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1.1 Principles of Nursing Practice

According to the ANA, nursing integrates the art and science of caring and focuses on the protection, promotion, and optimization of health and human functioning; prevention of illness and injury; facilitation of healing; and alleviation of suffering through compassionate presence. In recent decades, the goals of nursing have further evolved to emphasize evidence-based practice, patient-centered care, and interdisciplinary collaboration. Nurses play critical roles in care coordination, healthcare leadership, and policy development. They actively engage in health promotion, disease management, and support for individuals and communities. Nurses are the coordinators of care for patients and communities, and nursing goals continue to change and develop as society progresses.

The ANA’s ethical principles serve as a crucial foundation for nursing practice, guiding nurses in ethical decision-making and ensuring the provision of high-quality, patient-centered care. These seven principles provide a framework that upholds the values and ethical standards of the nursing profession.

The purpose of nursing clinical judgment measurement model (CJMM)s is to provide a structured framework that guides nurses in developing and applying their clinical judgment skills. These models aim to enhance nurses’ critical thinking abilities, improve their decision-making processes, and promote consistent and evidence-based nursing practice. Clinical judgment models provide nurses with a systematic approach to collecting and analyzing patient data, identifying patterns and trends, and making informed clinical decisions.

1.2 Evidence-Based Practice

Interdisciplinary theories are an essential part of nursing as they provide a broader perspective and a more comprehensive understanding of healthcare issues. These theories integrate knowledge and concepts from multiple disciplines to enhance nursing practice, research, and education. In nursing, interdisciplinary theory are used in various ways. They assist in the development of nursing models and frameworks that guide the delivery of patient care, and help nurses understand and work better with the interdisciplinary team.

Nursing research has undergone significant evolution over time, transitioning from a tradition-based practice to a scientifically rigorous discipline. Initially, nursing relied on personal experience and tradition, but beginning in the nineteenth century, the need for EBP became evident. EBP refers to the integration of the best available research findings, clinical expertise, and patient preferences or values to guide healthcare decision-making and improve patient outcomes.

According to the ANA, there are five key steps in implementing EBP: Ask a clinical question, acquire the evidence, appraise the evidence, apply the evidence, and assess outcomes.

1.3 Nursing Process

Nurses use the nursing process to perform clinical reasoning, make clinical judgments, and create nursing care plans to provide patient care. The process includes assessment, which can be focused or comprehensive, to gather patient data, followed by data validation, organization, and documentation. Diagnosis involves analyzing the data to identify health problems. This leads to the identification of potential and actual patient concerns. In the planning phase, nurses collaborate with patients to establish specific, measurable, attainable, relevant, and timely (SMART) outcomes. Nursing interventions are developed, considering the patient’s unique circumstances. Implementation entails executing the planned interventions, while the evaluation phase assesses their effectiveness. Reassessment is conducted to determine if outcomes have been achieved, and the plan of care is revised accordingly. This process ensures quality patient care while respecting individual needs and preferences.


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