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Chemistry 2e

Chapter 19

Chemistry 2eChapter 19
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  1. Preface
  2. 1 Essential Ideas
    1. Introduction
    2. 1.1 Chemistry in Context
    3. 1.2 Phases and Classification of Matter
    4. 1.3 Physical and Chemical Properties
    5. 1.4 Measurements
    6. 1.5 Measurement Uncertainty, Accuracy, and Precision
    7. 1.6 Mathematical Treatment of Measurement Results
    8. Key Terms
    9. Key Equations
    10. Summary
    11. Exercises
  3. 2 Atoms, Molecules, and Ions
    1. Introduction
    2. 2.1 Early Ideas in Atomic Theory
    3. 2.2 Evolution of Atomic Theory
    4. 2.3 Atomic Structure and Symbolism
    5. 2.4 Chemical Formulas
    6. 2.5 The Periodic Table
    7. 2.6 Molecular and Ionic Compounds
    8. 2.7 Chemical Nomenclature
    9. Key Terms
    10. Key Equations
    11. Summary
    12. Exercises
  4. 3 Composition of Substances and Solutions
    1. Introduction
    2. 3.1 Formula Mass and the Mole Concept
    3. 3.2 Determining Empirical and Molecular Formulas
    4. 3.3 Molarity
    5. 3.4 Other Units for Solution Concentrations
    6. Key Terms
    7. Key Equations
    8. Summary
    9. Exercises
  5. 4 Stoichiometry of Chemical Reactions
    1. Introduction
    2. 4.1 Writing and Balancing Chemical Equations
    3. 4.2 Classifying Chemical Reactions
    4. 4.3 Reaction Stoichiometry
    5. 4.4 Reaction Yields
    6. 4.5 Quantitative Chemical Analysis
    7. Key Terms
    8. Key Equations
    9. Summary
    10. Exercises
  6. 5 Thermochemistry
    1. Introduction
    2. 5.1 Energy Basics
    3. 5.2 Calorimetry
    4. 5.3 Enthalpy
    5. Key Terms
    6. Key Equations
    7. Summary
    8. Exercises
  7. 6 Electronic Structure and Periodic Properties of Elements
    1. Introduction
    2. 6.1 Electromagnetic Energy
    3. 6.2 The Bohr Model
    4. 6.3 Development of Quantum Theory
    5. 6.4 Electronic Structure of Atoms (Electron Configurations)
    6. 6.5 Periodic Variations in Element Properties
    7. Key Terms
    8. Key Equations
    9. Summary
    10. Exercises
  8. 7 Chemical Bonding and Molecular Geometry
    1. Introduction
    2. 7.1 Ionic Bonding
    3. 7.2 Covalent Bonding
    4. 7.3 Lewis Symbols and Structures
    5. 7.4 Formal Charges and Resonance
    6. 7.5 Strengths of Ionic and Covalent Bonds
    7. 7.6 Molecular Structure and Polarity
    8. Key Terms
    9. Key Equations
    10. Summary
    11. Exercises
  9. 8 Advanced Theories of Covalent Bonding
    1. Introduction
    2. 8.1 Valence Bond Theory
    3. 8.2 Hybrid Atomic Orbitals
    4. 8.3 Multiple Bonds
    5. 8.4 Molecular Orbital Theory
    6. Key Terms
    7. Key Equations
    8. Summary
    9. Exercises
  10. 9 Gases
    1. Introduction
    2. 9.1 Gas Pressure
    3. 9.2 Relating Pressure, Volume, Amount, and Temperature: The Ideal Gas Law
    4. 9.3 Stoichiometry of Gaseous Substances, Mixtures, and Reactions
    5. 9.4 Effusion and Diffusion of Gases
    6. 9.5 The Kinetic-Molecular Theory
    7. 9.6 Non-Ideal Gas Behavior
    8. Key Terms
    9. Key Equations
    10. Summary
    11. Exercises
  11. 10 Liquids and Solids
    1. Introduction
    2. 10.1 Intermolecular Forces
    3. 10.2 Properties of Liquids
    4. 10.3 Phase Transitions
    5. 10.4 Phase Diagrams
    6. 10.5 The Solid State of Matter
    7. 10.6 Lattice Structures in Crystalline Solids
    8. Key Terms
    9. Key Equations
    10. Summary
    11. Exercises
  12. 11 Solutions and Colloids
    1. Introduction
    2. 11.1 The Dissolution Process
    3. 11.2 Electrolytes
    4. 11.3 Solubility
    5. 11.4 Colligative Properties
    6. 11.5 Colloids
    7. Key Terms
    8. Key Equations
    9. Summary
    10. Exercises
  13. 12 Kinetics
    1. Introduction
    2. 12.1 Chemical Reaction Rates
    3. 12.2 Factors Affecting Reaction Rates
    4. 12.3 Rate Laws
    5. 12.4 Integrated Rate Laws
    6. 12.5 Collision Theory
    7. 12.6 Reaction Mechanisms
    8. 12.7 Catalysis
    9. Key Terms
    10. Key Equations
    11. Summary
    12. Exercises
  14. 13 Fundamental Equilibrium Concepts
    1. Introduction
    2. 13.1 Chemical Equilibria
    3. 13.2 Equilibrium Constants
    4. 13.3 Shifting Equilibria: Le Châtelier’s Principle
    5. 13.4 Equilibrium Calculations
    6. Key Terms
    7. Key Equations
    8. Summary
    9. Exercises
  15. 14 Acid-Base Equilibria
    1. Introduction
    2. 14.1 Brønsted-Lowry Acids and Bases
    3. 14.2 pH and pOH
    4. 14.3 Relative Strengths of Acids and Bases
    5. 14.4 Hydrolysis of Salts
    6. 14.5 Polyprotic Acids
    7. 14.6 Buffers
    8. 14.7 Acid-Base Titrations
    9. Key Terms
    10. Key Equations
    11. Summary
    12. Exercises
  16. 15 Equilibria of Other Reaction Classes
    1. Introduction
    2. 15.1 Precipitation and Dissolution
    3. 15.2 Lewis Acids and Bases
    4. 15.3 Coupled Equilibria
    5. Key Terms
    6. Key Equations
    7. Summary
    8. Exercises
  17. 16 Thermodynamics
    1. Introduction
    2. 16.1 Spontaneity
    3. 16.2 Entropy
    4. 16.3 The Second and Third Laws of Thermodynamics
    5. 16.4 Free Energy
    6. Key Terms
    7. Key Equations
    8. Summary
    9. Exercises
  18. 17 Electrochemistry
    1. Introduction
    2. 17.1 Review of Redox Chemistry
    3. 17.2 Galvanic Cells
    4. 17.3 Electrode and Cell Potentials
    5. 17.4 Potential, Free Energy, and Equilibrium
    6. 17.5 Batteries and Fuel Cells
    7. 17.6 Corrosion
    8. 17.7 Electrolysis
    9. Key Terms
    10. Key Equations
    11. Summary
    12. Exercises
  19. 18 Representative Metals, Metalloids, and Nonmetals
    1. Introduction
    2. 18.1 Periodicity
    3. 18.2 Occurrence and Preparation of the Representative Metals
    4. 18.3 Structure and General Properties of the Metalloids
    5. 18.4 Structure and General Properties of the Nonmetals
    6. 18.5 Occurrence, Preparation, and Compounds of Hydrogen
    7. 18.6 Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of Carbonates
    8. 18.7 Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of Nitrogen
    9. 18.8 Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of Phosphorus
    10. 18.9 Occurrence, Preparation, and Compounds of Oxygen
    11. 18.10 Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of Sulfur
    12. 18.11 Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of Halogens
    13. 18.12 Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of the Noble Gases
    14. Key Terms
    15. Summary
    16. Exercises
  20. 19 Transition Metals and Coordination Chemistry
    1. Introduction
    2. 19.1 Occurrence, Preparation, and Properties of Transition Metals and Their Compounds
    3. 19.2 Coordination Chemistry of Transition Metals
    4. 19.3 Spectroscopic and Magnetic Properties of Coordination Compounds
    5. Key Terms
    6. Summary
    7. Exercises
  21. 20 Organic Chemistry
    1. Introduction
    2. 20.1 Hydrocarbons
    3. 20.2 Alcohols and Ethers
    4. 20.3 Aldehydes, Ketones, Carboxylic Acids, and Esters
    5. 20.4 Amines and Amides
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. Exercises
  22. 21 Nuclear Chemistry
    1. Introduction
    2. 21.1 Nuclear Structure and Stability
    3. 21.2 Nuclear Equations
    4. 21.3 Radioactive Decay
    5. 21.4 Transmutation and Nuclear Energy
    6. 21.5 Uses of Radioisotopes
    7. 21.6 Biological Effects of Radiation
    8. Key Terms
    9. Key Equations
    10. Summary
    11. Exercises
  23. A | The Periodic Table
  24. B | Essential Mathematics
  25. C | Units and Conversion Factors
  26. D | Fundamental Physical Constants
  27. E | Water Properties
  28. F | Composition of Commercial Acids and Bases
  29. G | Standard Thermodynamic Properties for Selected Substances
  30. H | Ionization Constants of Weak Acids
  31. I | Ionization Constants of Weak Bases
  32. J | Solubility Products
  33. K | Formation Constants for Complex Ions
  34. L | Standard Electrode (Half-Cell) Potentials
  35. M | Half-Lives for Several Radioactive Isotopes
  36. Answer Key
    1. Chapter 1
    2. Chapter 2
    3. Chapter 3
    4. Chapter 4
    5. Chapter 5
    6. Chapter 6
    7. Chapter 7
    8. Chapter 8
    9. Chapter 9
    10. Chapter 10
    11. Chapter 11
    12. Chapter 12
    13. Chapter 13
    14. Chapter 14
    15. Chapter 15
    16. Chapter 16
    17. Chapter 17
    18. Chapter 18
    19. Chapter 19
    20. Chapter 20
    21. Chapter 21
  37. Index
1.

(a) Sc: [Ar]4s23d1; (b) Ti: [Ar]4s23d2; (c) Cr: [Ar]4s13d5; (d) Fe: [Ar]4s23d6; (e) Ru: [Kr]5s24d6

3.

(a) La: [Xe]6s25d1, La3+: [Xe]; (b) Sm: [Xe]6s24f6, Sm3+: [Xe]4f5; (c) Lu: [Xe]6s24f145d1, Lu3+: [Xe]4f14

5.

Al is used because it is the strongest reducing agent and the only option listed that can provide sufficient driving force to convert La(III) into La.

7.

Mo

9.

The CaSiO3 slag is less dense than the molten iron, so it can easily be separated. Also, the floating slag layer creates a barrier that prevents the molten iron from exposure to O2, which would oxidize the Fe back to Fe2O3.

11.

2.57%

13.

0.167 V

15.

E° = −0.6 V, E° is negative so this reduction is not spontaneous. E° = +1.1 V

17.

(a) Fe(s)+2H3O+(aq)+SO42−(aq)Fe2+(aq)+SO42−(aq)+H2(g)+2H2O(l);Fe(s)+2H3O+(aq)+SO42−(aq)Fe2+(aq)+SO42−(aq)+H2(g)+2H2O(l); (b) FeCl3(aq)+3Na+(aq)+3OH(aq)Fe(OH)3(s)+3Na+(aq)+3Cl+(aq);FeCl3(aq)+3Na+(aq)+3OH(aq)Fe(OH)3(s)+3Na+(aq)+3Cl+(aq); (c) Mn(OH)2(s)+2H3O+(aq)+2Br(aq)Mn2+(aq)+2Br(aq)+4H2O(l);Mn(OH)2(s)+2H3O+(aq)+2Br(aq)Mn2+(aq)+2Br(aq)+4H2O(l); (d) 4Cr(s)+3O2(g)2Cr2O3(s);4Cr(s)+3O2(g)2Cr2O3(s); (e) Mn2O3(s)+6H3O+(aq)+6Cl(aq)2MnCl3(s)+9H2O(l);Mn2O3(s)+6H3O+(aq)+6Cl(aq)2MnCl3(s)+9H2O(l); (f) Ti(s)+xsF2(g)TiF4(g)Ti(s)+xsF2(g)TiF4(g)

19.

(a) Cr2(SO4)3(aq)+2Zn(s)+2H3O+(aq)2Zn2+(aq)+H2(g)+2H2O(l)+2Cr2+(aq)+3SO42−(aq);Cr2(SO4)3(aq)+2Zn(s)+2H3O+(aq)2Zn2+(aq)+H2(g)+2H2O(l)+2Cr2+(aq)+3SO42−(aq); (b) 4TiCl3(s)+CrO42−(aq)+8H+(aq)4Ti4+(aq)+Cr(s)+4H2O(l)+12Cl(aq);4TiCl3(s)+CrO42−(aq)+8H+(aq)4Ti4+(aq)+Cr(s)+4H2O(l)+12Cl(aq); (c) In acid solution between pH 2 and pH 6, CrO42−CrO42− forms HCrO4,HCrO4, which is in equilibrium with dichromate ion. The reaction is 2HCrO4(aq)Cr2O72−(aq)+H2O(l).2HCrO4(aq)Cr2O72−(aq)+H2O(l). At other acidic pHs, the reaction is 3Cr2+(aq)+CrO42−(aq)+8H3O+(aq)4Cr3+(aq)+12H2O(l);3Cr2+(aq)+CrO42−(aq)+8H3O+(aq)4Cr3+(aq)+12H2O(l); (d) 8CrO3(s)+9Mn(s)Δ4Cr2O3(s)+3Mn3O4(s);8CrO3(s)+9Mn(s)Δ4Cr2O3(s)+3Mn3O4(s); (e) CrO(s)+2H3O+(aq)+2NO3(aq)Cr2+(aq)+2NO3(aq)+3H2O(l);CrO(s)+2H3O+(aq)+2NO3(aq)Cr2+(aq)+2NO3(aq)+3H2O(l); (f) CrCl3(s)+3NaOH(aq)Cr(OH)3(s)+3Na+(aq)+3Cl(aq)CrCl3(s)+3NaOH(aq)Cr(OH)3(s)+3Na+(aq)+3Cl(aq)

21.

(a) 3Fe(s)+4H2O(g)Fe3O4(s)+4H2(g);3Fe(s)+4H2O(g)Fe3O4(s)+4H2(g); (b) 3NaOH(aq)+Fe(NO3)3(aq)H2OFe(OH)3(s)+3Na+(aq)+3NO3(aq);3NaOH(aq)+Fe(NO3)3(aq)H2OFe(OH)3(s)+3Na+(aq)+3NO3(aq); (c) MnO4−+5Fe2++8H+Mn2++5Fe3+4H2O;MnO4−+5Fe2++8H+Mn2++5Fe3+4H2O; (d) Fe(s)+2H3O+(aq)+SO42−(aq)Fe2+(aq)+SO42−(aq)+H2(g)+2H2O(l);Fe(s)+2H3O+(aq)+SO42−(aq)Fe2+(aq)+SO42−(aq)+H2(g)+2H2O(l); (e) 4Fe2+(aq)+O2(g)+4HNO3(aq)4Fe3+(aq)+2H2O(l)+4NO3(aq);4Fe2+(aq)+O2(g)+4HNO3(aq)4Fe3+(aq)+2H2O(l)+4NO3(aq); (f) FeCO3(s)+2HClO4(aq)Fe(ClO4)2(aq)+H2O(l)+CO2(g);FeCO3(s)+2HClO4(aq)Fe(ClO4)2(aq)+H2O(l)+CO2(g); (g) 3Fe(s)+2O2(g)ΔFe3O4(s)3Fe(s)+2O2(g)ΔFe3O4(s)

23.

As CN is added,
Ag+(aq)+CN(aq)AgCN(s)Ag+(aq)+CN(aq)AgCN(s)
As more CN is added,
Ag+(aq)+2CN(aq)[Ag(CN)2](aq)AgCN(s)+CN(aq)[Ag(CN)2](aq)Ag+(aq)+2CN(aq)[Ag(CN)2](aq)AgCN(s)+CN(aq)[Ag(CN)2](aq)

25.

(a) Sc3+; (b) Ti4+; (c) V5+; (d) Cr6+; (e) Mn4+; (f) Fe2+ and Fe3+; (g) Co2+ and Co3+; (h) Ni2+; (i) Cu+

27.

(a) 4, [Zn(OH)4]2−; (b) 6, [Pd(CN)6]2−; (c) 2, [AuCl2]; (d) 4, [Pt(NH3)2Cl2]; (e) 6, K[Cr(NH3)2Cl4]; (f) 6, [Co(NH3)6][Cr(CN)6]; (g) 6, [Co(en)2Br2]NO3

29.

(a) [Pt(H2O)2Br2]:

Two structures are shown. At the center of each is a P t atom. The structure on the left is labeled, “cis.” From this atom, a single bond represented by a dashed wedge extends from a vertex at the P t atom up and to the right to a B r atom. Similarly, a single bond represented by a solid wedge extends from a vertex at the P t atom down and to the right to a second B r atom. Another single bond represented by a dashed wedge extends from a vertex at the P t atom up and to the left to the O atom of an H subscript 2 O group. Similarly, a single bond represented by a solid wedge extends from a vertex at the P t atom down and to the left to a second O atom of an H subscript 2 O group. The structure on the right is labeled, “trans.” From the central P t atom, a single bond represented by a dashed wedge extends from a vertex at the P t atom up and to the right to a B r atom. Similarly, a single bond represented by a solid wedge extends from a vertex at the P t atom down and to the right to the O atom of an H subscript 2 O group. Another single bond represented by a dashed wedge extends from a vertex at the P t atom up and to the left to the O atom of a second H subscript 2 O group. Similarly, a single bond represented by a solid wedge extends from a vertex at the P t atom down and to the left to a second B r atom.;


(b) [Pt(NH3)(py)(Cl)(Br)]:

Three structures are shown. At the center of each is a P t atom. From this atom in the first structure on the left, a single bond represented by a dashed wedge extends from a vertex at the P t atom up and to the right to a C l atom. Similarly, a single bond represented by a solid wedge extends from a vertex at the P t atom down and to the right to the N atom of an N H subscript 3 group. Another single bond represented by a dashed wedge extends from a vertex at the P t atom up and to the left to a B r atom. Similarly, a single bond represented by a solid wedge extends from a vertex at the P t atom down and to the left to p y. The middle structure shows a single bond represented by a dashed wedge extending from a vertex at the P t atom up and to the right to a B r atom. Similarly, a single bond represented by a solid wedge extends from a vertex at the P t atom down and to the right to the N atom of an N H subscript 3 group. Another single bond represented by a dashed wedge extends from a vertex at the P t atom up and to the left to p y. Similarly, a single bond represented by a solid wedge extends from a vertex at the P t atom down and to the left to a to a C l atom. The third structure shows a single bond represented by a dashed wedge extending from a vertex at the P t atom up and to the right to p y. Similarly, a single bond represented by a solid wedge extends from a vertex at the P t atom down and to the right to the N atom of an N H subscript 3 group. Another single bond represented by a dashed wedge extends from a vertex at the P t atom up and to the left to a C l atom. Similarly, a single bond represented by a solid wedge extends from a vertex at the P t atom down and to the left to a B r atom.;


(c) [Zn(NH3)3Cl]+ :

Inside of brackets, a central Z n atom is bonded to a C l atom and three N atoms in N H subscript 3 groups in a tetrahedral spatial arrangement. Short line segments are used to represent a bond extending above to the C l atom and down and to the left to the N of the N H subscript 3 group from the Z n atom. A dashed wedge with the vertex at the Z n atom and wide end at the N atom of an N H subscript 3 group is used to represent a bond down and to the right of the Z n atom. The final bond is indicated by a similar solid wedge again directed down and only slightly right of center beneath the Z n atom to the N of an N H subscript 3 group. Outside the brackets a superscript plus sign is shown.;


(d) [Pt(NH3)3Cl]+ :

This structure shows a single bond represented by a dashed wedge extending from a vertex at the P t atom up and to the right to the N atom of an N H subscript 3 group. Similarly, two single bonds represented by solid wedges extend from vertices at the P t atom down and to the right and down and to the left to the N atoms of N H subscript 3 groups. Another single bond represented by a dashed wedge extends from a vertex at the P t atom up and to the left to a C l atom. This structure is enclosed in brackets with superscript plus sign appearing to the right of the brackets.;


(e) [Ni(H2O)4Cl2]:

Two structures are shown. The first is labeled, “trans.” Below this label inside brackets is a central N i atom. From the N i atom, line segments indicate bonds to C l atoms above and below. Above and to both the right and left, dashed wedges with their vertex at the N i atom widening as they move out from the atom indicate bonds with O atoms of H subscript 2 O groups. Similarly, solid wedges below to both the right and left indicate bonds to the O atoms of H subscript 2 O groups. This structure is enclosed in brackets. The second structure is labeled, “cis.” Inside brackets is a central N i atom. From the N i atom, line segments indicate bonds to a C l atom above and the O atom of an H subscript 2 O group below. Above and to both the right and left, dashed wedges indicate bonds with O atoms of H subscript 2 O groups. Similarly, a solid wedge below to the right indicates a bond with a C l atom and a solid wedge to the lower left indicates a bond to the O atoms of an H subscript 2 O group. This structure is also enclosed in brackets.;


(f) [Co(C2O4)2Cl2]3−:

This figure includes three structures. The first structure includes a central C o atom that has four O atoms and two C l atoms attached with single bonds. These bonds are indicated with line segments extending above and below, dashed wedges extending up and to the left and right, and solid wedges extending below and to the left and right. C l atoms are bonded at the top and at the upper left of the structure. The remaining four bonds extend from the central C o atom to O atoms. The O atoms are each connected to C atoms which are each connected with double bonds to O atoms extending outward from the central C o atom. These C atoms are connected in pairs with bonds indicated by short line segments, forming two rings in the structure. This entire structure is enclosed in brackets. Outside the brackets to the right is a superscript 3 negative sign. The second structure, which appears to the be mirror image of the first structure, includes a central C o atom that has four O atoms and two C l atoms attached with single bonds. These bonds are indicated with line segments extending above and below, dashed wedges extending up and to the left and right, and solid wedges extending below and to the left and right. C l atoms are bonded at the top and at the upper right of the structure. The remaining four bonds extend from the central C o atom to O atoms. The O atoms are each connected to C atoms which are each connected with double bonds to O atoms extending outward from the central C o atom. These C atoms are connected in pairs with bonds indicated by short line segments, forming two rings in the structure. This entire structure is enclosed in brackets. Outside the brackets to the right is the superscript 3 negative sign. The third structure includes a central C o atom that has four O atoms and two C l atoms attached with single bonds. These bonds are indicated with line segments extending above and below, dashed wedges extending up and to the left and right, and solid wedges extending below and to the left and right. C l atoms are bonded at the top and bottom of the structure. The remaining four bonds extend from the central C o atom to the O atoms. The O atoms are each connected to C atoms which are in turn each double bonded to O atoms extending outward from the central C o atom. These C atoms are connected in pairs with bonds indicated by short line segments, forming two rings in the structure. This entire structure is enclosed in brackets. Outside the brackets, to the right, is a superscript 3 negative sign. This final structure has rings of atoms on opposite sides of the structure.
31.

(a) tricarbonatocobaltate(III) ion; (b) tetraaminecopper(II) ion; (c) tetraaminedibromocobalt(III) sulfate; (d) tetraamineplatinum(II) tetrachloroplatinate(II); (e) tris-(ethylenediamine)chromium(III) nitrate; (f) diaminedibromopalladium(II); (g) potassium pentachlorocuprate(II); (h) diaminedichlorozinc(II)

33.

(a) none; (b) none; (c) The two Cl ligands can be cis or trans. When they are cis, there will also be an optical isomer.

35.
This figure shows eight structures, each inside brackets in three rows. The first row contains three structures, the second row contains three structures, and the third row contains two structures. These structures are described in increasing order moving left to right and top to bottom in the figure. Each includes a central C o atom with line segments indicating bonds above and below the central atom. Above and to both the left and right, dashed wedges with vertices at the C o atom widening as they move out from the atom indicates single bonds. Similarly, solid wedges below and to both the left and right indicate single bonds. Outside each structure in brackets, to the right, an element or group is identified in brackets as a superscript. In the first structure, the C atom of a C N group is bonded to the C o atom. All 5 remaining bonds are with C l atoms. C N appears in brackets as a superscript outside the structure. In the second structure, the N atom of a C N group is bonded to the C o atom. All 5 remaining bonds are with C l atoms. C N appears in brackets as a superscript outside the structure. In the third structure, the C atom of two C N groups are bonded to the C o atom at the top and bottom of the structure. All 4 remaining bonds are with C l atoms. C l appears in brackets as a superscript outside the structure. In the fourth structure, the C atom of a C N groups is bonded to the C o atom at the top and the N atom of a C N group which is bonded at the bottom of the structure. All 4 remaining bonds are with C l atoms. C l appears in brackets as a superscript outside the structure. In the fifth structure, the N atom of two C N groups are bonded to the C o atom at the top and bottom of the structure. All 4 remaining bonds are with C l atoms. C l appears in brackets as a superscript outside the structure. In the sixth structure, the C atom of two C N groups are bonded to the C o atom at the top and upper right of the structure. All 4 remaining bonds are with C l atoms. C l appears in brackets as a superscript outside the structure. In the seventh structure, the C atom of a C N group is bonded to the C o atom at the top of the structure and the N atom of a C N group is bonded at the upper right of the structure. All 4 remaining bonds are with C l atoms. C l appears in brackets as a superscript outside the structure. In the eighth structure, the N atom of two C N groups are bonded to the C o atom at the top and upper right of the structure. All 4 remaining bonds are with C l atoms. C l appears in brackets as a superscript outside the structure.
37.


A diagram is shown with two columns and two rows of squares outlined in yellow. The first column is labeled “[ F e ( N O subscript 2 ) subscript 6 ] superscript 4 negative sign.” The second is labeled, “[ F e F subscript 6 ] superscript 3 negative sign.” In the left column, three linked squares outlined in yellow are shown. Each of the squares contains two half arrows, one pointing up and one pointing down. In a row just above, two empty linked squares are shown. The label, “Low spin, diamagnetic, P less than capital delta subscript oct,” is provided below the column. In the right column, three linked squares outlined in yellow are shown. The square on the left contains two half arrows, one pointing up and one pointing down. The other two squares each contain a single upward pointing half arrow. In a row just above, two linked squares are shown which each contain a single upward pointing half arrow. The label, “High spin, paramagnetic, P greater than capital delta subscript oct,” is provided below the column.
39.

[Co(H2O)6]Cl2 with three unpaired electrons.

41.

(a) 4; (b) 2; (c) 1; (d) 5; (e) 0

43.

(a) [Fe(CN)6]4−; (b) [Co(NH3)6]3+; (c) [Mn(CN)6]4−

45.

The complex does not have any unpaired electrons. The complex does not have any geometric isomers, but the mirror image is nonsuperimposable, so it has an optical isomer.

47.

No. Au+ has a complete 5d sublevel.

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