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Chemistry 2e

Chapter 4

Chemistry 2eChapter 4
  1. Preface
  2. 1 Essential Ideas
    1. Introduction
    2. 1.1 Chemistry in Context
    3. 1.2 Phases and Classification of Matter
    4. 1.3 Physical and Chemical Properties
    5. 1.4 Measurements
    6. 1.5 Measurement Uncertainty, Accuracy, and Precision
    7. 1.6 Mathematical Treatment of Measurement Results
    8. Key Terms
    9. Key Equations
    10. Summary
    11. Exercises
  3. 2 Atoms, Molecules, and Ions
    1. Introduction
    2. 2.1 Early Ideas in Atomic Theory
    3. 2.2 Evolution of Atomic Theory
    4. 2.3 Atomic Structure and Symbolism
    5. 2.4 Chemical Formulas
    6. 2.5 The Periodic Table
    7. 2.6 Molecular and Ionic Compounds
    8. 2.7 Chemical Nomenclature
    9. Key Terms
    10. Key Equations
    11. Summary
    12. Exercises
  4. 3 Composition of Substances and Solutions
    1. Introduction
    2. 3.1 Formula Mass and the Mole Concept
    3. 3.2 Determining Empirical and Molecular Formulas
    4. 3.3 Molarity
    5. 3.4 Other Units for Solution Concentrations
    6. Key Terms
    7. Key Equations
    8. Summary
    9. Exercises
  5. 4 Stoichiometry of Chemical Reactions
    1. Introduction
    2. 4.1 Writing and Balancing Chemical Equations
    3. 4.2 Classifying Chemical Reactions
    4. 4.3 Reaction Stoichiometry
    5. 4.4 Reaction Yields
    6. 4.5 Quantitative Chemical Analysis
    7. Key Terms
    8. Key Equations
    9. Summary
    10. Exercises
  6. 5 Thermochemistry
    1. Introduction
    2. 5.1 Energy Basics
    3. 5.2 Calorimetry
    4. 5.3 Enthalpy
    5. Key Terms
    6. Key Equations
    7. Summary
    8. Exercises
  7. 6 Electronic Structure and Periodic Properties of Elements
    1. Introduction
    2. 6.1 Electromagnetic Energy
    3. 6.2 The Bohr Model
    4. 6.3 Development of Quantum Theory
    5. 6.4 Electronic Structure of Atoms (Electron Configurations)
    6. 6.5 Periodic Variations in Element Properties
    7. Key Terms
    8. Key Equations
    9. Summary
    10. Exercises
  8. 7 Chemical Bonding and Molecular Geometry
    1. Introduction
    2. 7.1 Ionic Bonding
    3. 7.2 Covalent Bonding
    4. 7.3 Lewis Symbols and Structures
    5. 7.4 Formal Charges and Resonance
    6. 7.5 Strengths of Ionic and Covalent Bonds
    7. 7.6 Molecular Structure and Polarity
    8. Key Terms
    9. Key Equations
    10. Summary
    11. Exercises
  9. 8 Advanced Theories of Covalent Bonding
    1. Introduction
    2. 8.1 Valence Bond Theory
    3. 8.2 Hybrid Atomic Orbitals
    4. 8.3 Multiple Bonds
    5. 8.4 Molecular Orbital Theory
    6. Key Terms
    7. Key Equations
    8. Summary
    9. Exercises
  10. 9 Gases
    1. Introduction
    2. 9.1 Gas Pressure
    3. 9.2 Relating Pressure, Volume, Amount, and Temperature: The Ideal Gas Law
    4. 9.3 Stoichiometry of Gaseous Substances, Mixtures, and Reactions
    5. 9.4 Effusion and Diffusion of Gases
    6. 9.5 The Kinetic-Molecular Theory
    7. 9.6 Non-Ideal Gas Behavior
    8. Key Terms
    9. Key Equations
    10. Summary
    11. Exercises
  11. 10 Liquids and Solids
    1. Introduction
    2. 10.1 Intermolecular Forces
    3. 10.2 Properties of Liquids
    4. 10.3 Phase Transitions
    5. 10.4 Phase Diagrams
    6. 10.5 The Solid State of Matter
    7. 10.6 Lattice Structures in Crystalline Solids
    8. Key Terms
    9. Key Equations
    10. Summary
    11. Exercises
  12. 11 Solutions and Colloids
    1. Introduction
    2. 11.1 The Dissolution Process
    3. 11.2 Electrolytes
    4. 11.3 Solubility
    5. 11.4 Colligative Properties
    6. 11.5 Colloids
    7. Key Terms
    8. Key Equations
    9. Summary
    10. Exercises
  13. 12 Kinetics
    1. Introduction
    2. 12.1 Chemical Reaction Rates
    3. 12.2 Factors Affecting Reaction Rates
    4. 12.3 Rate Laws
    5. 12.4 Integrated Rate Laws
    6. 12.5 Collision Theory
    7. 12.6 Reaction Mechanisms
    8. 12.7 Catalysis
    9. Key Terms
    10. Key Equations
    11. Summary
    12. Exercises
  14. 13 Fundamental Equilibrium Concepts
    1. Introduction
    2. 13.1 Chemical Equilibria
    3. 13.2 Equilibrium Constants
    4. 13.3 Shifting Equilibria: Le Châtelier’s Principle
    5. 13.4 Equilibrium Calculations
    6. Key Terms
    7. Key Equations
    8. Summary
    9. Exercises
  15. 14 Acid-Base Equilibria
    1. Introduction
    2. 14.1 Brønsted-Lowry Acids and Bases
    3. 14.2 pH and pOH
    4. 14.3 Relative Strengths of Acids and Bases
    5. 14.4 Hydrolysis of Salts
    6. 14.5 Polyprotic Acids
    7. 14.6 Buffers
    8. 14.7 Acid-Base Titrations
    9. Key Terms
    10. Key Equations
    11. Summary
    12. Exercises
  16. 15 Equilibria of Other Reaction Classes
    1. Introduction
    2. 15.1 Precipitation and Dissolution
    3. 15.2 Lewis Acids and Bases
    4. 15.3 Coupled Equilibria
    5. Key Terms
    6. Key Equations
    7. Summary
    8. Exercises
  17. 16 Thermodynamics
    1. Introduction
    2. 16.1 Spontaneity
    3. 16.2 Entropy
    4. 16.3 The Second and Third Laws of Thermodynamics
    5. 16.4 Free Energy
    6. Key Terms
    7. Key Equations
    8. Summary
    9. Exercises
  18. 17 Electrochemistry
    1. Introduction
    2. 17.1 Review of Redox Chemistry
    3. 17.2 Galvanic Cells
    4. 17.3 Electrode and Cell Potentials
    5. 17.4 Potential, Free Energy, and Equilibrium
    6. 17.5 Batteries and Fuel Cells
    7. 17.6 Corrosion
    8. 17.7 Electrolysis
    9. Key Terms
    10. Key Equations
    11. Summary
    12. Exercises
  19. 18 Representative Metals, Metalloids, and Nonmetals
    1. Introduction
    2. 18.1 Periodicity
    3. 18.2 Occurrence and Preparation of the Representative Metals
    4. 18.3 Structure and General Properties of the Metalloids
    5. 18.4 Structure and General Properties of the Nonmetals
    6. 18.5 Occurrence, Preparation, and Compounds of Hydrogen
    7. 18.6 Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of Carbonates
    8. 18.7 Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of Nitrogen
    9. 18.8 Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of Phosphorus
    10. 18.9 Occurrence, Preparation, and Compounds of Oxygen
    11. 18.10 Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of Sulfur
    12. 18.11 Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of Halogens
    13. 18.12 Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of the Noble Gases
    14. Key Terms
    15. Summary
    16. Exercises
  20. 19 Transition Metals and Coordination Chemistry
    1. Introduction
    2. 19.1 Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of Transition Metals and Their Compounds
    3. 19.2 Coordination Chemistry of Transition Metals
    4. 19.3 Spectroscopic and Magnetic Properties of Coordination Compounds
    5. Key Terms
    6. Summary
    7. Exercises
  21. 20 Organic Chemistry
    1. Introduction
    2. 20.1 Hydrocarbons
    3. 20.2 Alcohols and Ethers
    4. 20.3 Aldehydes, Ketones, Carboxylic Acids, and Esters
    5. 20.4 Amines and Amides
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. Exercises
  22. 21 Nuclear Chemistry
    1. Introduction
    2. 21.1 Nuclear Structure and Stability
    3. 21.2 Nuclear Equations
    4. 21.3 Radioactive Decay
    5. 21.4 Transmutation and Nuclear Energy
    6. 21.5 Uses of Radioisotopes
    7. 21.6 Biological Effects of Radiation
    8. Key Terms
    9. Key Equations
    10. Summary
    11. Exercises
  23. A | The Periodic Table
  24. B | Essential Mathematics
  25. C | Units and Conversion Factors
  26. D | Fundamental Physical Constants
  27. E | Water Properties
  28. F | Composition of Commercial Acids and Bases
  29. G | Standard Thermodynamic Properties for Selected Substances
  30. H | Ionization Constants of Weak Acids
  31. I | Ionization Constants of Weak Bases
  32. J | Solubility Products
  33. K | Formation Constants for Complex Ions
  34. L | Standard Electrode (Half-Cell) Potentials
  35. M | Half-Lives for Several Radioactive Isotopes
  36. Answer Key
    1. Chapter 1
    2. Chapter 2
    3. Chapter 3
    4. Chapter 4
    5. Chapter 5
    6. Chapter 6
    7. Chapter 7
    8. Chapter 8
    9. Chapter 9
    10. Chapter 10
    11. Chapter 11
    12. Chapter 12
    13. Chapter 13
    14. Chapter 14
    15. Chapter 15
    16. Chapter 16
    17. Chapter 17
    18. Chapter 18
    19. Chapter 19
    20. Chapter 20
    21. Chapter 21
  37. Index
1.

An equation is balanced when the same number of each element is represented on the reactant and product sides. Equations must be balanced to accurately reflect the law of conservation of matter.

3.

(a) PCl5(s)+H2O(l)POCl3(l)+2HCl(aq);PCl5(s)+H2O(l)POCl3(l)+2HCl(aq); (b) 3Cu(s)+8HNO3(aq)3Cu(NO3)2(aq)+4H2O(l)+2NO(g);3Cu(s)+8HNO3(aq)3Cu(NO3)2(aq)+4H2O(l)+2NO(g); (c) H2(g)+I2(s)2HI(s);H2(g)+I2(s)2HI(s); (d) 4Fe(s)+3O2(g)2Fe2O3(s);4Fe(s)+3O2(g)2Fe2O3(s); (e) 2Na(s)+2H2O(l)2NaOH(aq)+H2(g);2Na(s)+2H2O(l)2NaOH(aq)+H2(g); (f) (NH4 )2Cr2O7(s)Cr2O3(s)+N2(g)+4H2O(g);(NH4 )2Cr2O7(s)Cr2O3(s)+N2(g)+4H2O(g); (g) P4(s)+6Cl2(g)4PCl3(l);P4(s)+6Cl2(g)4PCl3(l); (h) PtCl4(s)Pt(s)+2Cl2(g)PtCl4(s)Pt(s)+2Cl2(g)

5.

(a) CaCO3(s)CaO(s)+CO2(g);CaCO3(s)CaO(s)+CO2(g); (b) 2C4H10(g)+13O2(g)8CO2(g)+10H2O(g);2C4H10(g)+13O2(g)8CO2(g)+10H2O(g); (c) MgC12(aq)+2NaOH(aq)Mg(OH)2(s)+2NaCl(aq);MgC12(aq)+2NaOH(aq)Mg(OH)2(s)+2NaCl(aq); (d) 2H2O(g)+2Na(s)2NaOH(s)+H2(g)2H2O(g)+2Na(s)2NaOH(s)+H2(g)

7.

(a) Ba(NO3)2, KClO3; (b) 2KClO3(s)2KCl(s)+3O2(g);2KClO3(s)2KCl(s)+3O2(g); (c) 2Ba(NO3)2(s)2BaO(s)+2N2(g)+5O2(g);2Ba(NO3)2(s)2BaO(s)+2N2(g)+5O2(g); (d) 2Mg(s)+O2(g)2MgO(s);2Mg(s)+O2(g)2MgO(s); 4Al(s)+3O2(g)2Al2O3(s);4Al(s)+3O2(g)2Al2O3(s); 4Fe(s)+3O2(g)2Fe2O3(s)4Fe(s)+3O2(g)2Fe2O3(s)

9.

(a) 4HF(aq)+SiO2(s)SiF4(g)+2H2O(l);4HF(aq)+SiO2(s)SiF4(g)+2H2O(l); (b) complete ionic equation: 2Na+(aq)+2F(aq)+Ca2+(aq)+2Cl(aq)CaF2(s)+2Na+(aq)+2Cl(aq),2Na+(aq)+2F(aq)+Ca2+(aq)+2Cl(aq)CaF2(s)+2Na+(aq)+2Cl(aq), net ionic equation: 2F(aq)+Ca2+(aq)CaF2(s)2F(aq)+Ca2+(aq)CaF2(s)

11.

(a) 2K+(aq)+C2O42−(aq)+Ba2+(aq)+2OH(aq)2K+(aq)+2OH(aq)+BaC2O4(s)(complete)Ba2+(aq)+C2O42−(aq)BaC2O4(s)(net)2K+(aq)+C2O42−(aq)+Ba2+(aq)+2OH(aq)2K+(aq)+2OH(aq)+BaC2O4(s)(complete)Ba2+(aq)+C2O42−(aq)BaC2O4(s)(net)
(b) Pb2+(aq)+2NO3(aq)+2H+(aq)+SO42−(aq)PbSO4(s)+2H+(aq)+2NO3(aq)(complete)Pb2+(aq)+SO42−(aq)PbSO4(s)(net)Pb2+(aq)+2NO3(aq)+2H+(aq)+SO42−(aq)PbSO4(s)+2H+(aq)+2NO3(aq)(complete)Pb2+(aq)+SO42−(aq)PbSO4(s)(net)
(c) CaCO3(s)+2H+(aq)+SO42−(aq)CaSO4(s)+CO2(g)+H2O(l)(complete)CaCO3(s)+2H+(aq)+SO42−(aq)CaSO4(s)+CO2(g)+H2O(l)(net)CaCO3(s)+2H+(aq)+SO42−(aq)CaSO4(s)+CO2(g)+H2O(l)(complete)CaCO3(s)+2H+(aq)+SO42−(aq)CaSO4(s)+CO2(g)+H2O(l)(net)

13.

(a) oxidation-reduction (addition); (b) acid-base (neutralization); (c) oxidation-reduction (combustion)

15.

It is an oxidation-reduction reaction because the oxidation state of the silver changes during the reaction.

17.

(a) H +1, P +5, O −2; (b) Al +3, H +1, O −2; (c) Se +4, O −2; (d) K +1, N +3, O −2; (e) In +3, S −2; (f) P +3, O −2

19.

(a) acid-base; (b) oxidation-reduction: Na is oxidized, H+ is reduced; (c) oxidation-reduction: Mg is oxidized, Cl2 is reduced; (d) acid-base; (e) oxidation-reduction: P3− is oxidized, O2 is reduced; (f) acid-base

21.

(a) 2HCl(g)+Ca(OH)2(s)CaCl2(s)+2H2O(l);2HCl(g)+Ca(OH)2(s)CaCl2(s)+2H2O(l); (b) Sr(OH)2(aq)+2HNO3(aq)Sr(NO3)2(aq)+2H2O(l)Sr(OH)2(aq)+2HNO3(aq)Sr(NO3)2(aq)+2H2O(l)

23.

(a) 2Al(s)+3F2(g)2AlF3(s);2Al(s)+3F2(g)2AlF3(s); (b) 2Al(s)+3CuBr2(aq)3Cu(s)+2AlBr3(aq);2Al(s)+3CuBr2(aq)3Cu(s)+2AlBr3(aq); (c) P4(s)+5O2(g)P4O10(s);P4(s)+5O2(g)P4O10(s); (d) Ca(s)+2H2O(l)Ca(OH)2(aq)+H2(g)Ca(s)+2H2O(l)Ca(OH)2(aq)+H2(g)

25.

(a) Mg(OH)2(s)+2HClO4(aq)Mg2+(aq)+2ClO4(aq)+2H2O(l);Mg(OH)2(s)+2HClO4(aq)Mg2+(aq)+2ClO4(aq)+2H2O(l); (b) SO3(g)+2H2O(l)H3O+(aq)+HSO4(aq),SO3(g)+2H2O(l)H3O+(aq)+HSO4(aq), (a solution of H2SO4); (c) SrO(s)+H2SO4(l)SrSO4(s)+H2OSrO(s)+H2SO4(l)SrSO4(s)+H2O

27.

H2(g)+F2(g)2HF(g)H2(g)+F2(g)2HF(g)

29.

2NaBr(aq)+Cl2(g)2NaCl(aq)+Br2(l)2NaBr(aq)+Cl2(g)2NaCl(aq)+Br2(l)

31.

2LiOH(aq)+CO2(g)Li2CO3(aq)+H2O(l)2LiOH(aq)+CO2(g)Li2CO3(aq)+H2O(l)

33.

(a) Ca(OH)2(s)+H2S(g)CaS(s)+2H2O(l);Ca(OH)2(s)+H2S(g)CaS(s)+2H2O(l); (b) Na2CO3(aq)+H2S(g)Na2S(aq)+CO2(g)+H2O(l)Na2CO3(aq)+H2S(g)Na2S(aq)+CO2(g)+H2O(l)

35.

(a) step 1: N2(g)+3H2(g)2NH3(g),N2(g)+3H2(g)2NH3(g), step 2: NH3(g)+HNO3(aq)NH4NO3(aq)NH4NO3(s)(after drying);NH3(g)+HNO3(aq)NH4NO3(aq)NH4NO3(s)(after drying); (b) H2(g)+Br2(l)2HBr(g);H2(g)+Br2(l)2HBr(g); (c) Zn(s)+S(s)ZnS(s)Zn(s)+S(s)ZnS(s) and ZnS(s)+2HCl(aq)ZnCl2(aq)+H2S(g)ZnS(s)+2HCl(aq)ZnCl2(aq)+H2S(g)

37.

(a) Sn4+(aq)+2eSn2+(aq),Sn4+(aq)+2eSn2+(aq), (b) [Ag(NH3)2]+(aq)+eAg(s)+2NH3(aq);[Ag(NH3)2]+(aq)+eAg(s)+2NH3(aq); (c) Hg2Cl2(s)+2e2Hg(l)+2Cl(aq);Hg2Cl2(s)+2e2Hg(l)+2Cl(aq); (d) 2H2O(l)O2(g)+4H+(aq)+4e;2H2O(l)O2(g)+4H+(aq)+4e; (e) 6H2O(l)+2IO3(aq)+10eI2(s)+12OH(aq);6H2O(l)+2IO3(aq)+10eI2(s)+12OH(aq); (f) H2O(l)+SO32−(aq)SO42−(aq)+2H+(aq)+2e;H2O(l)+SO32−(aq)SO42−(aq)+2H+(aq)+2e; (g) 8H+(aq)+MnO4(aq)+5eMn2+(aq)+4H2O(l);8H+(aq)+MnO4(aq)+5eMn2+(aq)+4H2O(l); (h) Cl(aq)+6OH(aq)ClO3(aq)+3H2O(l)+6eCl(aq)+6OH(aq)ClO3(aq)+3H2O(l)+6e

39.

(a) Sn2+(aq)+2Cu2+(aq)Sn4+(aq)+2Cu+(aq);Sn2+(aq)+2Cu2+(aq)Sn4+(aq)+2Cu+(aq); (b) H2S(g)+Hg22+(aq)+2H2O(l)2Hg(l)+S(s)+2H3O+(aq);H2S(g)+Hg22+(aq)+2H2O(l)2Hg(l)+S(s)+2H3O+(aq); (c) 5CN(aq)+2ClO2(aq)+3H2O(l)5CNO(aq)+2Cl(aq)+2H3O+(aq);5CN(aq)+2ClO2(aq)+3H2O(l)5CNO(aq)+2Cl(aq)+2H3O+(aq); (d) Fe2+(aq)+Ce4+(aq)Fe3+(aq)+Ce3+(aq);Fe2+(aq)+Ce4+(aq)Fe3+(aq)+Ce3+(aq); (e) 2HBrO(aq)+2H2O(l)2H3O+(aq)+2Br(aq)+O2(g)2HBrO(aq)+2H2O(l)2H3O+(aq)+2Br(aq)+O2(g)

41.

(a) 2MnO4(aq)+3NO2(aq)+H2O(l)2MnO2(s)+3NO3(aq)+2OH(aq);2MnO4(aq)+3NO2(aq)+H2O(l)2MnO2(s)+3NO3(aq)+2OH(aq); (b) 3MnO42−(aq)+2H2O(l)2MnO4(aq)+4OH(aq)+MnO2(s)(in base);3MnO42−(aq)+2H2O(l)2MnO4(aq)+4OH(aq)+MnO2(s)(in base); (c) Br2(l)+SO2(g)+2H2O(l)4H+(aq)+2Br(aq)+SO42−(aq)Br2(l)+SO2(g)+2H2O(l)4H+(aq)+2Br(aq)+SO42−(aq)

43.

(a) 0.435 mol Na, 0.217 mol Cl2, 15.4 g Cl2; (b) 0.005780 mol HgO, 2.890 ×× 10−3 mol O2, 9.248 ×× 10−2 g O2; (c) 8.00 mol NaNO3, 6.8 ×× 102 g NaNO3; (d) 1665 mol CO2, 73.3 kg CO2; (e) 18.86 mol CuO, 2.330 kg CuCO3; (f) 0.4580 mol C2H4Br2, 86.05 g C2H4Br2

45.

(a) 0.0686 mol Mg, 1.67 g Mg; (b) 2.701 ×× 10−3 mol O2, 0.08644 g O2; (c) 6.43 mol MgCO3, 542 g MgCO3 (d) 713 mol H2O, 12.8 kg H2O; (e) 16.31 mol BaO2, 2762 g BaO2; (f) 0.207 mol C2H4, 5.81 g C2H4

47.

(a) volume HCl solutionmol HClmol GaCl3;volume HCl solutionmol HClmol GaCl3; (b) 1.25 mol GaCl3, 2.2 ×× 102 g GaCl3

49.

(a) 5.337 ×× 1022 molecules; (b) 10.41 g Zn(CN)2

51.

SiO2+3CSiC+2CO,SiO2+3CSiC+2CO, 4.50 kg SiO2

53.

5.00 ×× 103 kg

55.

1.28 ×× 105 g CO2

57.

161.4 mL KI solution

59.

176 g TiO2

61.

The limiting reactant is Cl2.

63.

Percent yield=31%Percent yield=31%

65.

gCCl4molCCl4molCCl2F2gCCl2F2,gCCl4molCCl4molCCl2F2gCCl2F2, percent yield=48.3%percent yield=48.3%

67.

percent yield=91.3%percent yield=91.3%

69.

Convert mass of ethanol to moles of ethanol; relate the moles of ethanol to the moles of ether produced using the stoichiometry of the balanced equation. Convert moles of ether to grams; divide the actual grams of ether (determined through the density) by the theoretical mass to determine the percent yield; 87.6%

71.

The conversion needed is mol CrmolH3PO4.mol CrmolH3PO4. Then compare the amount of Cr to the amount of acid present. Cr is the limiting reactant.

73.

Na2C2O4 is the limiting reactant. percent yield = 86.56%

75.

Only four molecules can be made.

77.

This amount cannot be weighted by ordinary balances and is worthless.

79.

3.4 ×× 10−3 M H2SO4

81.

9.6 ×× 10−3 M Cl

83.

22.4%

85.

The empirical formula is BH3. The molecular formula is B2H6.

87.

49.6 mL

89.

13.64 mL

91.

0.0122 M

93.

34.99 mL KOH

95.

The empirical formula is WCl4.

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