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  1. Preface
  2. 1 Introduction: The Nature of Science and Physics
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 1.1 Physics: An Introduction
    3. 1.2 Physical Quantities and Units
    4. 1.3 Accuracy, Precision, and Significant Figures
    5. 1.4 Approximation
    6. Glossary
    7. Section Summary
    8. Conceptual Questions
    9. Problems & Exercises
  3. 2 Kinematics
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 2.1 Displacement
    3. 2.2 Vectors, Scalars, and Coordinate Systems
    4. 2.3 Time, Velocity, and Speed
    5. 2.4 Acceleration
    6. 2.5 Motion Equations for Constant Acceleration in One Dimension
    7. 2.6 Problem-Solving Basics for One Dimensional Kinematics
    8. 2.7 Falling Objects
    9. 2.8 Graphical Analysis of One Dimensional Motion
    10. Glossary
    11. Section Summary
    12. Conceptual Questions
    13. Problems & Exercises
    14. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  4. 3 Two-Dimensional Kinematics
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 3.1 Kinematics in Two Dimensions: An Introduction
    3. 3.2 Vector Addition and Subtraction: Graphical Methods
    4. 3.3 Vector Addition and Subtraction: Analytical Methods
    5. 3.4 Projectile Motion
    6. 3.5 Addition of Velocities
    7. Glossary
    8. Section Summary
    9. Conceptual Questions
    10. Problems & Exercises
    11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  5. 4 Dynamics: Force and Newton's Laws of Motion
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 4.1 Development of Force Concept
    3. 4.2 Newton's First Law of Motion: Inertia
    4. 4.3 Newton's Second Law of Motion: Concept of a System
    5. 4.4 Newton's Third Law of Motion: Symmetry in Forces
    6. 4.5 Normal, Tension, and Other Examples of Force
    7. 4.6 Problem-Solving Strategies
    8. 4.7 Further Applications of Newton's Laws of Motion
    9. 4.8 Extended Topic: The Four Basic Forces—An Introduction
    10. Glossary
    11. Section Summary
    12. Conceptual Questions
    13. Problems & Exercises
    14. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  6. 5 Further Applications of Newton's Laws: Friction, Drag, and Elasticity
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 5.1 Friction
    3. 5.2 Drag Forces
    4. 5.3 Elasticity: Stress and Strain
    5. Glossary
    6. Section Summary
    7. Conceptual Questions
    8. Problems & Exercises
    9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  7. 6 Gravitation and Uniform Circular Motion
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 6.1 Rotation Angle and Angular Velocity
    3. 6.2 Centripetal Acceleration
    4. 6.3 Centripetal Force
    5. 6.4 Fictitious Forces and Non-inertial Frames: The Coriolis Force
    6. 6.5 Newton's Universal Law of Gravitation
    7. 6.6 Satellites and Kepler's Laws: An Argument for Simplicity
    8. Glossary
    9. Section Summary
    10. Conceptual Questions
    11. Problems & Exercises
    12. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  8. 7 Work, Energy, and Energy Resources
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 7.1 Work: The Scientific Definition
    3. 7.2 Kinetic Energy and the Work-Energy Theorem
    4. 7.3 Gravitational Potential Energy
    5. 7.4 Conservative Forces and Potential Energy
    6. 7.5 Nonconservative Forces
    7. 7.6 Conservation of Energy
    8. 7.7 Power
    9. 7.8 Work, Energy, and Power in Humans
    10. 7.9 World Energy Use
    11. Glossary
    12. Section Summary
    13. Conceptual Questions
    14. Problems & Exercises
    15. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  9. 8 Linear Momentum and Collisions
    1. Connection for AP® courses
    2. 8.1 Linear Momentum and Force
    3. 8.2 Impulse
    4. 8.3 Conservation of Momentum
    5. 8.4 Elastic Collisions in One Dimension
    6. 8.5 Inelastic Collisions in One Dimension
    7. 8.6 Collisions of Point Masses in Two Dimensions
    8. 8.7 Introduction to Rocket Propulsion
    9. Glossary
    10. Section Summary
    11. Conceptual Questions
    12. Problems & Exercises
    13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  10. 9 Statics and Torque
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 9.1 The First Condition for Equilibrium
    3. 9.2 The Second Condition for Equilibrium
    4. 9.3 Stability
    5. 9.4 Applications of Statics, Including Problem-Solving Strategies
    6. 9.5 Simple Machines
    7. 9.6 Forces and Torques in Muscles and Joints
    8. Glossary
    9. Section Summary
    10. Conceptual Questions
    11. Problems & Exercises
    12. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  11. 10 Rotational Motion and Angular Momentum
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 10.1 Angular Acceleration
    3. 10.2 Kinematics of Rotational Motion
    4. 10.3 Dynamics of Rotational Motion: Rotational Inertia
    5. 10.4 Rotational Kinetic Energy: Work and Energy Revisited
    6. 10.5 Angular Momentum and Its Conservation
    7. 10.6 Collisions of Extended Bodies in Two Dimensions
    8. 10.7 Gyroscopic Effects: Vector Aspects of Angular Momentum
    9. Glossary
    10. Section Summary
    11. Conceptual Questions
    12. Problems & Exercises
    13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  12. 11 Fluid Statics
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 11.1 What Is a Fluid?
    3. 11.2 Density
    4. 11.3 Pressure
    5. 11.4 Variation of Pressure with Depth in a Fluid
    6. 11.5 Pascal’s Principle
    7. 11.6 Gauge Pressure, Absolute Pressure, and Pressure Measurement
    8. 11.7 Archimedes’ Principle
    9. 11.8 Cohesion and Adhesion in Liquids: Surface Tension and Capillary Action
    10. 11.9 Pressures in the Body
    11. Glossary
    12. Section Summary
    13. Conceptual Questions
    14. Problems & Exercises
    15. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  13. 12 Fluid Dynamics and Its Biological and Medical Applications
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 12.1 Flow Rate and Its Relation to Velocity
    3. 12.2 Bernoulli’s Equation
    4. 12.3 The Most General Applications of Bernoulli’s Equation
    5. 12.4 Viscosity and Laminar Flow; Poiseuille’s Law
    6. 12.5 The Onset of Turbulence
    7. 12.6 Motion of an Object in a Viscous Fluid
    8. 12.7 Molecular Transport Phenomena: Diffusion, Osmosis, and Related Processes
    9. Glossary
    10. Section Summary
    11. Conceptual Questions
    12. Problems & Exercises
    13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  14. 13 Temperature, Kinetic Theory, and the Gas Laws
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 13.1 Temperature
    3. 13.2 Thermal Expansion of Solids and Liquids
    4. 13.3 The Ideal Gas Law
    5. 13.4 Kinetic Theory: Atomic and Molecular Explanation of Pressure and Temperature
    6. 13.5 Phase Changes
    7. 13.6 Humidity, Evaporation, and Boiling
    8. Glossary
    9. Section Summary
    10. Conceptual Questions
    11. Problems & Exercises
    12. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  15. 14 Heat and Heat Transfer Methods
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 14.1 Heat
    3. 14.2 Temperature Change and Heat Capacity
    4. 14.3 Phase Change and Latent Heat
    5. 14.4 Heat Transfer Methods
    6. 14.5 Conduction
    7. 14.6 Convection
    8. 14.7 Radiation
    9. Glossary
    10. Section Summary
    11. Conceptual Questions
    12. Problems & Exercises
    13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  16. 15 Thermodynamics
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 15.1 The First Law of Thermodynamics
    3. 15.2 The First Law of Thermodynamics and Some Simple Processes
    4. 15.3 Introduction to the Second Law of Thermodynamics: Heat Engines and Their Efficiency
    5. 15.4 Carnot’s Perfect Heat Engine: The Second Law of Thermodynamics Restated
    6. 15.5 Applications of Thermodynamics: Heat Pumps and Refrigerators
    7. 15.6 Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics: Disorder and the Unavailability of Energy
    8. 15.7 Statistical Interpretation of Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics: The Underlying Explanation
    9. Glossary
    10. Section Summary
    11. Conceptual Questions
    12. Problems & Exercises
    13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  17. 16 Oscillatory Motion and Waves
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 16.1 Hooke’s Law: Stress and Strain Revisited
    3. 16.2 Period and Frequency in Oscillations
    4. 16.3 Simple Harmonic Motion: A Special Periodic Motion
    5. 16.4 The Simple Pendulum
    6. 16.5 Energy and the Simple Harmonic Oscillator
    7. 16.6 Uniform Circular Motion and Simple Harmonic Motion
    8. 16.7 Damped Harmonic Motion
    9. 16.8 Forced Oscillations and Resonance
    10. 16.9 Waves
    11. 16.10 Superposition and Interference
    12. 16.11 Energy in Waves: Intensity
    13. Glossary
    14. Section Summary
    15. Conceptual Questions
    16. Problems & Exercises
    17. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  18. 17 Physics of Hearing
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 17.1 Sound
    3. 17.2 Speed of Sound, Frequency, and Wavelength
    4. 17.3 Sound Intensity and Sound Level
    5. 17.4 Doppler Effect and Sonic Booms
    6. 17.5 Sound Interference and Resonance: Standing Waves in Air Columns
    7. 17.6 Hearing
    8. 17.7 Ultrasound
    9. Glossary
    10. Section Summary
    11. Conceptual Questions
    12. Problems & Exercises
    13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  19. 18 Electric Charge and Electric Field
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 18.1 Static Electricity and Charge: Conservation of Charge
    3. 18.2 Conductors and Insulators
    4. 18.3 Conductors and Electric Fields in Static Equilibrium
    5. 18.4 Coulomb’s Law
    6. 18.5 Electric Field: Concept of a Field Revisited
    7. 18.6 Electric Field Lines: Multiple Charges
    8. 18.7 Electric Forces in Biology
    9. 18.8 Applications of Electrostatics
    10. Glossary
    11. Section Summary
    12. Conceptual Questions
    13. Problems & Exercises
    14. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  20. 19 Electric Potential and Electric Field
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 19.1 Electric Potential Energy: Potential Difference
    3. 19.2 Electric Potential in a Uniform Electric Field
    4. 19.3 Electrical Potential Due to a Point Charge
    5. 19.4 Equipotential Lines
    6. 19.5 Capacitors and Dielectrics
    7. 19.6 Capacitors in Series and Parallel
    8. 19.7 Energy Stored in Capacitors
    9. Glossary
    10. Section Summary
    11. Conceptual Questions
    12. Problems & Exercises
    13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  21. 20 Electric Current, Resistance, and Ohm's Law
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 20.1 Current
    3. 20.2 Ohm’s Law: Resistance and Simple Circuits
    4. 20.3 Resistance and Resistivity
    5. 20.4 Electric Power and Energy
    6. 20.5 Alternating Current versus Direct Current
    7. 20.6 Electric Hazards and the Human Body
    8. 20.7 Nerve Conduction–Electrocardiograms
    9. Glossary
    10. Section Summary
    11. Conceptual Questions
    12. Problems & Exercises
    13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  22. 21 Circuits, Bioelectricity, and DC Instruments
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 21.1 Resistors in Series and Parallel
    3. 21.2 Electromotive Force: Terminal Voltage
    4. 21.3 Kirchhoff’s Rules
    5. 21.4 DC Voltmeters and Ammeters
    6. 21.5 Null Measurements
    7. 21.6 DC Circuits Containing Resistors and Capacitors
    8. Glossary
    9. Section Summary
    10. Conceptual Questions
    11. Problems & Exercises
    12. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  23. 22 Magnetism
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 22.1 Magnets
    3. 22.2 Ferromagnets and Electromagnets
    4. 22.3 Magnetic Fields and Magnetic Field Lines
    5. 22.4 Magnetic Field Strength: Force on a Moving Charge in a Magnetic Field
    6. 22.5 Force on a Moving Charge in a Magnetic Field: Examples and Applications
    7. 22.6 The Hall Effect
    8. 22.7 Magnetic Force on a Current-Carrying Conductor
    9. 22.8 Torque on a Current Loop: Motors and Meters
    10. 22.9 Magnetic Fields Produced by Currents: Ampere’s Law
    11. 22.10 Magnetic Force between Two Parallel Conductors
    12. 22.11 More Applications of Magnetism
    13. Glossary
    14. Section Summary
    15. Conceptual Questions
    16. Problems & Exercises
    17. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  24. 23 Electromagnetic Induction, AC Circuits, and Electrical Technologies
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 23.1 Induced Emf and Magnetic Flux
    3. 23.2 Faraday’s Law of Induction: Lenz’s Law
    4. 23.3 Motional Emf
    5. 23.4 Eddy Currents and Magnetic Damping
    6. 23.5 Electric Generators
    7. 23.6 Back Emf
    8. 23.7 Transformers
    9. 23.8 Electrical Safety: Systems and Devices
    10. 23.9 Inductance
    11. 23.10 RL Circuits
    12. 23.11 Reactance, Inductive and Capacitive
    13. 23.12 RLC Series AC Circuits
    14. Glossary
    15. Section Summary
    16. Conceptual Questions
    17. Problems & Exercises
    18. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  25. 24 Electromagnetic Waves
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 24.1 Maxwell’s Equations: Electromagnetic Waves Predicted and Observed
    3. 24.2 Production of Electromagnetic Waves
    4. 24.3 The Electromagnetic Spectrum
    5. 24.4 Energy in Electromagnetic Waves
    6. Glossary
    7. Section Summary
    8. Conceptual Questions
    9. Problems & Exercises
    10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  26. 25 Geometric Optics
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 25.1 The Ray Aspect of Light
    3. 25.2 The Law of Reflection
    4. 25.3 The Law of Refraction
    5. 25.4 Total Internal Reflection
    6. 25.5 Dispersion: The Rainbow and Prisms
    7. 25.6 Image Formation by Lenses
    8. 25.7 Image Formation by Mirrors
    9. Glossary
    10. Section Summary
    11. Conceptual Questions
    12. Problems & Exercises
    13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  27. 26 Vision and Optical Instruments
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 26.1 Physics of the Eye
    3. 26.2 Vision Correction
    4. 26.3 Color and Color Vision
    5. 26.4 Microscopes
    6. 26.5 Telescopes
    7. 26.6 Aberrations
    8. Glossary
    9. Section Summary
    10. Conceptual Questions
    11. Problems & Exercises
    12. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  28. 27 Wave Optics
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 27.1 The Wave Aspect of Light: Interference
    3. 27.2 Huygens's Principle: Diffraction
    4. 27.3 Young’s Double Slit Experiment
    5. 27.4 Multiple Slit Diffraction
    6. 27.5 Single Slit Diffraction
    7. 27.6 Limits of Resolution: The Rayleigh Criterion
    8. 27.7 Thin Film Interference
    9. 27.8 Polarization
    10. 27.9 *Extended Topic* Microscopy Enhanced by the Wave Characteristics of Light
    11. Glossary
    12. Section Summary
    13. Conceptual Questions
    14. Problems & Exercises
    15. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  29. 28 Special Relativity
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 28.1 Einstein’s Postulates
    3. 28.2 Simultaneity And Time Dilation
    4. 28.3 Length Contraction
    5. 28.4 Relativistic Addition of Velocities
    6. 28.5 Relativistic Momentum
    7. 28.6 Relativistic Energy
    8. Glossary
    9. Section Summary
    10. Conceptual Questions
    11. Problems & Exercises
    12. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  30. 29 Introduction to Quantum Physics
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 29.1 Quantization of Energy
    3. 29.2 The Photoelectric Effect
    4. 29.3 Photon Energies and the Electromagnetic Spectrum
    5. 29.4 Photon Momentum
    6. 29.5 The Particle-Wave Duality
    7. 29.6 The Wave Nature of Matter
    8. 29.7 Probability: The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle
    9. 29.8 The Particle-Wave Duality Reviewed
    10. Glossary
    11. Section Summary
    12. Conceptual Questions
    13. Problems & Exercises
    14. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  31. 30 Atomic Physics
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 30.1 Discovery of the Atom
    3. 30.2 Discovery of the Parts of the Atom: Electrons and Nuclei
    4. 30.3 Bohr’s Theory of the Hydrogen Atom
    5. 30.4 X Rays: Atomic Origins and Applications
    6. 30.5 Applications of Atomic Excitations and De-Excitations
    7. 30.6 The Wave Nature of Matter Causes Quantization
    8. 30.7 Patterns in Spectra Reveal More Quantization
    9. 30.8 Quantum Numbers and Rules
    10. 30.9 The Pauli Exclusion Principle
    11. Glossary
    12. Section Summary
    13. Conceptual Questions
    14. Problems & Exercises
    15. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  32. 31 Radioactivity and Nuclear Physics
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 31.1 Nuclear Radioactivity
    3. 31.2 Radiation Detection and Detectors
    4. 31.3 Substructure of the Nucleus
    5. 31.4 Nuclear Decay and Conservation Laws
    6. 31.5 Half-Life and Activity
    7. 31.6 Binding Energy
    8. 31.7 Tunneling
    9. Glossary
    10. Section Summary
    11. Conceptual Questions
    12. Problems & Exercises
    13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  33. 32 Medical Applications of Nuclear Physics
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 32.1 Medical Imaging and Diagnostics
    3. 32.2 Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation
    4. 32.3 Therapeutic Uses of Ionizing Radiation
    5. 32.4 Food Irradiation
    6. 32.5 Fusion
    7. 32.6 Fission
    8. 32.7 Nuclear Weapons
    9. Glossary
    10. Section Summary
    11. Conceptual Questions
    12. Problems & Exercises
    13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  34. 33 Particle Physics
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 33.1 The Yukawa Particle and the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle Revisited
    3. 33.2 The Four Basic Forces
    4. 33.3 Accelerators Create Matter from Energy
    5. 33.4 Particles, Patterns, and Conservation Laws
    6. 33.5 Quarks: Is That All There Is?
    7. 33.6 GUTs: The Unification of Forces
    8. Glossary
    9. Section Summary
    10. Conceptual Questions
    11. Problems & Exercises
    12. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  35. 34 Frontiers of Physics
    1. Connection for AP® Courses
    2. 34.1 Cosmology and Particle Physics
    3. 34.2 General Relativity and Quantum Gravity
    4. 34.3 Superstrings
    5. 34.4 Dark Matter and Closure
    6. 34.5 Complexity and Chaos
    7. 34.6 High-Temperature Superconductors
    8. 34.7 Some Questions We Know to Ask
    9. Glossary
    10. Section Summary
    11. Conceptual Questions
    12. Problems & Exercises
  36. A | Atomic Masses
  37. B | Selected Radioactive Isotopes
  38. C | Useful Information
  39. D | Glossary of Key Symbols and Notation
  40. Answer Key
    1. Chapter 1
    2. Chapter 2
    3. Chapter 3
    4. Chapter 4
    5. Chapter 5
    6. Chapter 6
    7. Chapter 7
    8. Chapter 8
    9. Chapter 9
    10. Chapter 10
    11. Chapter 11
    12. Chapter 12
    13. Chapter 13
    14. Chapter 14
    15. Chapter 15
    16. Chapter 16
    17. Chapter 17
    18. Chapter 18
    19. Chapter 19
    20. Chapter 20
    21. Chapter 21
    22. Chapter 22
    23. Chapter 23
    24. Chapter 24
    25. Chapter 25
    26. Chapter 26
    27. Chapter 27
    28. Chapter 28
    29. Chapter 29
    30. Chapter 30
    31. Chapter 31
    32. Chapter 32
    33. Chapter 33
    34. Chapter 34
  41. Index

13.1 Temperature

1.

What is the Fahrenheit temperature of a person with a 39.0ºC39.0ºC size 12{"39" "." 0°C} {} fever?

2.

Frost damage to most plants occurs at temperatures of 28.0ºF28.0ºF size 12{"28" "." 0°F} {} or lower. What is this temperature on the Kelvin scale?

3.

To conserve energy, room temperatures are kept at 68.0ºF68.0ºF size 12{"68" "." 0°F} {} in the winter and 78.0ºF78.0ºF size 12{"78" "." 0°F} {} in the summer. What are these temperatures on the Celsius scale?

4.

A tungsten light bulb filament may operate at 2900 K. What is its Fahrenheit temperature? What is this on the Celsius scale?

5.

The surface temperature of the Sun is about 5750 K. What is this temperature on the Fahrenheit scale?

6.

One of the hottest temperatures ever recorded on the surface of Earth was 134ºF134ºF size 12{"134"°F} {} in Death Valley, CA. What is this temperature in Celsius degrees? What is this temperature in Kelvin?

7.

(a) Suppose a cold front blows into your locale and drops the temperature by 40.0 Fahrenheit degrees. How many degrees Celsius does the temperature decrease when there is a 40.0ºF40.0ºF size 12{"40" "." 0°F} {} decrease in temperature? (b) Show that any change in temperature in Fahrenheit degrees is nine-fifths the change in Celsius degrees.

8.

(a) At what temperature do the Fahrenheit and Celsius scales have the same numerical value? (b) At what temperature do the Fahrenheit and Kelvin scales have the same numerical value?

13.2 Thermal Expansion of Solids and Liquids

9.

The height of the Washington Monument is measured to be 170 m on a day when the temperature is 35.0ºC35.0ºC size 12{"35" "." 0°C} {}. What will its height be on a day when the temperature falls to 10.0ºC10.0ºC size 12{–"10" "." 0°C} {}? Although the monument is made of limestone, assume that its thermal coefficient of expansion is the same as marble’s.

10.

How much taller does the Eiffel Tower become at the end of a day when the temperature has increased by 15ºC15ºC size 12{"15"°C} {}? Its original height is 321 m and you can assume it is made of steel.

11.

What is the change in length of a 3.00-cm-long column of mercury if its temperature changes from 37.0ºC37.0ºC size 12{"37" "." 0°C} {} to 40.0ºC40.0ºC size 12{"40" "." 0°C} {}, assuming the mercury is unconstrained?

12.

How large an expansion gap should be left between steel railroad rails if they may reach a maximum temperature 35.0ºC35.0ºC size 12{"35" "." 0°C} {} greater than when they were laid? Their original length is 10.0 m.

13.

You are looking to purchase a small piece of land in Hong Kong. The price is “only” $60,000 per square meter! The land title says the dimensions are 20 m ×30 m.20 m ×30 m. size 12{"20"" m "` times "30 m" "." } {} By how much would the total price change if you measured the parcel with a steel tape measure on a day when the temperature was 20ºC20ºC size 12{"20"°C} {} above normal?

14.

Global warming will produce rising sea levels partly due to melting ice caps but also due to the expansion of water as average ocean temperatures rise. To get some idea of the size of this effect, calculate the change in length of a column of water 1.00 km high for a temperature increase of 1.00ºC.1.00ºC. size 12{1 "." "00"°C "." } {} Note that this calculation is only approximate because ocean warming is not uniform with depth.

15.

Show that 60.0 L of gasoline originally at 15.0ºC15.0ºC size 12{"15" "." 0°C} {} will expand to 61.1 L when it warms to 35.0ºC,35.0ºC, size 12{"35" "." 0°"C,"} {} as claimed in Example 13.4.

16.

(a) Suppose a meter stick made of steel and one made of invar (an alloy of iron and nickel) are the same length at 0ºC0ºC size 12{0°C} {}. What is their difference in length at 22.0ºC22.0ºC size 12{"22" "." 0°C} {}? (b) Repeat the calculation for two 30.0-m-long surveyor’s tapes.

17.

(a) If a 500-mL glass beaker is filled to the brim with ethyl alcohol at a temperature of 5.00ºC,5.00ºC, size 12{5 "." "00"°"C,"} {} how much will overflow when its temperature reaches 22.0ºC22.0ºC size 12{"22" "." 0°C} {}? (b) How much less water would overflow under the same conditions?

18.

Most automobiles have a coolant reservoir to catch radiator fluid that may overflow when the engine is hot. A radiator is made of copper and is filled to its 16.0-L capacity when at 10.C.10.C. size 12{"10" "." 0°C "." } {} What volume of radiator fluid will overflow when the radiator and fluid reach their 95.C95.C size 12{"95" "." 0°C} {} operating temperature, given that the fluid’s volume coefficient of expansion is β=400×106/ºCβ=400×106/ºC size 12{β="400"´"10" rSup { size 8{ +- 6} } /°C} {}? Note that this coefficient is approximate, because most car radiators have operating temperatures of greater than 95.0ºC.95.0ºC. size 12{"95" "." 0°C "." } {}

19.

A physicist makes a cup of instant coffee and notices that, as the coffee cools, its level drops 3.00 mm in the glass cup. Show that this decrease cannot be due to thermal contraction by calculating the decrease in level if the 350 cm3350 cm3 size 12{"350"" cm" rSup { size 8{3} } } {} of coffee is in a 7.00-cm-diameter cup and decreases in temperature from 95.0ºC95.0ºC size 12{"95" "." 0°C} {}to45.0ºC.45.0ºC. size 12{"45" "." 0°C "." } {} (Most of the drop in level is actually due to escaping bubbles of air.)

20.

(a) The density of water at 0ºC0ºC size 12{0°C} {} is very nearly 1000 kg/m31000 kg/m3 size 12{"1000"" kg/m" rSup { size 8{3} } } {} (it is actually 999.84 kg/m3999.84 kg/m3 size 12{9"99" "." "84 kg/m" rSup { size 8{3} } } {}), whereas the density of ice at 0ºC0ºC size 12{0°C} {} is 917 kg/m3917 kg/m3 size 12{9"17 kg/m" rSup { size 8{3} } } {}. Calculate the pressure necessary to keep ice from expanding when it freezes, neglecting the effect such a large pressure would have on the freezing temperature. (This problem gives you only an indication of how large the forces associated with freezing water might be.) (b) What are the implications of this result for biological cells that are frozen?

21.

Show that β,β, size 12{β»3α,} {} by calculating the change in volume ΔVΔV size 12{ΔV} {} of a cube with sides of length L.L. size 12{L "." } {}

13.3 The Ideal Gas Law

22.

The gauge pressure in your car tires is 2.50×105 N/m22.50×105 N/m2 size 12{2 "." "50"´"10" rSup { size 8{5} } " N/m" rSup { size 8{2} } } {} at a temperature of 35.0ºC35.0ºC size 12{"35" "." 0°C} {} when you drive it onto a ferry boat to Alaska. What is their gauge pressure later, when their temperature has dropped to 40.0ºC40.0ºC size 12{ +- "40" "." 0°C} {}?

23.

Convert an absolute pressure of 7.00×105 N/m27.00×105 N/m2 size 12{7 "." "00" times "10" rSup { size 8{5} } " N/m" rSup { size 8{2} } } {} to gauge pressure in lb/in2.lb/in2. size 12{"lb/in" rSup { size 8{2} } "." } {} (This value was stated to be just less than 90.0 lb/in290.0 lb/in2 size 12{"90" "." "0 lb/in" rSup { size 8{2} } } {} in Example 13.9. Is it?)

24.

Suppose a gas-filled incandescent light bulb is manufactured so that the gas inside the bulb is at atmospheric pressure when the bulb has a temperature of 20.0ºC20.0ºC size 12{"20" "." 0°C} {}. (a) Find the gauge pressure inside such a bulb when it is hot, assuming its average temperature is 60.0ºC60.0ºC size 12{"60" "." 0°C} {} (an approximation) and neglecting any change in volume due to thermal expansion or gas leaks. (b) The actual final pressure for the light bulb will be less than calculated in part (a) because the glass bulb will expand. What will the actual final pressure be, taking this into account? Is this a negligible difference?

25.

Large helium-filled balloons are used to lift scientific equipment to high altitudes. (a) What is the pressure inside such a balloon if it starts out at sea level with a temperature of 10.0ºC10.0ºC size 12{"10" "." 0°C} {} and rises to an altitude where its volume is twenty times the original volume and its temperature is 50.0ºC50.0ºC size 12{ +- "50" "." 0°C} {}? (b) What is the gauge pressure? (Assume atmospheric pressure is constant.)

26.

Confirm that the units of nRTnRT size 12{ ital "nRT"} {} are those of energy for each value of RR size 12{R} {}: (a) 8.31 J/molK8.31 J/molK size 12{8 "." "31"" J/mol" cdot K} {}, (b) 1.99 cal/molK1.99 cal/molK size 12{1 "." "99 cal/mol" cdot K} {}, and (c) 0.0821 Latm/molK0.0821 Latm/molK size 12{0 "." "0821 L" cdot "atm/mol" cdot K} {}.

27.

In the text, it was shown that N/V=2.68×1025m3N/V=2.68×1025m3 size 12{N/V=2 "." "68" times "10" rSup { size 8{"25"} } `m rSup { size 8{ - 3} } } {} for gas at STP. (a) Show that this quantity is equivalent to N/V=2.68×1019cm3,N/V=2.68×1019cm3, size 12{N/V=2 "." "68" times "10" rSup { size 8{"19"} } `"cm" rSup { size 8{ - 3} } ,} {} as stated. (b) About how many atoms are there in one μm3μm3 size 12{"μm" rSup { size 8{3} } } {} (a cubic micrometer) at STP? (c) What does your answer to part (b) imply about the separation of atoms and molecules?

28.

Calculate the number of moles in the 2.00-L volume of air in the lungs of the average person. Note that the air is at 37.0ºC37.0ºC size 12{"37" "." 0°C} {} (body temperature).

29.

An airplane passenger has 100 cm3100 cm3 size 12{"100"" cm" rSup { size 8{3} } } {} of air in his stomach just before the plane takes off from a sea-level airport. What volume will the air have at cruising altitude if cabin pressure drops to 7.50×104 N/m2?7.50×104 N/m2? size 12{7 "." "50"´"10" rSup { size 8{4} } " N/m" rSup { size 8{2} } } {}

30.

(a) What is the volume (in km3km3 size 12{"km" rSup { size 8{3} } } {}) of Avogadro’s number of sand grains if each grain is a cube and has sides that are 1.0 mm long? (b) How many kilometers of beaches in length would this cover if the beach averages 100 m in width and 10.0 m in depth? Neglect air spaces between grains.

31.

An expensive vacuum system can achieve a pressure as low as 1.00×107 N/m21.00×107 N/m2 size 12{1 "." "00"´"10" rSup { size 8{ +- 7} } " N/m" rSup { size 8{2} } } {} at 20ºC20ºC size 12{"20"°C} {}. How many atoms are there in a cubic centimeter at this pressure and temperature?

32.

The number density of gas atoms at a certain location in the space above our planet is about 1.00×1011m3,1.00×1011m3, size 12{1 "." "00" times "10" rSup { size 8{"11"} } `m rSup { size 8{ - 3} } ,} {} and the pressure is 2.75×1010 N/m22.75×1010 N/m2 size 12{2 "." "75"´"10" rSup { size 8{ +- "10"} } " N/m" rSup { size 8{2} } } {} in this space. What is the temperature there?

33.

A bicycle tire has a pressure of 7.00×105 N/m27.00×105 N/m2 size 12{7 "." "00"´"10" rSup { size 8{5} } " N/m" rSup { size 8{2} } } {} at a temperature of 18.0ºC18.0ºC size 12{"18" "." 0°C} {} and contains 2.00 L of gas. What will its pressure be if you let out an amount of air that has a volume of 100 cm3100 cm3 size 12{"100"" cm" rSup { size 8{3} } } {} at atmospheric pressure? Assume tire temperature and volume remain constant.

34.

A high-pressure gas cylinder contains 50.0 L of toxic gas at a pressure of 1.40×107 N/m21.40×107 N/m2 size 12{1 "." "40"´"10" rSup { size 8{7} } " N/m" rSup { size 8{2} } } {} and a temperature of 25.0ºC25.0ºC size 12{"25" "." 0°C} {}. Its valve leaks after the cylinder is dropped. The cylinder is cooled to dry ice temperature (78.5ºC)(78.5ºC) size 12{ \( –"78" "." 5°C \) } {} to reduce the leak rate and pressure so that it can be safely repaired. (a) What is the final pressure in the tank, assuming a negligible amount of gas leaks while being cooled and that there is no phase change? (b) What is the final pressure if one-tenth of the gas escapes? (c) To what temperature must the tank be cooled to reduce the pressure to 1.00 atm (assuming the gas does not change phase and that there is no leakage during cooling)? (d) Does cooling the tank appear to be a practical solution?

35.

Find the number of moles in 2.00 L of gas at 35.0ºC35.0ºC size 12{"35" "." 0°C} {} and under 7.41×107 N/m27.41×107 N/m2 size 12{7 "." "41"´"10" rSup { size 8{7} } " N/m" rSup { size 8{2} } } {} of pressure.

36.

Calculate the depth to which Avogadro’s number of table tennis balls would cover Earth. Each ball has a diameter of 3.75 cm. Assume the space between balls adds an extra 25.0% to their volume and assume they are not crushed by their own weight.

37.

(a) What is the gauge pressure in a 25.0ºC25.0ºC size 12{"25" "." 0°C} {} car tire containing 3.60 mol of gas in a 30.0 L volume? (b) What will its gauge pressure be if you add 1.00 L of gas originally at atmospheric pressure and 25.0ºC25.0ºC size 12{"25" "." 0°C} {}? Assume the temperature returns to 25.0ºC25.0ºC size 12{"25" "." 0°C} {} and the volume remains constant.

38.

(a) In the deep space between galaxies, the density of atoms is as low as 106 atoms/m3,106 atoms/m3, size 12{"10" rSup { size 8{6} } " atoms/m" rSup { size 8{3} } ,} {} and the temperature is a frigid 2.7 K. What is the pressure? (b) What volume (in m3m3 size 12{m rSup { size 8{3} } } {}) is occupied by 1 mol of gas? (c) If this volume is a cube, what is the length of its sides in kilometers?

13.4 Kinetic Theory: Atomic and Molecular Explanation of Pressure and Temperature

39.

Some incandescent light bulbs are filled with argon gas. What is vrmsvrms size 12{v rSub { size 8{"rms"} } } {} for argon atoms near the filament, assuming their temperature is 2500 K?

40.

Average atomic and molecular speeds (vrms)(vrms) size 12{ \( v rSub { size 8{"rms"} } \) } {} are large, even at low temperatures. What is vrmsvrms size 12{v rSub { size 8{"rms"} } } {} for helium atoms at 5.00 K, just one degree above helium’s liquefaction temperature?

41.

(a) What is the average kinetic energy in joules of hydrogen atoms on the 5500ºC5500ºC size 12{"5500"°C} {} surface of the Sun? (b) What is the average kinetic energy of helium atoms in a region of the solar corona where the temperature is 6.00×105K6.00×105K size 12{6 "." "00"´"10" rSup { size 8{5} } " K"} {}?

42.

The escape velocity of any object from Earth is 11.2 km/s. (a) Express this speed in m/s and km/h. (b) At what temperature would oxygen molecules (molecular mass is equal to 32.0 g/mol) have an average velocity vrmsvrms size 12{v rSub { size 8{"rms"} } } {} equal to Earth’s escape velocity of 11.1 km/s?

43.

The escape velocity from the Moon is much smaller than from Earth and is only 2.38 km/s. At what temperature would hydrogen molecules (molecular mass is equal to 2.016 g/mol) have an average velocity vrmsvrms size 12{v rSub { size 8{"rms"} } } {} equal to the Moon’s escape velocity?

44.

Nuclear fusion, the energy source of the Sun, hydrogen bombs, and fusion reactors, occurs much more readily when the average kinetic energy of the atoms is high—that is, at high temperatures. Suppose you want the atoms in your fusion experiment to have average kinetic energies of 6.40×1014J6.40×1014J size 12{6 "." "40"´"10" rSup { size 8{ +- "14"} } " J"} {}. What temperature is needed?

45.

Suppose that the average velocity (vrms)(vrms) size 12{ \( v rSub { size 8{"rms"} } \) } {} of carbon dioxide molecules (molecular mass is equal to 44.0 g/mol) in a flame is found to be 1.05×105m/s1.05×105m/s size 12{1 "." "05"´"10" rSup { size 8{5} } " m/s"} {}. What temperature does this represent?

46.

Hydrogen molecules (molecular mass is equal to 2.016 g/mol) have an average velocity vrmsvrms size 12{v rSub { size 8{"rms"} } } {} equal to 193 m/s. What is the temperature?

47.

Much of the gas near the Sun is atomic hydrogen. Its temperature would have to be 1.5×107K1.5×107K size 12{1 "." 5´"10" rSup { size 8{7} } " K"} {} for the average velocity vrmsvrms size 12{v rSub { size 8{"rms"} } } {} to equal the escape velocity from the Sun. What is that velocity?

48.

There are two important isotopes of uranium— 235U235U size 12{ {} rSup { size 8{"235"} } U} {} and 238U238U size 12{ {} rSup { size 8{"238"} } U} {}; these isotopes are nearly identical chemically but have different atomic masses. Only 235U235U size 12{ {} rSup { size 8{"235"} } U} {} is very useful in nuclear reactors. One of the techniques for separating them (gas diffusion) is based on the different average velocities vrmsvrms size 12{v rSub { size 8{"rms"} } } {} of uranium hexafluoride gas, UF6UF6 size 12{"UF" rSub { size 8{6} } } {}. (a) The molecular masses for 235U235U size 12{ {} rSup { size 8{"235"} } U} {}UF6UF6 size 12{"UF" rSub { size 8{6} } } {} and 238U238U size 12{ {} rSup { size 8{"238"} } U} {}UF6UF6 size 12{"UF" rSub { size 8{6} } } {} are 349.0 g/mol and 352.0 g/mol, respectively. What is the ratio of their average velocities? (b) At what temperature would their average velocities differ by 1.00 m/s? (c) Do your answers in this problem imply that this technique may be difficult?

13.6 Humidity, Evaporation, and Boiling

49.

Dry air is 78.1% nitrogen. What is the partial pressure of nitrogen when the atmospheric pressure is 1.01×105 N/m21.01×105 N/m2 size 12{1 "." "01"´"10" rSup { size 8{5} } " N/m" rSup { size 8{2} } } {}?

50.

(a) What is the vapor pressure of water at 20.0ºC20.0ºC size 12{"20" "." 0°C} {}? (b) What percentage of atmospheric pressure does this correspond to? (c) What percent of 20.0ºC20.0ºC size 12{"20" "." 0°C} {} air is water vapor if it has 100% relative humidity? (The density of dry air at 20.0ºC20.0ºC size 12{"20" "." 0°C} {} is 1.20 kg/m31.20 kg/m3 size 12{1 "." "20"" kg/m" rSup { size 8{3} } } {}.)

51.

Pressure cookers increase cooking speed by raising the boiling temperature of water above its value at atmospheric pressure. (a) What pressure is necessary to raise the boiling point to 120.0ºC120.0ºC size 12{"120" "." 0°C} {}? (b) What gauge pressure does this correspond to?

52.

(a) At what temperature does water boil at an altitude of 1500 m (about 5000 ft) on a day when atmospheric pressure is 8.59×104 N/m2?8.59×104 N/m2? size 12{8 "." "59" times "10" rSup { size 8{4} } " N/m" rSup { size 8{2} } ?} {} (b) What about at an altitude of 3000 m (about 10,000 ft) when atmospheric pressure is 7.00×104 N/m2?7.00×104 N/m2? size 12{7 "." "00" times "10" rSup { size 8{4} } " N/m" rSup { size 8{2} } ?} {}

53.

What is the atmospheric pressure on top of Mt. Everest on a day when water boils there at a temperature of 70.0ºC?70.0ºC? size 12{"70" "." 0°"C?"} {}

54.

At a spot in the high Andes, water boils at 80.0ºC80.0ºC size 12{"80" "." 0°C} {}, greatly reducing the cooking speed of potatoes, for example. What is atmospheric pressure at this location?

55.

What is the relative humidity on a 25.0ºC25.0ºC size 12{"25" "." 0°C} {} day when the air contains 18.0 g/m318.0 g/m3 size 12{"18" "." 0" g/m" rSup { size 8{3} } } {} of water vapor?

56.

What is the density of water vapor in g/m3g/m3 size 12{"g/m" rSup { size 8{3} } } {} on a hot dry day in the desert when the temperature is 40.0ºC40.0ºC size 12{"40" "." 0°C} {} and the relative humidity is 6.00%?

57.

A deep-sea diver should breathe a gas mixture that has the same oxygen partial pressure as at sea level, where dry air contains 20.9% oxygen and has a total pressure of 1.01×105 N/m21.01×105 N/m2 size 12{1 "." "01"´"10" rSup { size 8{5} } " N/m" rSup { size 8{2} } } {}. (a) What is the partial pressure of oxygen at sea level? (b) If the diver breathes a gas mixture at a pressure of 2.00×106 N/m22.00×106 N/m2 size 12{2 "." "00"´"10" rSup { size 8{6} } " N/m" rSup { size 8{2} } } {}, what percent oxygen should it be to have the same oxygen partial pressure as at sea level?

58.

The vapor pressure of water at 40.0ºC40.0ºC size 12{"40" "." 0°C} {} is 7.34×103 N/m27.34×103 N/m2 size 12{7 "." "34"´"10" rSup { size 8{3} } " N/m" rSup { size 8{2} } } {}. Using the ideal gas law, calculate the density of water vapor in g/m3g/m3 size 12{"g/m" rSup { size 8{3} } } {} that creates a partial pressure equal to this vapor pressure. The result should be the same as the saturation vapor density at that temperature (51.1 g/m3).(51.1 g/m3). size 12{ \( "51" "." "1 g/m" rSup { size 8{3} } \) "." } {}

59.

Air in human lungs has a temperature of 37.0ºC37.0ºC size 12{"37" "." 0°C} {} and a saturation vapor density of 44.0 g/m344.0 g/m3 size 12{"44" "." "0 g/m" rSup { size 8{3} } } {}. (a) If 2.00 L of air is exhaled and very dry air inhaled, what is the maximum loss of water vapor by the person? (b) Calculate the partial pressure of water vapor having this density, and compare it with the vapor pressure of 6.31×103 N/m26.31×103 N/m2 size 12{6 "." "31"´"10" rSup { size 8{3} } " N/m" rSup { size 8{2} } } {}.

60.

If the relative humidity is 90.0% on a muggy summer morning when the temperature is 20.0ºC20.0ºC size 12{"20" "." 0°C} {}, what will it be later in the day when the temperature is 30.0ºC30.0ºC size 12{"30" "." 0°C} {}, assuming the water vapor density remains constant?

61.

Late on an autumn day, the relative humidity is 45.0% and the temperature is 20.0ºC20.0ºC size 12{"20" "." 0°C} {}. What will the relative humidity be that evening when the temperature has dropped to 10.0ºC10.0ºC size 12{"10" "." 0°C} {}, assuming constant water vapor density?

62.

Atmospheric pressure atop Mt. Everest is 3.30 × 104 N/m23.30 × 104 N/m2 size 12{3 "." "30"´"10" rSup { size 8{4} } " N/m" rSup { size 8{2} } } {}. (a) What is the partial pressure of oxygen there if it is 20.9% of the air? (b) What percent oxygen should a mountain climber breathe so that its partial pressure is the same as at sea level, where atmospheric pressure is 1.01×105 N/m2?1.01×105 N/m2? size 12{1 "." "01" times "10" rSup { size 8{5} } " N/m" rSup { size 8{2} } ?} {} (c) One of the most severe problems for those climbing very high mountains is the extreme drying of breathing passages. Why does this drying occur?

63.

What is the dew point (the temperature at which 100% relative humidity would occur) on a day when relative humidity is 39.0% at a temperature of 20.0ºC20.0ºC size 12{"20" "." 0°C} {}?

64.

On a certain day, the temperature is 25.0ºC25.0ºC size 12{"25" "." 0°C} {} and the relative humidity is 90.0%. How many grams of water must condense out of each cubic meter of air if the temperature falls to 15.0ºC15.0ºC size 12{"15" "." 0°C} {}? Such a drop in temperature can, thus, produce heavy dew or fog.

65.

Integrated Concepts

The boiling point of water increases with depth because pressure increases with depth. At what depth will fresh water have a boiling point of 150ºC150ºC size 12{"150"°C} {}, if the surface of the water is at sea level?

66.

Integrated Concepts

(a) At what depth in fresh water is the critical pressure of water reached, given that the surface is at sea level? (b) At what temperature will this water boil? (c) Is a significantly higher temperature needed to boil water at a greater depth?

67.

Integrated Concepts

To get an idea of the small effect that temperature has on Archimedes’ principle, calculate the fraction of a copper block’s weight that is supported by the buoyant force in 0ºC0ºC size 12{0°C} {} water and compare this fraction with the fraction supported in 95.0ºC95.0ºC size 12{"95" "." 0°C} {} water.

68.

Integrated Concepts

If you want to cook in water at 150ºC150ºC size 12{"150"°C} {}, you need a pressure cooker that can withstand the necessary pressure. (a) What pressure is required for the boiling point of water to be this high? (b) If the lid of the pressure cooker is a disk 25.0 cm in diameter, what force must it be able to withstand at this pressure?

69.

Unreasonable Results

(a) How many moles per cubic meter of an ideal gas are there at a pressure of 1.00×1014 N/m21.00×1014 N/m2 size 12{1 "." "00"´"10" rSup { size 8{"14"} } " N/m" rSup { size 8{2} } } {} and at 0ºC0ºC size 12{0°C} {}? (b) What is unreasonable about this result? (c) Which premise or assumption is responsible?

70.

Unreasonable Results

(a) An automobile mechanic claims that an aluminum rod fits loosely into its hole on an aluminum engine block because the engine is hot and the rod is cold. If the hole is 10.0% bigger in diameter than the 22.0ºC22.0ºC size 12{"22" "." 0°C} {} rod, at what temperature will the rod be the same size as the hole? (b) What is unreasonable about this temperature? (c) Which premise is responsible?

71.

Unreasonable Results

The temperature inside a supernova explosion is said to be 2.00×1013 K2.00×1013 K size 12{2 "." "00"´"10" rSup { size 8{"13"} } " K"} {}. (a) What would the average velocity vrmsvrms size 12{v rSub { size 8{"rms"} } } {} of hydrogen atoms be? (b) What is unreasonable about this velocity? (c) Which premise or assumption is responsible?

72.

Unreasonable Results

Suppose the relative humidity is 80% on a day when the temperature is 30.0ºC30.0ºC size 12{"30" "." 0°C} {}. (a) What will the relative humidity be if the air cools to 25.0ºC25.0ºC size 12{"25" "." 0°C} {} and the vapor density remains constant? (b) What is unreasonable about this result? (c) Which premise is responsible?

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