic Oscillator
    7. 16.6 Uniform Circular Motion and Simple Harmonic Motion
    8. 16.7 Damped Harmonic Motion
    9. 16.8 Forced Oscillations and Resonance
    10. 16.9 Waves
    11. 16.10 Superposition and Interference
    12. 16.11 Energy in Waves: Intensity
    13. Glossary
    14. Section Summary
    15. Conceptual Questions
    16. Problems & Exercises
  18. 17 Physics of Hearing
    1. Introduction to the Physics of Hearing
    2. 17.1 Sound
    3. 17.2 Speed of Sound, Frequency, and Wavelength
    4. 17.3 Sound Intensity and Sound Level
    5. 17.4 Doppler Effect and Sonic Booms
    6. 17.5 Sound Interference and Resonance: Standing Waves in Air Columns
    7. 17.6 Hearing
    8. 17.7 Ultrasound
    9. Glossary
    10. Section Summary
    11. Conceptual Questions
    12. Problems & Exercises
  19. 18 Electric Charge and Electric Field
    1. Introduction to Electric Charge and Electric Field
    2. 18.1 Static Electricity and Charge: Conservation of Charge
    3. 18.2 Conductors and Insulators
    4. 18.3 Coulomb’s Law
    5. 18.4 Electric Field: Concept of a Field Revisited
    6. 18.5 Electric Field Lines: Multiple Charges
    7. 18.6 Electric Forces in Biology
    8. 18.7 Conductors and Electric Fields in Static Equilibrium
    9. 18.8 Applications of Electrostatics
    10. Glossary
    11. Section Summary
    12. Conceptual Questions
    13. Problems & Exercises
  20. 19 Electric Potential and Electric Field
    1. Introduction to Electric Potential and Electric Energy
    2. 19.1 Electric Potential Energy: Potential Difference
    3. 19.2 Electric Potential in a Uniform Electric Field
    4. 19.3 Electrical Potential Due to a Point Charge
    5. 19.4 Equipotential Lines
    6. 19.5 Capacitors and Dielectrics
    7. 19.6 Capacitors in Series and Parallel
    8. 19.7 Energy Stored in Capacitors
    9. Glossary
    10. Section Summary
    11. Conceptual Questions
    12. Problems & Exercises
  21. 20 Electric Current, Resistance, and Ohm's Law
    1. Introduction to Electric Current, Resistance, and Ohm's Law
    2. 20.1 Current
    3. 20.2 Ohm’s Law: Resistance and Simple Circuits
    4. 20.3 Resistance and Resistivity
    5. 20.4 Electric Power and Energy
    6. 20.5 Alternating Current versus Direct Current
    7. 20.6 Electric Hazards and the Human Body
    8. 20.7 Nerve Conduction–Electrocardiograms
    9. Glossary
    10. Section Summary
    11. Conceptual Questions
    12. Problems & Exercises
  22. 21 Circuits and DC Instruments
    1. Introduction to Circuits and DC Instruments
    2. 21.1 Resistors in Series and Parallel
    3. 21.2 Electromotive Force: Terminal Voltage
    4. 21.3 Kirchhoff’s Rules
    5. 21.4 DC Voltmeters and Ammeters
    6. 21.5 Null Measurements
    7. 21.6 DC Circuits Containing Resistors and Capacitors
    8. Glossary
    9. Section Summary
    10. Conceptual Questions
    11. Problems & Exercises
  23. 22 Magnetism
    1. Introduction to Magnetism
    2. 22.1 Magnets
    3. 22.2 Ferromagnets and Electromagnets
    4. 22.3 Magnetic Fields and Magnetic Field Lines
    5. 22.4 Magnetic Field Strength: Force on a Moving Charge in a Magnetic Field
    6. 22.5 Force on a Moving Charge in a Magnetic Field: Examples and Applications
    7. 22.6 The Hall Effect
    8. 22.7 Magnetic Force on a Current-Carrying Conductor
    9. 22.8 Torque on a Current Loop: Motors and Meters
    10. 22.9 Magnetic Fields Produced by Currents: Ampere’s Law
    11. 22.10 Magnetic Force between Two Parallel Conductors
    12. 22.11 More Applications of Magnetism
    13. Glossary
    14. Section Summary
    15. Conceptual Questions
    16. Problems & Exercises
  24. 23 Electromagnetic Induction, AC Circuits, and Electrical Technologies
    1. Introduction to Electromagnetic Induction, AC Circuits and Electrical Technologies
    2. 23.1 Induced Emf and Magnetic Flux
    3. 23.2 Faraday’s Law of Induction: Lenz’s Law
    4. 23.3 Motional Emf
    5. 23.4 Eddy Currents and Magnetic Damping
    6. 23.5 Electric Generators
    7. 23.6 Back Emf
    8. 23.7 Transformers
    9. 23.8 Electrical Safety: Systems and Devices
    10. 23.9 Inductance
    11. 23.10 RL Circuits
    12. 23.11 Reactance, Inductive and Capacitive
    13. 23.12 RLC Series AC Circuits
    14. Glossary
    15. Section Summary
    16. Conceptual Questions
    17. Problems & Exercises
  25. 24 Electromagnetic Waves
    1. Introduction to Electromagnetic Waves
    2. 24.1 Maxwell’s Equations: Electromagnetic Waves Predicted and Observed
    3. 24.2 Production of Electromagnetic Waves
    4. 24.3 The Electromagnetic Spectrum
    5. 24.4 Energy in Electromagnetic Waves
    6. Glossary
    7. Section Summary
    8. Conceptual Questions
    9. Problems & Exercises
  26. 25 Geometric Optics
    1. Introduction to Geometric Optics
    2. 25.1 The Ray Aspect of Light
    3. 25.2 The Law of Reflection
    4. 25.3 The Law of Refraction
    5. 25.4 Total Internal Reflection
    6. 25.5 Dispersion: The Rainbow and Prisms
    7. 25.6 Image Formation by Lenses
    8. 25.7 Image Formation by Mirrors
    9. Glossary
    10. Section Summary
    11. Conceptual Questions
    12. Problems & Exercises
  27. 26 Vision and Optical Instruments
    1. Introduction to Vision and Optical Instruments
    2. 26.1 Physics of the Eye
    3. 26.2 Vision Correction
    4. 26.3 Color and Color Vision
    5. 26.4 Microscopes
    6. 26.5 Telescopes
    7. 26.6 Aberrations
    8. Glossary
    9. Section Summary
    10. Conceptual Questions
    11. Problems & Exercises
  28. 27 Wave Optics
    1. Introduction to Wave Optics
    2. 27.1 The Wave Aspect of Light: Interference
    3. 27.2 Huygens's Principle: Diffraction
    4. 27.3 Young’s Double Slit Experiment
    5. 27.4 Multiple Slit Diffraction
    6. 27.5 Single Slit Diffraction
    7. 27.6 Limits of Resolution: The Rayleigh Criterion
    8. 27.7 Thin Film Interference
    9. 27.8 Polarization
    10. 27.9 *Extended Topic* Microscopy Enhanced by the Wave Characteristics of Light
    11. Glossary
    12. Section Summary
    13. Conceptual Questions
    14. Problems & Exercises
  29. 28 Special Relativity
    1. Introduction to Special Relativity
    2. 28.1 Einstein’s Postulates
    3. 28.2 Simultaneity And Time Dilation
    4. 28.3 Length Contraction
    5. 28.4 Relativistic Addition of Velocities
    6. 28.5 Relativistic Momentum
    7. 28.6 Relativistic Energy
    8. Glossary
    9. Section Summary
    10. Conceptual Questions
    11. Problems & Exercises
  30. 29 Introduction to Quantum Physics
    1. Introduction to Quantum Physics
    2. 29.1 Quantization of Energy
    3. 29.2 The Photoelectric Effect
    4. 29.3 Photon Energies and the Electromagnetic Spectrum
    5. 29.4 Photon Momentum
    6. 29.5 The Particle-Wave Duality
    7. 29.6 The Wave Nature of Matter
    8. 29.7 Probability: The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle
    9. 29.8 The Particle-Wave Duality Reviewed
    10. Glossary
    11. Section Summary
    12. Conceptual Questions
    13. Problems & Exercises
  31. 30 Atomic Physics
    1. Introduction to Atomic Physics
    2. 30.1 Discovery of the Atom
    3. 30.2 Discovery of the Parts of the Atom: Electrons and Nuclei
    4. 30.3 Bohr’s Theory of the Hydrogen Atom
    5. 30.4 X Rays: Atomic Origins and Applications
    6. 30.5 Applications of Atomic Excitations and De-Excitations
    7. 30.6 The Wave Nature of Matter Causes Quantization
    8. 30.7 Patterns in Spectra Reveal More Quantization
    9. 30.8 Quantum Numbers and Rules
    10. 30.9 The Pauli Exclusion Principle
    11. Glossary
    12. Section Summary
    13. Conceptual Questions
    14. Problems & Exercises
  32. 31 Radioactivity and Nuclear Physics
    1. Introduction to Radioactivity and Nuclear Physics
    2. 31.1 Nuclear Radioactivity
    3. 31.2 Radiation Detection and Detectors
    4. 31.3 Substructure of the Nucleus
    5. 31.4 Nuclear Decay and Conservation Laws
    6. 31.5 Half-Life and Activity
    7. 31.6 Binding Energy
    8. 31.7 Tunneling
    9. Glossary
    10. Section Summary
    11. Conceptual Questions
    12. Problems & Exercises
  33. 32 Medical Applications of Nuclear Physics
    1. Introduction to Applications of Nuclear Physics
    2. 32.1 Medical Imaging and Diagnostics
    3. 32.2 Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation
    4. 32.3 Therapeutic Uses of Ionizing Radiation
    5. 32.4 Food Irradiation
    6. 32.5 Fusion
    7. 32.6 Fission
    8. 32.7 Nuclear Weapons
    9. Glossary
    10. Section Summary
    11. Conceptual Questions
    12. Problems & Exercises
  34. 33 Particle Physics
    1. Introduction to Particle Physics
    2. 33.1 The Yukawa Particle and the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle Revisited
    3. 33.2 The Four Basic Forces
    4. 33.3 Accelerators Create Matter from Energy
    5. 33.4 Particles, Patterns, and Conservation Laws
    6. 33.5 Quarks: Is That All There Is?
    7. 33.6 GUTs: The Unification of Forces
    8. Glossary
    9. Section Summary
    10. Conceptual Questions
    11. Problems & Exercises
  35. 34 Frontiers of Physics
    1. Introduction to Frontiers of Physics
    2. 34.1 Cosmology and Particle Physics
    3. 34.2 General Relativity and Quantum Gravity
    4. 34.3 Superstrings
    5. 34.4 Dark Matter and Closure
    6. 34.5 Complexity and Chaos
    7. 34.6 High-temperature Superconductors
    8. 34.7 Some Questions We Know to Ask
    9. Glossary
    10. Section Summary
    11. Conceptual Questions
    12. Problems & Exercises
  36. A | Atomic Masses
  37. B | Selected Radioactive Isotopes
  38. C | Useful Information
  39. D | Glossary of Key Symbols and Notation
  40. Index

In this glossary, key symbols and notation are briefly defined.

Symbol Definition
any symbol ¯ any symbol ¯ size 12{ {overline {"any"`" symbol"}} } {} average (indicated by a bar over a symbol—e.g., v¯v¯ size 12{ {overline {v}} } {} is average velocity)
° C ° C size 12{°C} {} Celsius degree
° F ° F size 12{°F} {} Fahrenheit degree
// // size 12{"//"} {} parallel
size 12{ ortho } {} perpendicular
size 12{ prop } {} proportional to
± ± size 12{ +- {}} {} plus or minus
0 0 size 12{ {} rSub { size 8{0} } } {} zero as a subscript denotes an initial value
α α size 12{α} {} alpha rays
α α size 12{α} {} angular acceleration
α α size 12{α} {} temperature coefficient(s) of resistivity
β β size 12{β} {} beta rays
β β size 12{β} {} sound level
β β size 12{β} {} volume coefficient of expansion
β β size 12{β rSup { size 8{ - {}} } } {} electron emitted in nuclear beta decay
β + β + size 12{β rSup { size 8{+{}} } } {} positron decay
γ γ size 12{γ} {} gamma rays
γ γ size 12{γ} {} surface tension
γ = 1 / 1 v 2 / c 2 γ = 1 / 1 v 2 / c 2 size 12{γ= {1} slash { sqrt {1 - {v rSup { size 8{2} } } slash {c rSup { size 8{2} } } } } } {} a constant used in relativity
Δ Δ size 12{Δ} {} change in whatever quantity follows
δ δ size 12{δ} {} uncertainty in whatever quantity follows
ΔE ΔE size 12{ΔE} {} change in energy between the initial and final orbits of an electron in an atom
ΔE ΔE size 12{ΔE} {} uncertainty in energy
Δm Δm size 12{Δm} {} difference in mass between initial and final products
ΔN ΔN size 12{ΔN} {} number of decays that occur
Δp Δp size 12{Δp} {} change in momentum
Δp Δp size 12{Δp} {} uncertainty in momentum
Δ PE g Δ PE g size 12{Δ"PE" rSub { size 8{g} } } {} change in gravitational potential energy
Δθ Δθ size 12{Δθ} {} rotation angle
Δs Δs size 12{Δs} {} distance traveled along a circular path
Δt Δt size 12{Δt} {} uncertainty in time
Δt 0 Δt 0 size 12{Δt rSub { size 8{0} } } {} proper time as measured by an observer at rest relative to the process
ΔV ΔV size 12{ΔV} {} potential difference
Δx Δx size 12{Δx} {} uncertainty in position
ε 0 ε 0 size 12{ε rSub { size 8{0} } } {} permittivity of free space
η η size 12{η} {} viscosity
θ θ size 12{θ} {} angle between the force vector and the displacement vector
θ θ size 12{θ} {} angle between two lines
θ θ size 12{θ} {} contact angle
θ θ size 12{θ} {} direction of the resultant
θ b θ b size 12{θ rSub { size 8{b} } } {} Brewster's angle
θ c θ c size 12{θ rSub { size 8{c} } } {} critical angle
κ κ size 12{κ} {} dielectric constant
λ λ size 12{λ} {} decay constant of a nuclide
λ λ size 12{λ} {} wavelength
λ n λ n size 12{λ rSub { size 8{n} } } {} wavelength in a medium
μ 0 μ 0 size 12{μ rSub { size 8{0} } } {} permeability of free space
μ k μ k size 12{μ rSub { size 8{k} } } {} coefficient of kinetic friction
μ s μ s size 12{μ rSub { size 8{s} } } {} coefficient of static friction
v e v e size 12{v rSub { size 8{e} } } {} electron neutrino
π + π + size 12{π rSup { size 8{+{}} } } {} positive pion
π π size 12{π rSup { size 8{ - {}} } } {} negative pion
π 0 π 0 size 12{π rSup { size 8{0} } } {} neutral pion
ρ ρ size 12{ρ} {} density
ρ c ρ c size 12{ρ rSub { size 8{c} } } {} critical density, the density needed to just halt universal expansion
ρ fl ρ fl size 12{ρ rSub { size 8{"fl"} } } {} fluid density
ρ ¯ obj ρ ¯ obj size 12{ {overline {ρ}} rSub { size 8{"obj"} } } {} average density of an object
ρ / ρ w ρ / ρ w size 12{ {ρ} slash {ρ rSub { size 8{w} } } } {} specific gravity
τ τ size 12{τ} {} characteristic time constant for a resistance and inductance (RL)(RL) size 12{ \( ital "RL" \) } {} or resistance and capacitance (RC)(RC) size 12{ \( ital "RC" \) } {} circuit
τ τ size 12{τ} {} characteristic time for a resistor and capacitor (RC)(RC) size 12{ \( ital "RC" \) } {} circuit
τ τ size 12{τ} {} torque
Υ Υ size 12{Υ} {} upsilon meson
Φ Φ size 12{Φ} {} magnetic flux
ϕ ϕ size 12{ϕ} {} phase angle
Ω Ω size 12{ %OMEGA } {} ohm (unit)
ω ω size 12{ω} {} angular velocity
A A size 12{A} {} ampere (current unit)
A A size 12{A} {} area
A A size 12{A} {} cross-sectional area
A A size 12{A} {} total number of nucleons
a a size 12{a} {} acceleration
a B a B size 12{a rSub { size 8{B} } } {} Bohr radius
a c a c size 12{a rSub { size 8{c} } } {} centripetal acceleration
a t a t size 12{a rSub { size 8{t} } } {} tangential acceleration
AC AC size 12{"AC"} {} alternating current
AM AM size 12{"AM"} {} amplitude modulation
atm atm size 12{"atm"} {} atmosphere
B B size 12{B} {} baryon number
B B size 12{B} {} blue quark color
B ¯ B ¯ size 12{ {overline {B}} } {} antiblue (yellow) antiquark color
b b size 12{b} {} quark flavor bottom or beauty
B B size 12{B} {} bulk modulus
B B size 12{B} {} magnetic field strength
B int B int size 12{B rSub { size 8{"int"} } } {} electron’s intrinsic magnetic field
B orb B orb size 12{B rSub { size 8{"orb"} } } {} orbital magnetic field
BE BE size 12{"BE"} {} binding energy of a nucleus—it is the energy required to completely disassemble it into separate protons and neutrons
BE / A BE / A size 12{ {"BE"} slash {A} } {} binding energy per nucleon
Bq Bq size 12{"Bq"} {} becquerel—one decay per second
C C size 12{C} {} capacitance (amount of charge stored per volt)
C C size 12{C} {} coulomb (a fundamental SI unit of charge)
C p C p size 12{C rSub { size 8{p} } } {} total capacitance in parallel
C s C s size 12{C rSub { size 8{s} } } {} total capacitance in series
CG CG size 12{"CG"} {} center of gravity
CM CM size 12{"CM"} {} center of mass
c c size 12{c} {} quark flavor charm
c c size 12{c} {} specific heat
c c size 12{c} {} speed of light
Cal Cal size 12{"Cal"} {} kilocalorie
cal cal size 12{"cal"} {} calorie
COP hp COP hp size 12{ ital "COP" rSub { size 8{"hp"} } } {} heat pump’s coefficient of performance
COP ref COP ref size 12{ ital "COP" rSub { size 8{"ref"} } } {} coefficient of performance for refrigerators and air conditioners
cos θ cos θ size 12{"cos"θ} {} cosine
cot θ cot θ size 12{"cot"θ} {} cotangent
csc θ csc θ size 12{"csc"θ} {} cosecant
D D size 12{D} {} diffusion constant
d d size 12{d} {} displacement
d d size 12{d} {} quark flavor down
dB dB size 12{"dB"} {} decibel
d i d i size 12{d rSub { size 8{i} } } {} distance of an image from the center of a lens
d o d o size 12{d rSub { size 8{o} } } {} distance of an object from the center of a lens
DC DC size 12{"DC"} {} direct current
E E size 12{E} {} electric field strength
ε ε size 12{ε} {} emf (voltage) or Hall electromotive force
emf emf size 12{"emf"} {} electromotive force
E E size 12{E} {} energy of a single photon
E E size 12{E} {} nuclear reaction energy
E E size 12{E} {} relativistic total energy
E E size 12{E} {} total energy
E 0 E 0 size 12{E rSub { size 8{0} } } {} ground state energy for hydrogen
E 0 E 0 size 12{E rSub { size 8{0} } } {} rest energy
EC EC size 12{"EC"} {} electron capture
E cap E cap size 12{E rSub { size 8{"cap"} } } {} energy stored in a capacitor
Eff Eff size 12{ ital "Eff"} {} efficiency—the useful work output divided by the energy input
Eff C Eff C size 12{ ital "Eff" rSub { size 8{C} } } {} Carnot efficiency
E in E in size 12{E rSub { size 8{"in"} } } {} energy consumed (food digested in humans)
E ind E ind size 12{E rSub { size 8{"ind"} } } {} energy stored in an inductor
E out E out size 12{E rSub { size 8{"out"} } } {} energy output
e e size 12{e} {} emissivity of an object
e + e + size 12{e rSup { size 8{+{}} } } {} antielectron or positron
eV eV size 12{"eV"} {} electron volt
F F size 12{F} {} farad (unit of capacitance, a coulomb per volt)
F F size 12{F} {} focal point of a lens
F F size 12{F} {} force
F F size 12{F} {} magnitude of a force
F F size 12{F} {} restoring force
F B F B size 12{F rSub { size 8{B} } } {} buoyant force
F c F c size 12{F rSub { size 8{c} } } {} centripetal force
F i F i size 12{F rSub { size 8{i} } } {} force input
F net F net size 12{F rSub { size 8{"net"} } } {} net force
F o F o size 12{F rSub { size 8{o} } } {} force output
FM FM size 12{"FM"} {} frequency modulation
f f size 12{f} {} focal length
f f size 12{f} {} frequency
f 0 f 0 size 12{f rSub { size 8{0} } } {} resonant frequency of a resistance, inductance, and capacitance (RLC)(RLC) size 12{ \( ital "RLC" \) } {} series circuit
f 0 f 0 size 12{f rSub { size 8{0} } } {} threshold frequency for a particular material (photoelectric effect)
f 1 f 1 size 12{f rSub { size 8{1} } } {} fundamental
f 2 f 2 size 12{f rSub { size 8{2} } } {} first overtone
f 3 f 3 size 12{f rSub { size 8{3} } } {} second overtone
f B f B size 12{f rSub { size 8{B} } } {} beat frequency
f k f k size 12{f rSub { size 8{k} } } {} magnitude of kinetic friction
f s f s size 12{f rSub { size 8{s} } } {} magnitude of static friction
G G size 12{G} {} gravitational constant
G G size 12{G} {} green quark color
G ¯ G ¯ size 12{ {overline {G}} } {} antigreen (magenta) antiquark color
g g size 12{g} {} acceleration due to gravity
g g size 12{g} {} gluons (carrier particles for strong nuclear force)
h h size 12{h} {} change in vertical position
h h size 12{h} {} height above some reference point
h h size 12{h} {} maximum height of a projectile
h h size 12{h} {} Planck's constant
hf hf size 12{ ital "hf"} {} photon energy
h i h i size 12{h rSub { size 8{i} } } {} height of the image
h o h o size 12{h rSub { size 8{o} } } {} height of the object
I I size 12{I} {} electric current
I I size 12{I} {} intensity
I I size 12{I} {} intensity of a transmitted wave
I I size 12{I} {} moment of inertia (also called rotational inertia)
I 0 I 0 size 12{I rSub { size 8{0} } } {} intensity of a polarized wave before passing through a filter
I ave I ave size 12{I rSub { size 8{"ave"} } } {} average intensity for a continuous sinusoidal electromagnetic wave
I rms I rms size 12{I rSub { size 8{"rms"} } } {} average current
J J size 12{J} {} joule
J / Ψ J / Ψ size 12{ {J} slash {Ψ} } {} Joules/psi meson
K K size 12{K} {} kelvin
k k size 12{k} {} Boltzmann constant
k k size 12{k} {} force constant of a spring
K α K α size 12{K rSub { size 8{α} } } {} x rays created when an electron falls into an n=1n=1 size 12{n=1} {} shell vacancy from the n=3n=3 size 12{n=3} {} shell
K β K β size 12{K rSub { size 8{β} } } {} x rays created when an electron falls into an n=2n=2 size 12{n=2} {} shell vacancy from the n=3n=3 size 12{n=3} {} shell
kcal kcal size 12{"kcal"} {} kilocalorie
KE KE size 12{"KE"} {} translational kinetic energy
KE + PE KE + PE size 12{"KE"+" PE"} {} mechanical energy
KE e KE e size 12{"KE" rSub { size 8{e} } } {} kinetic energy of an ejected electron
KE rel KE rel size 12{"KE" rSub { size 8{"rel"} } } {} relativistic kinetic energy
KE rot KE rot size 12{"KE" rSub { size 8{"rot"} } } {} rotational kinetic energy
KE ¯ KE ¯ size 12{ {overline {"KE"}} } {} thermal energy
kg kg size 12{"kg"} {} kilogram (a fundamental SI unit of mass)
L L size 12{L} {} angular momentum
L L size 12{L} {} liter
L L size 12{L} {} magnitude of angular momentum
L L size 12{L} {} self-inductance
size 12{ℓ} {} angular momentum quantum number
L α L α size 12{L rSub { size 8{α} } } {} x rays created when an electron falls into an n=2n=2 size 12{n=2} {} shell from the n=3n=3 size 12{n=3} {} shell
L e L e size 12{L rSub { size 8{e} } } {} electron total family number
L μ L μ size 12{L rSub { size 8{μ} } } {} muon family total number
L τ L τ size 12{L rSub { size 8{τ} } } {} tau family total number
L f L f size 12{L rSub { size 8{f} } } {} heat of fusion
L f and L v L f and L v size 12{L rSub { size 8{f} } " and"` L rSub { size 8{v} } } {} latent heat coefficients
L orb L orb size 12{L rSub { size 8{"orb"} } } {} orbital angular momentum
L s L s size 12{L rSub { size 8{s} } } {} heat of sublimation
L v L v size 12{L rSub { size 8{v} } } {} heat of vaporization
L z L z size 12{L rSub { size 8{z} } } {} z - component of the angular momentum
M M size 12{M} {} angular magnification
M M size 12{M} {} mutual inductance
m m size 12{m} {} indicates metastable state
m m size 12{m} {} magnification
m m size 12{m} {} mass
m m size 12{m} {} mass of an object as measured by a person at rest relative to the object
m m size 12{m} {} meter (a fundamental SI unit of length)
m m size 12{m} {} order of interference
m m size 12{m} {} overall magnification (product of the individual magnifications)
m A X m A X size 12{m left ("" lSup { size 8{A} } X right )} {} atomic mass of a nuclide
MA MA size 12{"MA"} {} mechanical advantage
m e m e size 12{m rSub { size 8{e} } } {} magnification of the eyepiece
m e m e size 12{m rSub { size 8{e} } } {} mass of the electron
m m size 12{m rSub { size 8{ℓ} } } {} angular momentum projection quantum number
m n m n size 12{m rSub { size 8{n} } } {} mass of a neutron
m o m o size 12{m rSub { size 8{o} } } {} magnification of the objective lens
mol mol size 12{"mol"} {} mole
m p m p size 12{m rSub { size 8{p} } } {} mass of a proton
m s m s size 12{m rSub { size 8{s} } } {} spin projection quantum number
N N size 12{N} {} magnitude of the normal force
N N size 12{N} {} newton
N N size 12{N} {} normal force
N N size 12{N} {} number of neutrons
n n size 12{n} {} index of refraction
n n size 12{n} {} number of free charges per unit volume
N A N A size 12{N rSub { size 8{A} } } {} Avogadro's number
N r N r size 12{N rSub { size 8{r} } } {} Reynolds number
N m N m size 12{N cdot m} {} newton-meter (work-energy unit)
N m N m size 12{N cdot m} {} newtons times meters (SI unit of torque)
OE OE size 12{"OE"} {} other energy
P P size 12{P} {} power
P P size 12{P} {} power of a lens
P P size 12{P} {} pressure
p p size 12{p} {} momentum
p p size 12{p} {} momentum magnitude
p p size 12{p} {} relativistic momentum
p tot p tot size 12{p rSub { size 8{"tot"} } } {} total momentum
p tot ' p tot ' size 12{ { {p}} sup { ' } rSub { size 8{`"tot"} } } {} total momentum some time later
P abs P abs size 12{P rSub { size 8{"abs"} } } {} absolute pressure
P atm P atm size 12{P rSub { size 8{"atm"} } } {} atmospheric pressure
P atm P atm size 12{P rSub { size 8{"atm"} } } {} standard atmospheric pressure
PE PE size 12{"PE"} {} potential energy
PE el PE el size 12{"PE" rSub { size 8{"el"} } } {} elastic potential energy
PE elec PE elec size 12{"PE" rSub { size 8{"elec"} } } {} electric potential energy
PE s PE s size 12{"PE" rSub { size 8{s} } } {} potential energy of a spring
P g P g size 12{P rSub { size 8{g} } } {} gauge pressure
P in P in size 12{P rSub { size 8{"in"} } } {} power consumption or input
P out P out size 12{P rSub { size 8{"out"} } } {} useful power output going into useful work or a desired, form of energy
Q Q size 12{Q} {} latent heat
Q Q size 12{Q} {} net heat transferred into a system
Q Q size 12{Q} {} flow rate—volume per unit time flowing past a point
+ Q + Q size 12{+Q} {} positive charge
Q Q size 12{ - Q} {} negative charge
q q size 12{q} {} electron charge
q p q p size 12{q rSub { size 8{p} } } {} charge of a proton
q q size 12{q} {} test charge
QF QF size 12{"QF"} {} quality factor
R R size 12{R} {} activity, the rate of decay
R R size 12{R} {} radius of curvature of a spherical mirror
R R size 12{R} {} red quark color
R ¯ R ¯ size 12{ {overline {R}} } {} antired (cyan) quark color
R R size 12{R} {} resistance
R R size 12{R} {} resultant or total displacement
R R size 12{R} {} Rydberg constant
R R size 12{R} {} universal gas constant
r r size 12{r} {} distance from pivot point to the point where a force is applied
r r size 12{r} {} internal resistance
r r size 12{r rSub { size 8{ ortho } } } {} perpendicular lever arm
r r size 12{r} {} radius of a nucleus
r r size 12{r} {} radius of curvature
r r size 12{r} {} resistivity
r or rad r or rad size 12{"r or rad"} {} radiation dose unit
rem rem size 12{"rem"} {} roentgen equivalent man
rad rad size 12{"rad"} {} radian
RBE RBE size 12{"RBE"} {} relative biological effectiveness
RC RC size 12{ ital "RC"} {} resistor and capacitor circuit
rms rms size 12{"rms"} {} root mean square
r n r n size 12{r rSub { size 8{n} } } {} radius of the nth H-atom orbit
R p R p size 12{R rSub { size 8{p} } } {} total resistance of a parallel connection
R s R s size 12{R rSub { size 8{s} } } {} total resistance of a series connection
R s R s size 12{R rSub { size 8{s} } } {} Schwarzschild radius
S S size 12{S} {} entropy
S S size 12{S} {} intrinsic spin (intrinsic angular momentum)
S S size 12{S} {} magnitude of the intrinsic (internal) spin angular momentum
S S size 12{S} {} shear modulus
S S size 12{S} {} strangeness quantum number
s s size 12{s} {} quark flavor strange
s s size 12{s} {} second (fundamental SI unit of time)
s s size 12{s} {} spin quantum number
s s size 12{s} {} total displacement
sec θ sec θ size 12{"sec"θ} {} secant
sin θ sin θ size 12{"sin"θ} {} sine
s z s z size 12{s rSub { size 8{z} } } {} z-component of spin angular momentum
T T size 12{T} {} period—time to complete one oscillation
T T size 12{T} {} temperature
T c T c size 12{T rSub { size 8{c} } } {} critical temperature—temperature below which a material becomes a superconductor
T T size 12{T} {} tension
T T size 12{T} {} tesla (magnetic field strength B)
t t size 12{t} {} quark flavor top or truth
t t size 12{t} {} time
t 1 / 2 t 1 / 2 size 12{t rSub { size 8{ {1} slash {2} } } } {} half-life—the time in which half of the original nuclei decay
tan θ tan θ size 12{"tan"θ} {} tangent
U U size 12{U} {} internal energy
u u size 12{u} {} quark flavor up
u u size 12{u} {} unified atomic mass unit
u u size 12{u} {} velocity of an object relative to an observer
u ' u ' size 12{ { {u}} sup { ' }} {} velocity relative to another observer
V V size 12{V} {} electric potential
V V size 12{V} {} terminal voltage
V V size 12{V} {} volt (unit)
V V size 12{V} {} volume
v v size 12{v} {} relative velocity between two observers
v v size 12{v} {} speed of light in a material
v v size 12{v} {} velocity
v ¯ v ¯ size 12{ {overline {v}} } {} average fluid velocity
V B V A V B V A size 12{V rSub { size 8{B} } - V rSub { size 8{A} } } {} change in potential
v d v d size 12{v rSub { size 8{d} } } {} drift velocity
V p V p size 12{V rSub { size 8{p} } } {} transformer input voltage
V rms V rms size 12{V rSub { size 8{"rms"} } } {} rms voltage
V s V s size 12{V rSub { size 8{s} } } {} transformer output voltage
v tot v tot size 12{v rSub { size 8{"tot"} } } {} total velocity
v w v w size 12{v rSub { size 8{w} } } {} propagation speed of sound or other wave
v w v w size 12{v rSub { size 8{w} } } {} wave velocity
W W size 12{W} {} work
W W size 12{W} {} net work done by a system
W W size 12{W} {} watt
w w size 12{w} {} weight
w fl w fl size 12{w rSub { size 8{"fl"} } } {} weight of the fluid displaced by an object
W c W c size 12{W rSub { size 8{c} } } {} total work done by all conservative forces
W nc W nc size 12{W rSub { size 8{"nc"} } } {} total work done by all nonconservative forces
W out W out size 12{W rSub { size 8{"out"} } } {} useful work output
X X size 12{X} {} amplitude
X X size 12{X} {} symbol for an element
Z A X N Z A X N size 12{"" lSub { size 8{Z} } lSup { size 8{A} } X rSub { size 8{N} } } {} notation for a particular nuclide
x x size 12{x} {} deformation or displacement from equilibrium
x x size 12{x} {} displacement of a spring from its undeformed position
x x size 12{x} {} horizontal axis
X C X C size 12{X rSub { size 8{C} } } {} capacitive reactance
X L X L size 12{X rSub { size 8{L} } } {} inductive reactance
x rms x rms size 12{x rSub { size 8{"rms"} } } {} root mean square diffusion distance
y y size 12{y} {} vertical axis
Y Y size 12{Y} {} elastic modulus or Young's modulus
Z Z size 12{Z} {} atomic number (number of protons in a nucleus)
Z Z size 12{Z} {} impedance
Table D1
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© Jun 21, 2012 OpenStax. Textbook content produced by OpenStax is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 license. The OpenStax name, OpenStax logo, OpenStax book covers, OpenStax CNX name, and OpenStax CNX logo are not subject to the Creative Commons license and may not be reproduced without the prior and express written consent of Rice University.