Chemistry 2e

# Chapter 5

Chemistry 2eChapter 5

1.

The temperature of 1 gram of burning wood is approximately the same for both a match and a bonfire. This is an intensive property and depends on the material (wood). However, the overall amount of produced heat depends on the amount of material; this is an extensive property. The amount of wood in a bonfire is much greater than that in a match; the total amount of produced heat is also much greater, which is why we can sit around a bonfire to stay warm, but a match would not provide enough heat to keep us from getting cold.

3.

Heat capacity refers to the heat required to raise the temperature of the mass of the substance 1 degree; specific heat refers to the heat required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of the substance 1 degree. Thus, heat capacity is an extensive property, and specific heat is an intensive one.

5.

(a) 47.6 J/°C; 11.38 cal °C−1; (b) 407 J/°C; 97.3 cal °C−1

7.

1310 J; 313 cal

9.

7.15 °C

11.

(a) 0.390 J/g °C; (b) Copper is a likely candidate.

13.

We assume that the density of water is 1.0 g/cm3(1 g/mL) and that it takes as much energy to keep the water at 85 °F as to heat it from 72 °F to 85 °F. We also assume that only the water is going to be heated. Energy required = 7.47 kWh

15.

lesser; more heat would be lost to the coffee cup and the environment and so ΔT for the water would be lesser and the calculated q would be lesser

17.

greater, since taking the calorimeter’s heat capacity into account will compensate for the thermal energy transferred to the solution from the calorimeter; this approach includes the calorimeter itself, along with the solution, as “surroundings”: qrxn = −(qsolution + qcalorimeter); since both qsolution and qcalorimeter are negative, including the latter term (qrxn) will yield a greater value for the heat of the dissolution

19.

The temperature of the coffee will drop 1 degree.

21.

5.7 $××$ 102 kJ

23.

38.5 °C

25.

−2.2 kJ; The heat produced shows that the reaction is exothermic.

27.

1.4 kJ

29.

22.6. Since the mass and the heat capacity of the solution is approximately equal to that of the water, the two-fold increase in the amount of water leads to a two-fold decrease of the temperature change.

31.

11.7 kJ

33.

30%

35.

0.24 g

37.

1.4 $××$ 102 Calories

39.

The enthalpy change of the indicated reaction is for exactly 1 mol HCL and 1 mol NaOH; the heat in the example is produced by 0.0500 mol HCl and 0.0500 mol NaOH.

41.

25 kJ mol−1

43.

81 kJ mol−1

45.

5204.4 kJ

47.

1.83 $××$ 10−2 mol

49.

–802 kJ mol−1

51.

15.5 kJ/ºC

53.

7.43 g

55.

Yes.

57.

459.6 kJ

59.

−494 kJ/mol

61.

44.01 kJ/mol

63.

−394 kJ

65.

265 kJ

67.

90.3 kJ/mol

69.

(a) −1615.0 kJ mol−1; (b) −484.3 kJ mol−1; (c) 164.2 kJ; (d) −232.1 kJ

71.

−54.04 kJ mol−1

73.

−2660 kJ mol−1

75.

–66.4 kJ

77.

−122.8 kJ

79.

3.7 kg

81.

On the assumption that the best rocket fuel is the one that gives off the most heat, B2H6 is the prime candidate.

83.

−88.2 kJ

85.

(a) $C3H8(g)+5O2(g)⟶3CO2(g)+4H2O(l);C3H8(g)+5O2(g)⟶3CO2(g)+4H2O(l);$ (b) 330 L air; (c) −104.5 kJ mol−1; (d) 75.4 °C

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