Chemistry

# Key Terms

ChemistryKey Terms
acid ionization
reaction involving the transfer of a proton from an acid to water, yielding hydronium ions and the conjugate base of the acid
acid ionization constant (Ka)
equilibrium constant for the ionization of a weak acid
acid-base indicator
organic acid or base whose color changes depending on the pH of the solution it is in
acidic
describes a solution in which [H3O+] > [OH]
amphiprotic
species that may either gain or lose a proton in a reaction
amphoteric
species that can act as either an acid or a base
autoionization
reaction between identical species yielding ionic products; for water, this reaction involves transfer of protons to yield hydronium and hydroxide ions
base ionization
reaction involving the transfer of a proton from water to a base, yielding hydroxide ions and the conjugate acid of the base
base ionization constant (Kb)
equilibrium constant for the ionization of a weak base
basic
describes a solution in which [H3O+] < [OH]
Brønsted-Lowry acid
proton donor
Brønsted-Lowry base
proton acceptor
buffer
mixture of a weak acid or a weak base and the salt of its conjugate; the pH of a buffer resists change when small amounts of acid or base are added
buffer capacity
amount of an acid or base that can be added to a volume of a buffer solution before its pH changes significantly (usually by one pH unit)
color-change interval
range in pH over which the color change of an indicator takes place
conjugate acid
substance formed when a base gains a proton
conjugate base
substance formed when an acid loses a proton
diprotic acid
acid containing two ionizable hydrogen atoms per molecule. A diprotic acid ionizes in two steps
diprotic base
base capable of accepting two protons. The protons are accepted in two steps
Henderson-Hasselbalch equation
equation used to calculate the pH of buffer solutions
ion-product constant for water (Kw)
equilibrium constant for the autoionization of water
leveling effect of water
any acid stronger than $H3O+,H3O+,$ or any base stronger than OH will react with water to form $H3O+,H3O+,$ or OH, respectively; water acts as a base to make all strong acids appear equally strong, and it acts as an acid to make all strong bases appear equally strong
monoprotic acid
acid containing one ionizable hydrogen atom per molecule
neutral
describes a solution in which [H3O+] = [OH]
oxyacid
compound containing a nonmetal and one or more hydroxyl groups
percent ionization
ratio of the concentration of the ionized acid to the initial acid concentration, times 100
pH
logarithmic measure of the concentration of hydronium ions in a solution
pOH
logarithmic measure of the concentration of hydroxide ions in a solution
stepwise ionization
process in which an acid is ionized by losing protons sequentially
titration curve
plot of the pH of a solution of acid or base versus the volume of base or acid added during a titration
triprotic acid
acid that contains three ionizable hydrogen atoms per molecule; ionization of triprotic acids occurs in three steps
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