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active electrode
electrode that participates as a reactant or product in the oxidation-reduction reaction of an electrochemical cell; the mass of an active electrode changes during the oxidation-reduction reaction
alkaline battery
primary battery similar to a dry cell that uses an alkaline (often potassium hydroxide) electrolyte; designed to be an improved replacement for the dry cell, but with more energy storage and less electrolyte leakage than typical dry cell
electrode in an electrochemical cell at which oxidation occurs
single or series of galvanic cells designed for use as a source of electrical power
electrode in an electrochemical cell at which reduction occurs
cathodic protection
approach to preventing corrosion of a metal object by connecting it to a sacrificial anode composed of a more readily oxidized metal
cell notation (schematic)
symbolic representation of the components and reactions in an electrochemical cell
cell potential (Ecell)
difference in potential of the cathode and anode half-cells
concentration cell
galvanic cell comprising half-cells of identical composition but for the concentration of one redox reactant or product
degradation of metal via a natural electrochemical process
dry cell
primary battery, also called a zinc-carbon battery, based on the spontaneous oxidation of zinc by manganese(IV)
electrode potential (EX)
the potential of a cell in which the half-cell of interest acts as a cathode when connected to the standard hydrogen electrode
process using electrical energy to cause a nonspontaneous process to occur
electrolytic cell
electrochemical cell in which an external source of electrical power is used to drive an otherwise nonspontaneous process
Faraday’s constant (F)
charge on 1 mol of electrons; F = 96,485 C/mol e
fuel cell
devices similar to galvanic cells that require a continuous feed of redox reactants; also called a flow battery
galvanic (voltaic) cell
electrochemical cell in which a spontaneous redox reaction takes place; also called a voltaic cell
method of protecting iron or similar metals from corrosion by coating with a thin layer of more easily oxidized zinc.
half cell
component of a cell that contains the redox conjugate pair (“couple”) of a single reactant
inert electrode
electrode that conducts electrons to and from the reactants in a half-cell but that is not itself oxidized or reduced
lead acid battery
rechargeable battery commonly used in automobiles; it typically comprises six galvanic cells based on Pb half-reactions in acidic solution
lithium ion battery
widely used rechargeable battery commonly used in portable electronic devices, based on lithium ion transfer between the anode and cathode
Nernst equation
relating the potential of a redox system to its composition
nickel-cadmium battery
rechargeable battery based on Ni/Cd half-cells with applications similar to those of lithium ion batteries
primary cell
nonrechargeable battery, suitable for single use only
sacrificial anode
electrode constructed from an easily oxidized metal, often magnesium or zinc, used to prevent corrosion of metal objects via cathodic protection
salt bridge
tube filled with inert electrolyte solution
secondary cell
battery designed to allow recharging
standard cell potential (Ecell°)(Ecell°)
the cell potential when all reactants and products are in their standard states (1 bar or 1 atm or gases; 1 M for solutes), usually at 298.15 K
standard electrode potential ((EX°)(EX°))
electrode potential measured under standard conditions (1 bar or 1 atm for gases; 1 M for solutes) usually at 298.15 K
standard hydrogen electrode (SHE)
half-cell based on hydrogen ion production, assigned a potential of exactly 0 V under standard state conditions, used as the universal reference for measuring electrode potential
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