Skip to ContentGo to accessibility page
OpenStax Logo
  1. Preface
  2. 1 Why Ethics Matter
    1. Introduction
    2. 1.1 Being a Professional of Integrity
    3. 1.2 Ethics and Profitability
    4. 1.3 Multiple versus Single Ethical Standards
    5. Key Terms
    6. Summary
    7. Assessment Questions
    8. Endnotes
  3. 2 Ethics from Antiquity to the Present
    1. Introduction
    2. 2.1 The Concept of Ethical Business in Ancient Athens
    3. 2.2 Ethical Advice for Nobles and Civil Servants in Ancient China
    4. 2.3 Comparing the Virtue Ethics of East and West
    5. 2.4 Utilitarianism: The Greatest Good for the Greatest Number
    6. 2.5 Deontology: Ethics as Duty
    7. 2.6 A Theory of Justice
    8. Key Terms
    9. Summary
    10. Assessment Questions
    11. Endnotes
  4. 3 Defining and Prioritizing Stakeholders
    1. Introduction
    2. 3.1 Adopting a Stakeholder Orientation
    3. 3.2 Weighing Stakeholder Claims
    4. 3.3 Ethical Decision-Making and Prioritizing Stakeholders
    5. 3.4 Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. Assessment Questions
    9. Endnotes
  5. 4 Three Special Stakeholders: Society, the Environment, and Government
    1. Introduction
    2. 4.1 Corporate Law and Corporate Responsibility
    3. 4.2 Sustainability: Business and the Environment
    4. 4.3 Government and the Private Sector
    5. Key Terms
    6. Summary
    7. Assessment Questions
    8. Endnotes
  6. 5 The Impact of Culture and Time on Business Ethics
    1. Introduction
    2. 5.1 The Relationship between Business Ethics and Culture
    3. 5.2 Business Ethics over Time
    4. 5.3 The Influence of Geography and Religion
    5. 5.4 Are the Values Central to Business Ethics Universal?
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. Assessment Questions
    9. Endnotes
  7. 6 What Employers Owe Employees
    1. Introduction
    2. 6.1 The Workplace Environment and Working Conditions
    3. 6.2 What Constitutes a Fair Wage?
    4. 6.3 An Organized Workforce
    5. 6.4 Privacy in the Workplace
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. Assessment Questions
    9. Endnotes
  8. 7 What Employees Owe Employers
    1. Introduction
    2. 7.1 Loyalty to the Company
    3. 7.2 Loyalty to the Brand and to Customers
    4. 7.3 Contributing to a Positive Work Atmosphere
    5. 7.4 Financial Integrity
    6. 7.5 Criticism of the Company and Whistleblowing
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Assessment Questions
    10. Endnotes
  9. 8 Recognizing and Respecting the Rights of All
    1. Introduction
    2. 8.1 Diversity and Inclusion in the Workforce
    3. 8.2 Accommodating Different Abilities and Faiths
    4. 8.3 Sexual Identification and Orientation
    5. 8.4 Income Inequalities
    6. 8.5 Animal Rights and the Implications for Business
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Assessment Questions
    10. Endnotes
  10. 9 Professions under the Microscope
    1. Introduction
    2. 9.1 Entrepreneurship and Start-Up Culture
    3. 9.2 The Influence of Advertising
    4. 9.3 The Insurance Industry
    5. 9.4 Ethical Issues in the Provision of Health Care
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. Assessment Questions
    9. Endnotes
  11. 10 Changing Work Environments and Future Trends
    1. Introduction
    2. 10.1 More Telecommuting or Less?
    3. 10.2 Workplace Campuses
    4. 10.3 Alternatives to Traditional Patterns of Work
    5. 10.4 Robotics, Artificial Intelligence, and the Workplace of the Future
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. Assessment Questions
    9. Endnotes
  12. 11 Epilogue: Why Ethics Still Matter
    1. Introduction
    2. 11.1 Business Ethics in an Evolving Environment
    3. 11.2 Committing to an Ethical View
    4. 11.3 Becoming an Ethical Professional
    5. 11.4 Making a Difference in the Business World
    6. Endnotes
  13. A | The Lives of Ethical Philosophers
  14. B | Profiles in Business Ethics: Contemporary Thought Leaders
  15. C | A Succinct Theory of Business Ethics
  16. Answer Key
    1. Chapter 1
    2. Chapter 2
    3. Chapter 3
    4. Chapter 4
    5. Chapter 5
    6. Chapter 6
    7. Chapter 7
    8. Chapter 8
    9. Chapter 9
    10. Chapter 10
    11. Chapter 11
  17. Index
1.2020 Women on Boards, “2020 Gender Diversity Index Key Findings,” 2016. https://www.2020wob.com/companies/2020-gender-diversity-index (accessed January 5, 2018).
2.Valentina Zarya, “The Percentage of Female CEOs in the Fortune 500 Drops to 4%,” Fortune, June 6, 2016. http://fortune.com/2016/06/06/women-ceos-fortune-500-2016/.
3.Elizabeth Olsen, “Study Finds Only Modest Gains by Women and Minorities on Fortune 500 Boards,” New York Times, February 5, 2017. https://www.nytimes.com/2017/02/05/business/dealbook/fortune-500-board-directors-diversity.html.
4.R.G. Ehrenberg and G.H. Jacubson, “Why WARN? The Impact of Recent Plant-Closing and Layoff Prenotification Legislation in the United States [electronic version]” in Employment Security and Labor Market Behavior, ed. C. Buechtemann. (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1993: 200–214).
5.Occupational Safety and Health Act, 29 U.S.C. §651 et seq. (1970)
6.Occupational Safety and Health Act, 29 U.S.C. §651 et seq. (1970)
7.Occupational Safety & Health Administration, “Top Enforcement Cases Based on Total Issued Penalty,” U.S. Department of Labor. https://www.osha.gov/dep/enforcement/top_cases.html (accessed January 5, 2018).
8.Occupational Safety & Health Administration, “Top Enforcement Cases Based on Total Issued Penalty,” U.S. Department of Labor. https://www.osha.gov/dep/enforcement/top_cases.html (accessed January 5, 2018).
9.Occupational Safety & Health Administration, “Top Enforcement Cases Based on Total Issued Penalty,” U.S. Department of Labor. https://www.osha.gov/dep/enforcement/top_cases.html (accessed January 5, 2018).
10.U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, “Statistics.” https://www.eeoc.gov/eeoc/statistics/ (accessed April 22, 2018).
11.Civil Rights Act, § 7, 42 U.S.C. § 2000e et seq. (1964).
12.U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, “Sexual harassment.” https://www1.eeoc.gov//laws/types/sexual_harassment.cfm?renderforprint=1 (accessed July 11, 2018).
13.Jeffrey Dastin, “American Apparel Names New CEO, Officially Ousts Founder,” Reuters, December 16, 2014. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-american-apparel-managementchanges-idUSKBN0JU2J220141216; Julie Carrie Wong, “Uber CEO Travis Kalanick Resigns Following Months of Chaos,” The Guardian, June 21, 2017. https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2017/jun/20/uber-ceo-travis-kalanick-resigns.
14.Susan Chira and Catrin Einhorn, “How Tough Is It to Change a Culture of Harassment? Ask Women at Ford,” New York Times, December 19, 2017. https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2017/12/19/us/ford-chicago-sexual-harassment.html.
15.Susan Chira and Catrin Einhorn, How Tough Is It to Change a Culture of Harassment? Ask Women at Ford,” New York Times, December 19, 2017. https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2017/12/19/us/ford-chicago-sexual-harassment.html.
16.Barry Moltz, “Seven Secrets to Keeping Your Employees Happy,” American Express Small Business, August 24, 2017. https://www.americanexpress.com/us/small-business/openforum/articles/7-secrets-to-keeping-your-employees-happy/.
17.David Z. Morris, “New French Law Bars Work Email After Hours,” Fortune, January 1, 2017. http://fortune.com/2017/01/01/french-right-to-disconnect-law/.
18.Stephen Miller, “Millennials in the Dark About Their Benefits,” SHRM.org, October 25, 2016. https://www.shrm.org/resourcesandtools/hr-topics/benefits/pages/millennials-benefits.
19.Investopedia, “Top Ten Reasons to Work at Google,” Investopedia. https://www.investopedia.com/articles/investing/060315/top-10-reasons-work-google.asp.
20.Sohrab Kohli and Rob Levy, “Employee Financial Health: How Companies Can Invest in Workplace Wellness,” Center for Financial Service Information, May 30, 2017. http://cfsinnovation.org/research/employee-financial-health/.
21.Drew Desilver, “For Most Workers, Real Wages Have Barely Budged for Decades,” Pew Research Center, October 9, 2014. http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2014/10/09/for-most-workers-real-wages-have-barely-budged-for-decades/.
22.Lawrence Mishel, Elise Gould, and Josh Bivens, “Wage Stagnation in Nine Charts,” Economic Policy Institute, January 6, 2015. http://www.epi.org/publication/charting-wage-stagnation/.
23.Lawrence Mishel, Elise Gould, and Josh Bivens, “Wage Stagnation in Nine Charts,” Economic Policy Institute, January 6, 2015. http://www.epi.org/publication/charting-wage-stagnation/.
24.Ariane Hegewisch and Angela Edwards, “The Gender Wage Gap: 2011,” Institute for Women’s Policy Research, September 2012. https://iwpr.org/publications/the-gender-wage-gap-2011/ (accessed July 12, 2018).
25.The Republic, “The Gender Wage Gap in 6 Charts,” azcentral.com, April 6, 2017. https://www.azcentral.com/story/money/business/economy/2017/04/06/gender-wage-gap-6-charts/100122100/.
26.Kurt Stanberry and Forrest Aven, “Unequal pay for equal work. Why women still lag behind after the 50th anniversary of the U.S. Equal Pay Act,” Compensation and Benefits Review Journal, 45, no. 4, (2013): 193–199.
27.Kevin Miller, “The Simple Truth about the Gender Pay Gap,” American Association of University Women. https://www.aauw.org/research/the-simple-truth-about-the-gender-pay-gap/ (accessed April 23, 2018).
28.Kurt Stanberry and Forrest Aven, “Unequal pay for equal work. Why women still lag behind after the 50th anniversary of the U.S. Equal Pay Act,” Compensation and Benefits Review Journal, 45, no. 4 (2013): 193–199.
29.George Mason University, “Study Reveals the Secrets to Negotiating a Higher Salary,” October 20, 2010. https://eagle.gmu.edu/newsroom/843/.
30.Laura Lyons Cole, “Iceland’s New Law Aimed at Eliminating the gender pay gap places the Country in Stark Contrast to the United States,” Business Insider, January 4, 2018. http://www.businessinsider.com/iceland-gender-pay-gap-law-2018-1.
31.Laura Lyons Cole, “Iceland’s New Law Aimed at Eliminating the Gender Pay Gap Places the Country in Stark Contrast to the United States,” Business Insider, January 4, 2018. http://www.businessinsider.com/iceland-gender-pay-gap-law-2018-1.
32.Liz Alderman, “Britain Aims to Close Gender Pay Gap with Transparency and Shame,” New York Times, April 4, 2018. https://www.nytimes.com/2018/04/04/business/britain-gender-pay-gap.html.
33.“The Gender Pay Gap,” The Economist, October 7, 2017. https://www.economist.com/news/international/21729993-women-still-earn-lot-less-men-despite-decades-equal-pay-laws-why-gender.
34.Lauren Lyons Cole, “Iceland’s New Law Aimed at Eliminating the Gender Pay Gap Places the Country in Stark Contrast to the US,” Business Insider, January 4, 2018. http://uk.businessinsider.com/iceland-gender-pay-gap-law-2018-1?IR=T&r=US
35.Jena McGregor, “Will Bans on Asking about Salary History Work?” Houston Chronicle, November 19, 2017. http://digital.olivesoftware.com/Olive/ODN/HoustonChronicle/shared/ShowArticle.aspx?doc=HHC%2F2017%2F11%2F19&entity=Ar04514&sk=921F5F6D&mode=text.
36.“Korn Ferry Executive Survey: New Laws Forbidding Questions on Salary History Likely Changes the Game for Most Employers,” Korn Ferry, November 14, 2017. https://www.kornferry.com/press/korn-ferry-executive-survey-new-laws-forbidding-questions-on-salary-history-likely-changes-the-game-for-most-employers/ (accessed January 25, 2018).
37.Peter Georgescu, “What Are We Waiting For?” Forbes, January 24, 2018. https://www.forbes.com/sites/petergeorgescu/2018/01/24/what-are-we-waiting-for/#6d32c7c556e3.
38.Michael Wheeler,“3 years Ago, This Boss Set a $70,000 Minimum Wage for his Employees—and the Move Is Still Paying Off,” CNBC, August 29, 2017. https://www.cnbc.com/2017/08/29/this-boss-set-a-70000-minimum-wage-for-his-employees-3-years-ago.html.
39.Michael Wheeler, “3 years Ago, This Boss Set a $70,000 Minimum Wage for his Employees—and the Move Is Still Paying Off,” CNBC, August 29, 2017. https://www.cnbc.com/2017/08/29/this-boss-set-a-70000-minimum-wage-for-his-employees-3-years-ago.html.
40.Deep Patel, “Can This Shark Tank Company Take on an Industry Working a Five-Hour Day?” Huffington Post, June 3, 2016. https://www.huffingtonpost.com/deep-patel/can-this-shark-tank-compa_b_10243974.html.
41.U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, “Union Members Summary.” https://www.bls.gov/news.release/union2.nr0.htm (accessed January 5, 2018).
42.Ewan McGaughey, “The Codetermination Bargains: The History of German Corporate and Labor Law,” Columbia Journal of European Law, 23, no. 1 (2016); LSE Legal Studies Working Paper No. 10/2015. https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2579932.
43.“Trade Union Membership Compared,” Nationmaster. http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/stats/Labor/Trade-union-membership#country (accessed July 12, 2018).
44.Michael Haberman, Why Unions Are Bad For Companies, Employees and Customers,” Omega, June 25, 2009. http://omegahrsolutions.com/2009/06/why-unions-are-bad-for-companies-employees-and-customers.html.
45.“The Productivity–Pay Gap,” Economic Policy Institute. https://www.epi.org/productivity-pay-gap/ (accessed April 22, 2018).
46.David Johnson, “These are the Most Productive Countries in the World,” Time, January 4, 2017.
47.Paul Hodgson, “Top CEOs Make More Than 300 Times the Average Worker,” Fortune, June 22, 2015. http://fortune.com/2015/06/22/ceo-vs-worker-pay/.
48.Steve McDonnell, “CEO Compensation in the US vs. the World,” Houston Chronicle. http://work.chron.com/ceo-compensation-vs-world-15509.html (accessed January 15, 2018).
49.“Managing Workplace Monitoring and Surveillance,” SHRM.org, February 18, 2016. https://www.shrm.org/resourcesandtools/tools-and-samples/toolkits/pages/workplaceprivacy.aspx (accessed January 15, 2018).
50.Electronic Communications Privacy Act, 18 U.S.C. §2511 et seq. (1986).
51.Another Evil HR Director, “Privacy in the Workplace,” HRInConfidence, June 13, 2013. http://www.hrinconfidence.com/2013_06_01_archive.html
52.Ontario v. Quon, 560 U.S. 746 (2010).
53.Legal Information Institute, “Expectation of Privacy,” Cornell Law School. https://www.law.cornell.edu/wex/expectation_of_privacy (accessed April 22, 2018).
54.Mark Rothstein, “Workplace Drug Testing: A Case Study in the Misapplication of Technology,” Harvard Journal of Law and Technology 5, Fall (1991): 65–93.
Order a print copy

As an Amazon Associate we earn from qualifying purchases.

Citation/Attribution

Want to cite, share, or modify this book? This book is Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 and you must attribute OpenStax.

Attribution information
  • If you are redistributing all or part of this book in a print format, then you must include on every physical page the following attribution:
    Access for free at https://openstax.org/books/business-ethics/pages/1-introduction
  • If you are redistributing all or part of this book in a digital format, then you must include on every digital page view the following attribution:
    Access for free at https://openstax.org/books/business-ethics/pages/1-introduction
Citation information

© Jun 21, 2021 OpenStax. Textbook content produced by OpenStax is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 license. The OpenStax name, OpenStax logo, OpenStax book covers, OpenStax CNX name, and OpenStax CNX logo are not subject to the Creative Commons license and may not be reproduced without the prior and express written consent of Rice University.