College Physics

# Introduction: Further Applications of Newton’s Laws

College PhysicsIntroduction: Further Applications of Newton’s Laws

Figure 5.1 Total hip replacement surgery has become a common procedure. The head (or ball) of the patient’s femur fits into a cup that has a hard plastic-like inner lining. (credit: National Institutes of Health, via Wikimedia Commons)

## Chapter Outline

5.1 Friction
• Discuss the general characteristics of friction.
• Describe the various types of friction.
• Calculate the magnitude of static and kinetic friction.
5.2 Drag Forces
• Express mathematically the drag force.
• Discuss the applications of drag force.
• Define terminal velocity.
• Determine the terminal velocity given mass.
5.3 Elasticity: Stress and Strain
• State Hooke’s law.
• Explain Hooke’s law using graphical representation between deformation and applied force.
• Discuss the three types of deformations such as changes in length, sideways shear and changes in volume.
• Describe with examples the young’s modulus, shear modulus and bulk modulus.
• Determine the change in length given mass, length and radius.

Describe the forces on the hip joint. What means are taken to ensure that this will be a good movable joint? From the photograph (for an adult) in Figure 5.1, estimate the dimensions of the artificial device.

It is difficult to categorize forces into various types (aside from the four basic forces discussed in previous chapter). We know that a net force affects the motion, position, and shape of an object. It is useful at this point to look at some particularly interesting and common forces that will provide further applications of Newton’s laws of motion. We have in mind the forces of friction, air or liquid drag, and deformation.