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taking responsibility for one’s own actions and accepting all consequences, both personal and professional, that can result from these actions
adaptive coping
a coping strategy that includes problem-focused coping and/or emotion-focused coping
a nursing process phase that involves gathering comprehensive data about the patient’s health status, including physical, psychological, social, and cultural aspects
at-risk population
a group of individuals who are at higher risk of experiencing adverse health, social, or economic outcomes due to various factors
respecting the right of patients to make their own decisions and participate in their care
acting in the best interest of patients and promoting their well-being
collaborative nursing intervention
an action that the nurse carries out in collaboration with other health team members, such as physicians, social workers, respiratory therapists, physical therapists, and occupational therapists
comprehensive assessment
an assessment that provides a more extensive and detailed overview of a patient’s overall health; it encompasses physical, psychological, and social aspects of a patient’s well-being
the ethical and legal duty to safeguard and protect sensitive and private information from unauthorized disclosure or access, ensuring it remains secure from others
coping strategy
an action, a series of actions, or a thought process used in meeting a stressful or unpleasant situation or in modifying one’s reaction to such a situation
dependent nursing intervention
an action that requires a prescription before it can be performed
descriptive theory (also phenomenological theory)
a type of theory that focuses on describing and understanding the lived experiences of individuals in the context of health care
developmental theory
framework that aims to explain and understand how individuals grow, change, and develop across various stages of life, emphasizing the interaction between biological, cognitive, social, and emotional factors in shaping human development
a nursing process phase in which nurses analyze and interpret the collected data to identify nursing diagnoses or health problems
direct care activity
an action such as administering medications, providing treatments, and assisting with activities of daily living
one of the parts, such as an object, person, process, or concept, that make up a system
emotion-focused coping
strategies such as mindfulness, meditation, and yoga; using humor and jokes; seeking spiritual or religious pursuits; engaging in physical activity or breathing exercises; and seeking social support
Erikson’s psychosocial development theory
an outline of the eight stages of human development, each characterized by a unique psychosocial crisis or challenge
ethical guidelines and standards
research documents that provide ethical frameworks and principles that guide researchers in conducting ethical and responsible research
a nursing process phase that focuses on determining the effectiveness of the nursing interventions and the progress made toward achieving the established goals
evidence-based practice (EBP)
the integration of the best available research evidence, clinical expertise, and patient preferences or values to guide healthcare decision-making and improve patient outcomes
external stimulus
the physical, social, and cultural aspects of the environment
demonstrating faithfulness, loyalty, and commitment to patients
focused assessment
a targeted assessment designed to address a specific concern
framework of nursing theory
a structured and organized approach to understanding and applying nursing concepts and principles
general systems theory
a conceptual framework that describes how systems function and interact with their environment
health promotion
empowering individuals, families, and communities to take control of their well-being and make positive choices
holistic nursing care
nursing care that emphasizes the healing of the whole person, including mind, body, and soul
a nursing process phase that involves executing the planned nursing interventions according to the established plan of care
independent nursing intervention
any intervention that the nurse can independently provide without obtaining a prescription
indirect care activity
an action such as patient education, counseling, and coordination of healthcare services
informed consent
a voluntary and well-informed agreement given by a patient after receiving comprehensive information about the risks, benefits, alternatives, and potential consequences of a medical intervention or treatment
interdisciplinary theory
a theory that integrates knowledge and concepts from one or more disciplines to enhance nursing practice, research, and education
internal stimulus
physiological, psychological, and cognitive factors
a principle and moral obligation to act on the basis of equality and equity
Leininger’s theory of culture care diversity and universality
a theory that focuses on describing the impact of cultural beliefs, values, and practices on health and nursing care
maladaptive coping
a coping strategy that includes the avoidance of a stressful condition, withdrawal from a stressful environment, disengagement from stressful relationships, or misuse of drugs and/or alcohol
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory
a theory that states that individuals have a hierarchical structure of needs, ranging from basic physiological needs to self-actualization
avoiding harm and preventing or minimizing potential risks to patients
nursing diagnosis
clinical judgment based on the medical diagnosis of a patient that helps the nurse determine the plan of care
nursing metaparadigm
the four foundational concepts that are central to the discipline of nursing: person, environment, health, and nursing
nursing process
a critical thinking model based on a systematic approach to patient-centered care.
nursing theory
a set of organized concepts, principles, and relationships that guide and inform nursing practice
planning phase
a nursing process phase when nurses collaborate with the patient, their family, and the interdisciplinary healthcare team to set achievable goals or outcomes and develop a comprehensive plan of care
prescriptive theory
a type of theory that provides guidance and direction for nursing practice by offering recommendations, interventions, or guidelines to achieve desired outcomes
problem-focused coping
a strategy that includes seeking treatment such as counseling or cognitive behavioral therapy
qualitative research
a systematic and subjective approach that focuses on understanding and interpreting human experiences, meanings, and social phenomena in the context of health care
quantitative research
a systematic and empirical approach that involves the collection, analysis, and interpretation of numerical data to answer research questions and explore phenomena related to health care
Roy’s adaptation model
a conceptual framework developed by nursing theorist Sister Callista Roy that is based on the belief that individuals strive to maintain balance and achieve a state of equilibrium in response to changes in their internal and external environments, and aims to promote adaptation for optimal health and well-being
a set of elements that are interrelated and work together to achieve a common goal
honesty and truthfulness in communication
Watson’s theory of human caring
a theory that emphasizes the significance of caring in nursing practice

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