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College Physics for AP® Courses

Test Prep for AP® Courses

College Physics for AP® CoursesTest Prep for AP® Courses
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  1. Preface
  2. 1 Introduction: The Nature of Science and Physics
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 1.1 Physics: An Introduction
    3. 1.2 Physical Quantities and Units
    4. 1.3 Accuracy, Precision, and Significant Figures
    5. 1.4 Approximation
    6. Glossary
    7. Section Summary
    8. Conceptual Questions
    9. Problems & Exercises
  3. 2 Kinematics
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 2.1 Displacement
    3. 2.2 Vectors, Scalars, and Coordinate Systems
    4. 2.3 Time, Velocity, and Speed
    5. 2.4 Acceleration
    6. 2.5 Motion Equations for Constant Acceleration in One Dimension
    7. 2.6 Problem-Solving Basics for One Dimensional Kinematics
    8. 2.7 Falling Objects
    9. 2.8 Graphical Analysis of One Dimensional Motion
    10. Glossary
    11. Section Summary
    12. Conceptual Questions
    13. Problems & Exercises
    14. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  4. 3 Two-Dimensional Kinematics
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 3.1 Kinematics in Two Dimensions: An Introduction
    3. 3.2 Vector Addition and Subtraction: Graphical Methods
    4. 3.3 Vector Addition and Subtraction: Analytical Methods
    5. 3.4 Projectile Motion
    6. 3.5 Addition of Velocities
    7. Glossary
    8. Section Summary
    9. Conceptual Questions
    10. Problems & Exercises
    11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  5. 4 Dynamics: Force and Newton's Laws of Motion
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 4.1 Development of Force Concept
    3. 4.2 Newton's First Law of Motion: Inertia
    4. 4.3 Newton's Second Law of Motion: Concept of a System
    5. 4.4 Newton's Third Law of Motion: Symmetry in Forces
    6. 4.5 Normal, Tension, and Other Examples of Force
    7. 4.6 Problem-Solving Strategies
    8. 4.7 Further Applications of Newton's Laws of Motion
    9. 4.8 Extended Topic: The Four Basic Forces—An Introduction
    10. Glossary
    11. Section Summary
    12. Conceptual Questions
    13. Problems & Exercises
    14. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  6. 5 Further Applications of Newton's Laws: Friction, Drag, and Elasticity
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 5.1 Friction
    3. 5.2 Drag Forces
    4. 5.3 Elasticity: Stress and Strain
    5. Glossary
    6. Section Summary
    7. Conceptual Questions
    8. Problems & Exercises
    9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  7. 6 Gravitation and Uniform Circular Motion
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 6.1 Rotation Angle and Angular Velocity
    3. 6.2 Centripetal Acceleration
    4. 6.3 Centripetal Force
    5. 6.4 Fictitious Forces and Non-inertial Frames: The Coriolis Force
    6. 6.5 Newton's Universal Law of Gravitation
    7. 6.6 Satellites and Kepler's Laws: An Argument for Simplicity
    8. Glossary
    9. Section Summary
    10. Conceptual Questions
    11. Problems & Exercises
    12. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  8. 7 Work, Energy, and Energy Resources
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 7.1 Work: The Scientific Definition
    3. 7.2 Kinetic Energy and the Work-Energy Theorem
    4. 7.3 Gravitational Potential Energy
    5. 7.4 Conservative Forces and Potential Energy
    6. 7.5 Nonconservative Forces
    7. 7.6 Conservation of Energy
    8. 7.7 Power
    9. 7.8 Work, Energy, and Power in Humans
    10. 7.9 World Energy Use
    11. Glossary
    12. Section Summary
    13. Conceptual Questions
    14. Problems & Exercises
    15. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  9. 8 Linear Momentum and Collisions
    1. Connection for AP® courses
    2. 8.1 Linear Momentum and Force
    3. 8.2 Impulse
    4. 8.3 Conservation of Momentum
    5. 8.4 Elastic Collisions in One Dimension
    6. 8.5 Inelastic Collisions in One Dimension
    7. 8.6 Collisions of Point Masses in Two Dimensions
    8. 8.7 Introduction to Rocket Propulsion
    9. Glossary
    10. Section Summary
    11. Conceptual Questions
    12. Problems & Exercises
    13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  10. 9 Statics and Torque
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 9.1 The First Condition for Equilibrium
    3. 9.2 The Second Condition for Equilibrium
    4. 9.3 Stability
    5. 9.4 Applications of Statics, Including Problem-Solving Strategies
    6. 9.5 Simple Machines
    7. 9.6 Forces and Torques in Muscles and Joints
    8. Glossary
    9. Section Summary
    10. Conceptual Questions
    11. Problems & Exercises
    12. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  11. 10 Rotational Motion and Angular Momentum
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 10.1 Angular Acceleration
    3. 10.2 Kinematics of Rotational Motion
    4. 10.3 Dynamics of Rotational Motion: Rotational Inertia
    5. 10.4 Rotational Kinetic Energy: Work and Energy Revisited
    6. 10.5 Angular Momentum and Its Conservation
    7. 10.6 Collisions of Extended Bodies in Two Dimensions
    8. 10.7 Gyroscopic Effects: Vector Aspects of Angular Momentum
    9. Glossary
    10. Section Summary
    11. Conceptual Questions
    12. Problems & Exercises
    13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  12. 11 Fluid Statics
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 11.1 What Is a Fluid?
    3. 11.2 Density
    4. 11.3 Pressure
    5. 11.4 Variation of Pressure with Depth in a Fluid
    6. 11.5 Pascal’s Principle
    7. 11.6 Gauge Pressure, Absolute Pressure, and Pressure Measurement
    8. 11.7 Archimedes’ Principle
    9. 11.8 Cohesion and Adhesion in Liquids: Surface Tension and Capillary Action
    10. 11.9 Pressures in the Body
    11. Glossary
    12. Section Summary
    13. Conceptual Questions
    14. Problems & Exercises
    15. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  13. 12 Fluid Dynamics and Its Biological and Medical Applications
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 12.1 Flow Rate and Its Relation to Velocity
    3. 12.2 Bernoulli’s Equation
    4. 12.3 The Most General Applications of Bernoulli’s Equation
    5. 12.4 Viscosity and Laminar Flow; Poiseuille’s Law
    6. 12.5 The Onset of Turbulence
    7. 12.6 Motion of an Object in a Viscous Fluid
    8. 12.7 Molecular Transport Phenomena: Diffusion, Osmosis, and Related Processes
    9. Glossary
    10. Section Summary
    11. Conceptual Questions
    12. Problems & Exercises
    13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  14. 13 Temperature, Kinetic Theory, and the Gas Laws
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 13.1 Temperature
    3. 13.2 Thermal Expansion of Solids and Liquids
    4. 13.3 The Ideal Gas Law
    5. 13.4 Kinetic Theory: Atomic and Molecular Explanation of Pressure and Temperature
    6. 13.5 Phase Changes
    7. 13.6 Humidity, Evaporation, and Boiling
    8. Glossary
    9. Section Summary
    10. Conceptual Questions
    11. Problems & Exercises
    12. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  15. 14 Heat and Heat Transfer Methods
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 14.1 Heat
    3. 14.2 Temperature Change and Heat Capacity
    4. 14.3 Phase Change and Latent Heat
    5. 14.4 Heat Transfer Methods
    6. 14.5 Conduction
    7. 14.6 Convection
    8. 14.7 Radiation
    9. Glossary
    10. Section Summary
    11. Conceptual Questions
    12. Problems & Exercises
    13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  16. 15 Thermodynamics
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 15.1 The First Law of Thermodynamics
    3. 15.2 The First Law of Thermodynamics and Some Simple Processes
    4. 15.3 Introduction to the Second Law of Thermodynamics: Heat Engines and Their Efficiency
    5. 15.4 Carnot’s Perfect Heat Engine: The Second Law of Thermodynamics Restated
    6. 15.5 Applications of Thermodynamics: Heat Pumps and Refrigerators
    7. 15.6 Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics: Disorder and the Unavailability of Energy
    8. 15.7 Statistical Interpretation of Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics: The Underlying Explanation
    9. Glossary
    10. Section Summary
    11. Conceptual Questions
    12. Problems & Exercises
    13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  17. 16 Oscillatory Motion and Waves
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 16.1 Hooke’s Law: Stress and Strain Revisited
    3. 16.2 Period and Frequency in Oscillations
    4. 16.3 Simple Harmonic Motion: A Special Periodic Motion
    5. 16.4 The Simple Pendulum
    6. 16.5 Energy and the Simple Harmonic Oscillator
    7. 16.6 Uniform Circular Motion and Simple Harmonic Motion
    8. 16.7 Damped Harmonic Motion
    9. 16.8 Forced Oscillations and Resonance
    10. 16.9 Waves
    11. 16.10 Superposition and Interference
    12. 16.11 Energy in Waves: Intensity
    13. Glossary
    14. Section Summary
    15. Conceptual Questions
    16. Problems & Exercises
    17. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  18. 17 Physics of Hearing
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 17.1 Sound
    3. 17.2 Speed of Sound, Frequency, and Wavelength
    4. 17.3 Sound Intensity and Sound Level
    5. 17.4 Doppler Effect and Sonic Booms
    6. 17.5 Sound Interference and Resonance: Standing Waves in Air Columns
    7. 17.6 Hearing
    8. 17.7 Ultrasound
    9. Glossary
    10. Section Summary
    11. Conceptual Questions
    12. Problems & Exercises
    13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  19. 18 Electric Charge and Electric Field
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 18.1 Static Electricity and Charge: Conservation of Charge
    3. 18.2 Conductors and Insulators
    4. 18.3 Conductors and Electric Fields in Static Equilibrium
    5. 18.4 Coulomb’s Law
    6. 18.5 Electric Field: Concept of a Field Revisited
    7. 18.6 Electric Field Lines: Multiple Charges
    8. 18.7 Electric Forces in Biology
    9. 18.8 Applications of Electrostatics
    10. Glossary
    11. Section Summary
    12. Conceptual Questions
    13. Problems & Exercises
    14. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  20. 19 Electric Potential and Electric Field
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 19.1 Electric Potential Energy: Potential Difference
    3. 19.2 Electric Potential in a Uniform Electric Field
    4. 19.3 Electrical Potential Due to a Point Charge
    5. 19.4 Equipotential Lines
    6. 19.5 Capacitors and Dielectrics
    7. 19.6 Capacitors in Series and Parallel
    8. 19.7 Energy Stored in Capacitors
    9. Glossary
    10. Section Summary
    11. Conceptual Questions
    12. Problems & Exercises
    13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  21. 20 Electric Current, Resistance, and Ohm's Law
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 20.1 Current
    3. 20.2 Ohm’s Law: Resistance and Simple Circuits
    4. 20.3 Resistance and Resistivity
    5. 20.4 Electric Power and Energy
    6. 20.5 Alternating Current versus Direct Current
    7. 20.6 Electric Hazards and the Human Body
    8. 20.7 Nerve Conduction–Electrocardiograms
    9. Glossary
    10. Section Summary
    11. Conceptual Questions
    12. Problems & Exercises
    13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  22. 21 Circuits, Bioelectricity, and DC Instruments
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 21.1 Resistors in Series and Parallel
    3. 21.2 Electromotive Force: Terminal Voltage
    4. 21.3 Kirchhoff’s Rules
    5. 21.4 DC Voltmeters and Ammeters
    6. 21.5 Null Measurements
    7. 21.6 DC Circuits Containing Resistors and Capacitors
    8. Glossary
    9. Section Summary
    10. Conceptual Questions
    11. Problems & Exercises
    12. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  23. 22 Magnetism
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 22.1 Magnets
    3. 22.2 Ferromagnets and Electromagnets
    4. 22.3 Magnetic Fields and Magnetic Field Lines
    5. 22.4 Magnetic Field Strength: Force on a Moving Charge in a Magnetic Field
    6. 22.5 Force on a Moving Charge in a Magnetic Field: Examples and Applications
    7. 22.6 The Hall Effect
    8. 22.7 Magnetic Force on a Current-Carrying Conductor
    9. 22.8 Torque on a Current Loop: Motors and Meters
    10. 22.9 Magnetic Fields Produced by Currents: Ampere’s Law
    11. 22.10 Magnetic Force between Two Parallel Conductors
    12. 22.11 More Applications of Magnetism
    13. Glossary
    14. Section Summary
    15. Conceptual Questions
    16. Problems & Exercises
    17. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  24. 23 Electromagnetic Induction, AC Circuits, and Electrical Technologies
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 23.1 Induced Emf and Magnetic Flux
    3. 23.2 Faraday’s Law of Induction: Lenz’s Law
    4. 23.3 Motional Emf
    5. 23.4 Eddy Currents and Magnetic Damping
    6. 23.5 Electric Generators
    7. 23.6 Back Emf
    8. 23.7 Transformers
    9. 23.8 Electrical Safety: Systems and Devices
    10. 23.9 Inductance
    11. 23.10 RL Circuits
    12. 23.11 Reactance, Inductive and Capacitive
    13. 23.12 RLC Series AC Circuits
    14. Glossary
    15. Section Summary
    16. Conceptual Questions
    17. Problems & Exercises
    18. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  25. 24 Electromagnetic Waves
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 24.1 Maxwell’s Equations: Electromagnetic Waves Predicted and Observed
    3. 24.2 Production of Electromagnetic Waves
    4. 24.3 The Electromagnetic Spectrum
    5. 24.4 Energy in Electromagnetic Waves
    6. Glossary
    7. Section Summary
    8. Conceptual Questions
    9. Problems & Exercises
    10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  26. 25 Geometric Optics
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 25.1 The Ray Aspect of Light
    3. 25.2 The Law of Reflection
    4. 25.3 The Law of Refraction
    5. 25.4 Total Internal Reflection
    6. 25.5 Dispersion: The Rainbow and Prisms
    7. 25.6 Image Formation by Lenses
    8. 25.7 Image Formation by Mirrors
    9. Glossary
    10. Section Summary
    11. Conceptual Questions
    12. Problems & Exercises
    13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  27. 26 Vision and Optical Instruments
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 26.1 Physics of the Eye
    3. 26.2 Vision Correction
    4. 26.3 Color and Color Vision
    5. 26.4 Microscopes
    6. 26.5 Telescopes
    7. 26.6 Aberrations
    8. Glossary
    9. Section Summary
    10. Conceptual Questions
    11. Problems & Exercises
    12. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  28. 27 Wave Optics
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 27.1 The Wave Aspect of Light: Interference
    3. 27.2 Huygens's Principle: Diffraction
    4. 27.3 Young’s Double Slit Experiment
    5. 27.4 Multiple Slit Diffraction
    6. 27.5 Single Slit Diffraction
    7. 27.6 Limits of Resolution: The Rayleigh Criterion
    8. 27.7 Thin Film Interference
    9. 27.8 Polarization
    10. 27.9 *Extended Topic* Microscopy Enhanced by the Wave Characteristics of Light
    11. Glossary
    12. Section Summary
    13. Conceptual Questions
    14. Problems & Exercises
    15. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  29. 28 Special Relativity
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 28.1 Einstein’s Postulates
    3. 28.2 Simultaneity And Time Dilation
    4. 28.3 Length Contraction
    5. 28.4 Relativistic Addition of Velocities
    6. 28.5 Relativistic Momentum
    7. 28.6 Relativistic Energy
    8. Glossary
    9. Section Summary
    10. Conceptual Questions
    11. Problems & Exercises
    12. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  30. 29 Introduction to Quantum Physics
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 29.1 Quantization of Energy
    3. 29.2 The Photoelectric Effect
    4. 29.3 Photon Energies and the Electromagnetic Spectrum
    5. 29.4 Photon Momentum
    6. 29.5 The Particle-Wave Duality
    7. 29.6 The Wave Nature of Matter
    8. 29.7 Probability: The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle
    9. 29.8 The Particle-Wave Duality Reviewed
    10. Glossary
    11. Section Summary
    12. Conceptual Questions
    13. Problems & Exercises
    14. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  31. 30 Atomic Physics
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 30.1 Discovery of the Atom
    3. 30.2 Discovery of the Parts of the Atom: Electrons and Nuclei
    4. 30.3 Bohr’s Theory of the Hydrogen Atom
    5. 30.4 X Rays: Atomic Origins and Applications
    6. 30.5 Applications of Atomic Excitations and De-Excitations
    7. 30.6 The Wave Nature of Matter Causes Quantization
    8. 30.7 Patterns in Spectra Reveal More Quantization
    9. 30.8 Quantum Numbers and Rules
    10. 30.9 The Pauli Exclusion Principle
    11. Glossary
    12. Section Summary
    13. Conceptual Questions
    14. Problems & Exercises
    15. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  32. 31 Radioactivity and Nuclear Physics
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 31.1 Nuclear Radioactivity
    3. 31.2 Radiation Detection and Detectors
    4. 31.3 Substructure of the Nucleus
    5. 31.4 Nuclear Decay and Conservation Laws
    6. 31.5 Half-Life and Activity
    7. 31.6 Binding Energy
    8. 31.7 Tunneling
    9. Glossary
    10. Section Summary
    11. Conceptual Questions
    12. Problems & Exercises
    13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  33. 32 Medical Applications of Nuclear Physics
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 32.1 Medical Imaging and Diagnostics
    3. 32.2 Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation
    4. 32.3 Therapeutic Uses of Ionizing Radiation
    5. 32.4 Food Irradiation
    6. 32.5 Fusion
    7. 32.6 Fission
    8. 32.7 Nuclear Weapons
    9. Glossary
    10. Section Summary
    11. Conceptual Questions
    12. Problems & Exercises
    13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  34. 33 Particle Physics
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 33.1 The Yukawa Particle and the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle Revisited
    3. 33.2 The Four Basic Forces
    4. 33.3 Accelerators Create Matter from Energy
    5. 33.4 Particles, Patterns, and Conservation Laws
    6. 33.5 Quarks: Is That All There Is?
    7. 33.6 GUTs: The Unification of Forces
    8. Glossary
    9. Section Summary
    10. Conceptual Questions
    11. Problems & Exercises
    12. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  35. 34 Frontiers of Physics
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 34.1 Cosmology and Particle Physics
    3. 34.2 General Relativity and Quantum Gravity
    4. 34.3 Superstrings
    5. 34.4 Dark Matter and Closure
    6. 34.5 Complexity and Chaos
    7. 34.6 High-Temperature Superconductors
    8. 34.7 Some Questions We Know to Ask
    9. Glossary
    10. Section Summary
    11. Conceptual Questions
    12. Problems & Exercises
  36. A | Atomic Masses
  37. B | Selected Radioactive Isotopes
  38. C | Useful Information
  39. D | Glossary of Key Symbols and Notation
  40. Answer Key
    1. Chapter 1
    2. Chapter 2
    3. Chapter 3
    4. Chapter 4
    5. Chapter 5
    6. Chapter 6
    7. Chapter 7
    8. Chapter 8
    9. Chapter 9
    10. Chapter 10
    11. Chapter 11
    12. Chapter 12
    13. Chapter 13
    14. Chapter 14
    15. Chapter 15
    16. Chapter 16
    17. Chapter 17
    18. Chapter 18
    19. Chapter 19
    20. Chapter 20
    21. Chapter 21
    22. Chapter 22
    23. Chapter 23
    24. Chapter 24
    25. Chapter 25
    26. Chapter 26
    27. Chapter 27
    28. Chapter 28
    29. Chapter 29
    30. Chapter 30
    31. Chapter 31
    32. Chapter 32
    33. Chapter 33
    34. Chapter 34
  41. Index

8.1 Linear Momentum and Force

1.

A boy standing on a frictionless ice rink is initially at rest. He throws a snowball in the +x-direction, and it travels on a ballistic trajectory, hitting the ground some distance away. Which of the following is true about the boy while he is in the act of throwing the snowball?

  1. He feels an upward force to compensate for the downward trajectory of the snowball.
  2. He feels a backward force exerted by the snowball he is throwing.
  3. He feels no net force.
  4. He feels a forward force, the same force that propels the snowball.
2.

A 150-g baseball is initially moving 80 mi/h in the –x-direction. After colliding with a baseball bat for 20 ms, the baseball moves 80 mi/h in the +x-direction. What is the magnitude and direction of the average force exerted by the bat on the baseball?

8.2 Impulse

3.

A 1.0-kg ball of putty is released from rest and falls vertically 1.5 m until it strikes a hard floor, where it comes to rest in a 0.045-s time interval. What is the magnitude and direction of the average force exerted on the ball by the floor during the collision?

  1. 33 N, up
  2. 120 N, up
  3. 120 N, down
  4. 240 N, down
4.

A 75-g ball is dropped from rest from a height of 2.2 m. It bounces off the floor and rebounds to a maximum height of 1.7 m. If the ball is in contact with the floor for 0.024 s, what is the magnitude and direction of the average force exerted on the ball by the floor during the collision?

5.

A 2.4-kg ceramic bowl falls to the floor. During the 0.018-s impact, the bowl experiences an average force of 750 N from the floor. The bowl is at rest after the impact. From what initial height did the bowl fall?

  1. 1.6 m
  2. 2.8 m
  3. 3.2 m
  4. 5.6 m
6.

Whether or not an object (such as a plate, glass, or bone) breaks upon impact depends on the average force exerted on that object by the surface. When a 1.2-kg glass figure hits the floor, it will break if it experiences an average force of 330 N. When it hits a tile floor, the glass comes to a stop in 0.015 s. From what minimum height must the glass fall to experience sufficient force to break? How would your answer change if the figure were falling to a padded or carpeted surface? Explain.

7.

A 2.5-kg block slides across a frictionless table toward a horizontal spring.As the block bounces off the spring, a probe measures the velocity of the block (initially negative, moving away from the probe) over time as follows:

Velocity (m/s) Time (s)
−12.00
−10.00.10
−6.00.20
00.30
6.00.40
10.00.50
12.00.60
Table 8.2

What is the average force exerted on the block by the spring over the entire 0.60-s time interval of the collision?

  1. 50 N
  2. 60 N
  3. 100 N
  4. 120 N
8.

During an automobile crash test, the average force exerted by a solid wall on a 2500-kg car that hits the wall is measured to be 740,000 N over a 0.22-s time interval. What was the initial speed of the car prior to the collision, assuming the car is at rest at the end of the time interval?

9.

A test car is driving toward a solid crash-test barrier with a speed of 45 mi/h. Two seconds prior to impact, the car begins to brake, but it is still moving when it hits the wall. After the collision with the wall, the car crumples somewhat and comes to a complete stop. In order to estimate the average force exerted by the wall on the car, what information would you need to collect?

  1. The (negative) acceleration of the car before it hits the wall and the distance the car travels while braking.
  2. The (negative) acceleration of the car before it hits the wall and the velocity of the car just before impact.
  3. The velocity of the car just before impact and the duration of the collision with the wall.
  4. The duration of the collision with the wall and the distance the car travels while braking.
10.

Design an experiment to verify the relationship between the average force exerted on an object and the change in momentum of that object. As part of your explanation, list the equipment you would use and describe your experimental setup. What would you measure and how? How exactly would you verify the relationship? Explain.

11.

A 22-g puck hits the wall of an air hockey table perpendicular to the wall with an initial speed of 14 m/s.The puck is in contact with the wall for 0.0055 s, and it rebounds from the wall with a speed of 14 m/s in the opposite direction.What is the magnitude of the average force exerted by the wall on the puck?

  1. 0.308 N
  2. 0.616 N
  3. 56 N
  4. 112 N
12.

A 22-g puck hits the wall of an air hockey table perpendicular to the wall with an initial speed of 7 m/s. The puck is in contact with the wall for 0.011 s, and the wall exerts an average force of 28 N on the puck during that time. Calculate the magnitude and direction of the change in momentum of the puck.

13.
The force exerted by the wall on the object is a constant 15 N from t =0.080 s until t=0.24 s, at which time the force drops to zero.
Figure 8.20 This is a graph showing the force exerted by a rigid wall versus time.

The graph in Figure 8.20 represents the force exerted on a particle during a collision. What is the magnitude of the change in momentum of the particle as a result of the collision?

  1. 1.2 kg • m/s
  2. 2.4 kg • m/s
  3. 3.6 kg • m/s
  4. 4.8 kg • m/s
14.
The force exerted by the wall on the object is zero at t=0 and rises in a linear fashion to 15 N at a time t=0.080 s. The force remains constant at 15 N until a time t=0.24 s. From 0.24 s to 0.32 s, the force drops from 15 N to zero in a linear fashion.
Figure 8.21 This is a graph showing the force exerted by a rigid wall versus time.

The graph in Figure 8.21 represents the force exerted on a particle during a collision. What is the magnitude of the change in momentum of the particle as a result of the collision?

8.3 Conservation of Momentum

15.

Which of the following is an example of an open system?

  1. Two air cars colliding on a track elastically.
  2. Two air cars colliding on a track and sticking together.
  3. A bullet being fired into a hanging wooden block and becoming embedded in the block, with the system then acting as a ballistic pendulum.
  4. A bullet being fired into a hillside and becoming buried in the earth.
16.

A 40-kg girl runs across a mat with a speed of 5.0 m/s and jumps onto a 120-kg hanging platform initially at rest, causing the girl and platform to swing back and forth like a pendulum together after her jump. What is the combined velocity of the girl and platform after the jump? What is the combined momentum of the girl and platform both before and after the collision?

A 50-kg boy runs across a mat with a speed of 6.0 m/s and collides with a soft barrier on the wall, rebounding off the wall and falling to the ground. The boy is at rest after the collision. What is the momentum of the boy before and after the collision? Is momentum conserved in this collision? Explain. Which of these is an example of an open system and which is an example of a closed system? Explain your answer.

17.

A student sets up an experiment to measure the momentum of a system of two air cars, A and B, of equal mass, moving on a linear, frictionless track. Before the collision, car A has a certain speed, and car B is at rest. Which of the following will be true about the total momentum of the two cars?

  1. It will be greater before the collision.
  2. It will be equal before and after the collision.
  3. It will be greater after the collision.
  4. The answer depends on whether the collision is elastic or inelastic.
18.

A group of students has two carts, A and B, with wheels that turn with negligible friction. The carts can travel along a straight horizontal track. Cart A has known mass mA. The students are asked to use a one-dimensional collision between the carts to determine the mass of cart B. Before the collision, cart A travels to the right and cart B is initially at rest. After the collision, the carts stick together.

  1. Describe an experimental procedure to determine the velocities of the carts before and after a collision, including all the additional equipment you would need. You may include a labeled diagram of your setup to help in your description. Indicate what measurements you would take and how you would take them. Include enough detail so that another student could carry out your procedure.
  2. There will be sources of error in the measurements taken in the experiment, both before and after the collision. For your experimental procedure, will the uncertainty in the calculated value of the mass of cart B be affected more by the error in the measurements taken before the collision or by those taken after the collision, or will it be equally affected by both sets of measurements? Justify your answer.

A group of students took measurements for one collision. A graph of the students’ data is shown below.

The vertical axis runs from 0 to 2.5, with every 0.5 marked. The horizontal axis runs from 0 to 2.0, with every 0.2 marked. A legend shows that data points for Cart A will be shown with large gray dots, and data points for Cart B will be shown with small black dots. At time 0, there is a large dot at 0 meters and a small dot at 1.5 meters. At time 0.2 there is a large dot at 0.35 meters and a small dot at 1.5 meters. At 0.4 seconds, there is a large dot at 0.6 meters and a small dot at 1.5 meters. At 0.6 meters, there is a large dot at 1.0 meters and a small dot at 1.5 meters. At 0.8 seconds, there is a large dot at 1.2 meters and a small dot at 1.5 meters. At 1.0 seconds, there is a large dot at 1.5 meters and a small dot at 1.5 meters. At 1.2 seconds, there is a large dot at 1.7 meters and a small dot at 1.7 meters. At 1.4 seconds, there is a large dot at 1.75 meters and a small dot at 1.75 meters. At 1.6 seconds, there is a large dot at 1.95 meters and a small dot at 1.95 meters. At 1.8 seconds, there is a large dot at 2.0 meters and a small dot at 2.0 meters. At 2.0 seconds, there is a large dot at 2.1 meters and a small dot at 2.1 meters.
Figure 8.22 The image shows a graph with position in meters on the vertical axis and time in seconds on the horizontal axis.
  1. Given mA = 0.50 kg, use the graph to calculate the mass of cart B. Explicitly indicate the principles used in your calculations.
  2. The students are now asked to Consider the kinetic energy changes in an inelastic collision, specifically whether the initial values of one of the physical quantities affect the fraction of mechanical energy dissipated in the collision. How could you modify the experiment to investigate this question? Be sure to explicitly describe the calculations you would make, specifying all equations you would use (but do not actually do any algebra or arithmetic).
19.

Cart A is moving with an initial velocity +v (in the positive direction) toward cart B, initially at rest. Both carts have equal mass and are on a frictionless surface. Which of the following statements correctly characterizes the velocity of the center of mass of the system before and after the collision?

  1. +v2+v2 before, v2v2 after
  2. +v2+v2 before, 0 after
  3. +v2+v2 before, +v2+v2 after
  4. 0 before, 0 after
20.

Cart A is moving with a velocity of +10 m/s toward cart B, which is moving with a velocity of +4 m/s. Both carts have equal mass and are moving on a frictionless surface. The two carts have an inelastic collision and stick together after the collision. Calculate the velocity of the center of mass of the system before and after the collision. If there were friction present in this problem, how would this external force affect the center-of-mass velocity both before and after the collision?

8.4 Elastic Collisions in One Dimension

21.

Two cars (A and B) of mass 1.5 kg collide. Car A is initially moving at 12 m/s, and car B is initially moving in the same direction with a speed of 6 m/s. The two cars are moving along a straight line before and after the collision. What will be the change in momentum of this system after the collision?

  1. −27 kg • m/s
  2. zero
  3. +27 kg • m/s
  4. It depends on whether the collision is elastic or inelastic.
22.

Two cars (A and B) of mass 1.5 kg collide. Car A is initially moving at 24 m/s, and car B is initially moving in the opposite direction with a speed of 12 m/s. The two cars are moving along a straight line before and after the collision. (a) If the two cars have an elastic collision, calculate the change in momentum of the two-car system. (b) If the two cars have a completely inelastic collision, calculate the change in momentum of the two-car system.

23.

Puck A (200 g) slides across a frictionless surface to collide with puck B (800 g), initially at rest. The velocity of each puck is measured during the experiment as follows:

TimeVelocity AVelocity B
0+8.0 m/s0
1.0 s+8.0 m/s0
2.0 s−2.0 m/s+2.5 m/s
3.0 s−2.0 m/s+2.5 m/s
Table 8.3

What is the change in momentum of the center of mass of the system as a result of the collision?

  1. +1.6 kg•m/s
  2. +0.8 kg•m/s
  3. 0
  4. −1.6 kg•m/s
24.

For the table above, calculate the center-of-mass velocity of the system both before and after the collision, then calculate the center-of-mass momentum of the system both before and after the collision. From this, determine the change in the momentum of the system as a result of the collision.

25.

Two cars (A and B) of equal mass have an elastic collision. Prior to the collision, car A is moving at 15 m/s in the +x-direction, and car B is moving at 10 m/s in the –x-direction. Assuming that both cars continue moving along the x-axis after the collision, what will be the velocity of car A after the collision?

  1. same as the original 15 m/s speed, opposite direction
  2. equal to car B’s velocity prior to the collision
  3. equal to the average of the two velocities, in its original direction
  4. equal to the average of the two velocities, in the opposite direction
26.

Two cars (A and B) of equal mass have an elastic collision. Prior to the collision, car A is moving at 20 m/s in the +x-direction, and car B is moving at 10 m/s in the –x-direction. Assuming that both cars continue moving along the x-axis after the collision, what will be the velocities of each car after the collision?

27.

A rubber ball is dropped from rest at a fixed height. It bounces off a hard floor and rebounds upward, but it only reaches 90% of its original fixed height. What is the best way to explain the loss of kinetic energy of the ball during the collision?

  1. Energy was required to deform the ball’s shape during the collision with the floor.
  2. Energy was lost due to work done by the ball pushing on the floor during the collision.
  3. Energy was lost due to friction between the ball and the floor.
  4. Energy was lost due to the work done by gravity during the motion.
28.

A tennis ball strikes a wall with an initial speed of 15 m/s. The ball bounces off the wall but rebounds with slightly less speed (14 m/s) after the collision. Explain (a) what else changed its momentum in response to the ball’s change in momentum so that overall momentum is conserved, and (b) how some of the ball’s kinetic energy was lost.

29.

Two objects, A and B, have equal mass. Prior to the collision, mass A is moving 10 m/s in the +x-direction, and mass B is moving 4 m/s in the +x-direction. Which of the following results represents an inelastic collision between A and B?

  1. After the collision, mass A is at rest, and mass B moves 14 m/s in the +x-direction.
  2. After the collision, mass A moves 4 m/s in the –x-direction, and mass B moves 18 m/s in the +x-direction.
  3. After the collision, the two masses stick together and move 7 m/s in the +x-direction.
  4. After the collision, mass A moves 4 m/s in the +x-direction, and mass B moves 10 m/s in the +x-direction.
30.

Mass A is three times more massive than mass B. Mass A is initially moving 12 m/s in the +x-direction. Mass B is initially moving 12 m/s in the –x-direction. Assuming that the collision is elastic, calculate the final velocity of both masses after the collision. Show that your results are consistent with conservation of momentum and conservation of kinetic energy.

31.

Two objects (A and B) of equal mass collide elastically. Mass A is initially moving 5.0 m/s in the +x-direction prior to the collision. Mass B is initially moving 3.0 m/s in the –x-direction prior to the collision. After the collision, mass A will be moving with a velocity of 3.0 m/s in the –x-direction. What will be the velocity of mass B after the collision?

  1. 3.0 m/s in the +x-direction
  2. 5.0 m/s in the +x-direction
  3. 3.0 m/s in the –x-direction
  4. 5.0 m/s in the –x-direction
32.

Two objects (A and B) of equal mass collide elastically. Mass A is initially moving 4.0 m/s in the +x-direction prior to the collision. Mass B is initially moving 8.0 m/s in the –x-direction prior to the collision. After the collision, mass A will be moving with a velocity of 8.0 m/s in the –x-direction. (a) Use the principle of conservation of momentum to predict the velocity of mass B after the collision. (b) Use the fact that kinetic energy is conserved in elastic collisions to predict the velocity of mass B after the collision.

33.

Two objects of equal mass collide. Object A is initially moving in the +x-direction with a speed of 12 m/s, and object B is initially at rest. After the collision, object A is at rest, and object B is moving away with some unknown velocity. There are no external forces acting on the system of two masses. What statement can we make about this collision?

  1. Both momentum and kinetic energy are conserved.
  2. Momentum is conserved, but kinetic energy is not conserved.
  3. Neither momentum nor kinetic energy is conserved.
  4. More information is needed in order to determine which is conserved.
34.

Two objects of equal mass collide. Object A is initially moving with a velocity of 15 m/s in the +x-direction, and object B is initially at rest. After the collision, object A is at rest. There are no external forces acting on the system of two masses. (a) Use momentum conservation to deduce the velocity of object B after the collision. (b) Is this collision elastic? Justify your answer.

35.

Which of the following statements is true about an inelastic collision?

  1. Momentum is conserved, and kinetic energy is conserved.
  2. Momentum is conserved, and kinetic energy is not conserved.
  3. Momentum is not conserved, and kinetic energy is conserved.
  4. Momentum is not conserved, and kinetic energy is not conserved.
36.

Explain how the momentum and kinetic energy of a system of two colliding objects changes as a result of (a) an elastic collision and (b) an inelastic collision.

37.
.


This figure shows the positions of two colliding objects measured before, during, and after a collision. Mass A is 1.0 kg. Mass B is 3.0 kg. Which of the following statements is true?

  1. This is an elastic collision, with a total momentum of 0 kg • m/s.
  2. This is an elastic collision, with a total momentum of 1.67 kg • m/s.
  3. This is an inelastic collision, with a total momentum of 0 kg • m/s.
  4. This is an inelastic collision, with a total momentum of 1.67 kg • m/s.
38.

For the above graph, determine the initial and final momentum for both objects, assuming mass A is 1.0 kg and mass B is 3.0 kg. Also, determine the initial and final kinetic energies for both objects. Based on your results, explain whether momentum is conserved in this collision, and state whether the collision is elastic or inelastic.

39.

Mass A (1.0 kg) slides across a frictionless surface with a velocity of 8 m/s in the positive direction. Mass B (3.0 kg) is initially at rest. The two objects collide and stick together. What will be the change in the center-of-mass velocity of the system as a result of the collision?

  1. There will be no change in the center-of-mass velocity.
  2. The center-of-mass velocity will decrease by 2 m/s.
  3. The center-of-mass velocity will decrease by 6 m/s.
  4. The center-of-mass velocity will decrease by 8 m/s.
40.

Mass A (1.0 kg) slides across a frictionless surface with a velocity of 4 m/s in the positive direction. Mass B (1.0 kg) slides across the same surface in the opposite direction with a velocity of −8 m/s. The two objects collide and stick together after the collision. Predict how the center-of-mass velocity will change as a result of the collision, and explain your prediction. Calculate the center-of-mass velocity of the system both before and after the collision and explain why it remains the same or why it has changed.

8.5 Inelastic Collisions in One Dimension

41.

Mass A (2.0 kg) has an initial velocity of 4 m/s in the +x-direction. Mass B (2.0 kg) has an initial velocity of 5 m/s in the –x-direction. If the two masses have an elastic collision, what will be the final velocities of the masses after the collision?

  1. Both will move 0.5 m/s in the –x-direction.
  2. Mass A will stop; mass B will move 9 m/s in the +x-direction.
  3. Mass B will stop; mass A will move 9 m/s in the –x-direction.
  4. Mass A will move 5 m/s in the –x-direction; mass B will move 4 m/s in the +x-direction.
42.

Mass A has an initial velocity of 22 m/s in the +x-direction. Mass B is three times more massive than mass A and has an initial velocity of 22 m/s in the –x-direction. If the two masses have an elastic collision, what will be the final velocities of the masses after the collision?

43.

Mass A (2.0 kg) is moving with an initial velocity of 15 m/s in the +x-direction, and it collides with mass B (5.0 kg), initially at rest. After the collision, the two objects stick together and move as one. What is the change in kinetic energy of the system as a result of the collision?

  1. no change
  2. decrease by 225 J
  3. decrease by 161 J
  4. decrease by 64 J
44.

Mass A (2.0 kg) is moving with an initial velocity of 15 m/s in the +x-direction, and it collides with mass B (4.0 kg), initially moving 7.0 m/s in the +x-direction. After the collision, the two objects stick together and move as one. What is the change in kinetic energy of the system as a result of the collision?

45.

Mass A slides across a rough table with an initial velocity of 12 m/s in the +x-direction. By the time mass A collides with mass B (a stationary object with equal mass), mass A has slowed to 10 m/s. After the collision, the two objects stick together and move as one. Immediately after the collision, the velocity of the system is measured to be 5 m/s in the +x-direction, and the system eventually slides to a stop. Which of the following statements is true about this motion?

  1. Momentum is conserved during the collision, but it is not conserved during the motion before and after the collision.
  2. Momentum is not conserved at any time during this analysis.
  3. Momentum is conserved at all times during this analysis.
  4. Momentum is not conserved during the collision, but it is conserved during the motion before and after the collision.
46.

Mass A is initially moving with a velocity of 12 m/s in the +x-direction. Mass B is twice as massive as mass A and is initially at rest. After the two objects collide, the two masses move together as one with a velocity of 4 m/s in the +x-direction. Is momentum conserved in this collision?

47.

Mass A is initially moving with a velocity of 24 m/s in the +x-direction. Mass B is twice as massive as mass A and is initially at rest. The two objects experience a totally inelastic collision. What is the final speed of both objects after the collision?

  1. A is not moving; B is moving 24 m/s in the +x-direction.
  2. Neither A nor B is moving.
  3. A is moving 24 m/s in the –x-direction. B is not moving.
  4. Both A and B are moving together 8 m/s in the +x-direction.
48.

Mass A is initially moving with some unknown velocity in the +x-direction. Mass B is twice as massive as mass A and initially at rest. The two objects collide, and after the collision, they move together with a speed of 6 m/s in the +x-direction. (a) Is this collision elastic or inelastic? Explain. (b) Determine the initial velocity of mass A.

49.

Mass A is initially moving with a velocity of 2 m/s in the +x-direction. Mass B is initially moving with a velocity of 6 m/s in the –x-direction. The two objects have equal masses. After they collide, mass A moves with a speed of 4 m/s in the –x-direction. What is the final velocity of mass B after the collision?

  1. 6 m/s in the +x-direction
  2. 4 m/s in the +x-direction
  3. zero
  4. 4 m/s in the –x-direction
50.

Mass A is initially moving with a velocity of 15 m/s in the +x-direction. Mass B is twice as massive and is initially moving with a velocity of 10 m/s in the –x-direction. The two objects collide, and after the collision, mass A moves with a speed of 15 m/s in the –x-direction. (a) What is the final velocity of mass B after the collision? (b) Calculate the change in kinetic energy as a result of the collision, assuming mass A is 5.0 kg.

8.6 Collisions of Point Masses in Two Dimensions

51.

Two cars of equal mass approach an intersection. Car A is moving east at a speed of 45 m/s. Car B is moving south at a speed of 35 m/s. They collide inelastically and stick together after the collision, moving as one object. Which of the following statements is true about the center-of-mass velocity of this system?

  1. The center-of-mass velocity will decrease after the collision as a result of lost energy (but not drop to zero).
  2. The center-of-mass velocity will remain the same after the collision since momentum is conserved.
  3. The center-of-mass velocity will drop to zero since the two objects stick together.
  4. The magnitude of the center-of-mass velocity will remain the same, but the direction of the velocity will change.
52.

Car A has a mass of 2000 kg and approaches an intersection with a velocity of 38 m/s directed to the east. Car B has a mass of 3500 kg and approaches the intersection with a velocity of 53 m/s directed 63° north of east. The two cars collide and stick together after the collision. Will the center-of-mass velocity change as a result of the collision? Explain why or why not. Calculate the center-of-mass velocity before and after the collision.

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