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Calculus Volume 1

Introduction

Calculus Volume 1Introduction
  1. Preface
  2. 1 Functions and Graphs
    1. Introduction
    2. 1.1 Review of Functions
    3. 1.2 Basic Classes of Functions
    4. 1.3 Trigonometric Functions
    5. 1.4 Inverse Functions
    6. 1.5 Exponential and Logarithmic Functions
    7. Chapter Review
      1. Key Terms
      2. Key Equations
      3. Key Concepts
      4. Review Exercises
  3. 2 Limits
    1. Introduction
    2. 2.1 A Preview of Calculus
    3. 2.2 The Limit of a Function
    4. 2.3 The Limit Laws
    5. 2.4 Continuity
    6. 2.5 The Precise Definition of a Limit
    7. Chapter Review
      1. Key Terms
      2. Key Equations
      3. Key Concepts
      4. Review Exercises
  4. 3 Derivatives
    1. Introduction
    2. 3.1 Defining the Derivative
    3. 3.2 The Derivative as a Function
    4. 3.3 Differentiation Rules
    5. 3.4 Derivatives as Rates of Change
    6. 3.5 Derivatives of Trigonometric Functions
    7. 3.6 The Chain Rule
    8. 3.7 Derivatives of Inverse Functions
    9. 3.8 Implicit Differentiation
    10. 3.9 Derivatives of Exponential and Logarithmic Functions
    11. Chapter Review
      1. Key Terms
      2. Key Equations
      3. Key Concepts
      4. Review Exercises
  5. 4 Applications of Derivatives
    1. Introduction
    2. 4.1 Related Rates
    3. 4.2 Linear Approximations and Differentials
    4. 4.3 Maxima and Minima
    5. 4.4 The Mean Value Theorem
    6. 4.5 Derivatives and the Shape of a Graph
    7. 4.6 Limits at Infinity and Asymptotes
    8. 4.7 Applied Optimization Problems
    9. 4.8 L’Hôpital’s Rule
    10. 4.9 Newton’s Method
    11. 4.10 Antiderivatives
    12. Chapter Review
      1. Key Terms
      2. Key Equations
      3. Key Concepts
      4. Review Exercises
  6. 5 Integration
    1. Introduction
    2. 5.1 Approximating Areas
    3. 5.2 The Definite Integral
    4. 5.3 The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus
    5. 5.4 Integration Formulas and the Net Change Theorem
    6. 5.5 Substitution
    7. 5.6 Integrals Involving Exponential and Logarithmic Functions
    8. 5.7 Integrals Resulting in Inverse Trigonometric Functions
    9. Chapter Review
      1. Key Terms
      2. Key Equations
      3. Key Concepts
      4. Review Exercises
  7. 6 Applications of Integration
    1. Introduction
    2. 6.1 Areas between Curves
    3. 6.2 Determining Volumes by Slicing
    4. 6.3 Volumes of Revolution: Cylindrical Shells
    5. 6.4 Arc Length of a Curve and Surface Area
    6. 6.5 Physical Applications
    7. 6.6 Moments and Centers of Mass
    8. 6.7 Integrals, Exponential Functions, and Logarithms
    9. 6.8 Exponential Growth and Decay
    10. 6.9 Calculus of the Hyperbolic Functions
    11. Chapter Review
      1. Key Terms
      2. Key Equations
      3. Key Concepts
      4. Review Exercises
  8. A | Table of Integrals
  9. B | Table of Derivatives
  10. C | Review of Pre-Calculus
  11. Answer Key
    1. Chapter 1
    2. Chapter 2
    3. Chapter 3
    4. Chapter 4
    5. Chapter 5
    6. Chapter 6
  12. Index
A photo of a rocket lifting off.
Figure 4.1 As a rocket is being launched, at what rate should the angle of a video camera change to continue viewing the rocket? (credit: modification of work by Steve Jurvetson, Wikimedia Commons)

A rocket is being launched from the ground and cameras are recording the event. A video camera is located on the ground a certain distance from the launch pad. At what rate should the angle of inclination (the angle the camera makes with the ground) change to allow the camera to record the flight of the rocket as it heads upward? (See Example 4.3.)

A rocket launch involves two related quantities that change over time. Being able to solve this type of problem is just one application of derivatives introduced in this chapter. We also look at how derivatives are used to find maximum and minimum values of functions. As a result, we will be able to solve applied optimization problems, such as maximizing revenue and minimizing surface area. In addition, we examine how derivatives are used to evaluate complicated limits, to approximate roots of functions, and to provide accurate graphs of functions.

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