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Biology for AP® Courses

Critical Thinking Questions

Biology for AP® CoursesCritical Thinking Questions
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  1. Preface
  2. Unit 1
    1. 1 The Study of Life
      1. Introduction
      2. 1.1 The Science of Biology
      3. 1.2 Themes and Concepts of Biology
      4. Key Terms
      5. Chapter Summary
      6. Review Questions
      7. Critical Thinking Questions
      8. Test Prep for AP® Courses
    2. 2 The Chemical Foundation of Life
      1. Introduction
      2. 2.1 Atoms, Isotopes, Ions, and Molecules: The Building Blocks
      3. 2.2 Water
      4. 2.3 Carbon
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 3 Biological Macromolecules
      1. Introduction
      2. 3.1 Synthesis of Biological Macromolecules
      3. 3.2 Carbohydrates
      4. 3.3 Lipids
      5. 3.4 Proteins
      6. 3.5 Nucleic Acids
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  3. Unit 2
    1. 4 Cell Structure
      1. Introduction
      2. 4.1 Studying Cells
      3. 4.2 Prokaryotic Cells
      4. 4.3 Eukaryotic Cells
      5. 4.4 The Endomembrane System and Proteins
      6. 4.5 Cytoskeleton
      7. 4.6 Connections between Cells and Cellular Activities
      8. Key Terms
      9. Chapter Summary
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
      12. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      13. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    2. 5 Structure and Function of Plasma Membranes
      1. Introduction
      2. 5.1 Components and Structure
      3. 5.2 Passive Transport
      4. 5.3 Active Transport
      5. 5.4 Bulk Transport
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 6 Metabolism
      1. Introduction
      2. 6.1 Energy and Metabolism
      3. 6.2 Potential, Kinetic, Free, and Activation Energy
      4. 6.3 The Laws of Thermodynamics
      5. 6.4 ATP: Adenosine Triphosphate
      6. 6.5 Enzymes
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    4. 7 Cellular Respiration
      1. Introduction
      2. 7.1 Energy in Living Systems
      3. 7.2 Glycolysis
      4. 7.3 Oxidation of Pyruvate and the Citric Acid Cycle
      5. 7.4 Oxidative Phosphorylation
      6. 7.5 Metabolism without Oxygen
      7. 7.6 Connections of Carbohydrate, Protein, and Lipid Metabolic Pathways
      8. 7.7 Regulation of Cellular Respiration
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Summary
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
      13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      14. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    5. 8 Photosynthesis
      1. Introduction
      2. 8.1 Overview of Photosynthesis
      3. 8.2 The Light-Dependent Reaction of Photosynthesis
      4. 8.3 Using Light to Make Organic Molecules
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    6. 9 Cell Communication
      1. Introduction
      2. 9.1 Signaling Molecules and Cellular Receptors
      3. 9.2 Propagation of the Signal
      4. 9.3 Response to the Signal
      5. 9.4 Signaling in Single-Celled Organisms
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    7. 10 Cell Reproduction
      1. Introduction
      2. 10.1 Cell Division
      3. 10.2 The Cell Cycle
      4. 10.3 Control of the Cell Cycle
      5. 10.4 Cancer and the Cell Cycle
      6. 10.5 Prokaryotic Cell Division
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  4. Unit 3
    1. 11 Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction
      1. Introduction
      2. 11.1 The Process of Meiosis
      3. 11.2 Sexual Reproduction
      4. Key Terms
      5. Chapter Summary
      6. Review Questions
      7. Critical Thinking Questions
      8. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      9. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    2. 12 Mendel's Experiments and Heredity
      1. Introduction
      2. 12.1 Mendel’s Experiments and the Laws of Probability
      3. 12.2 Characteristics and Traits
      4. 12.3 Laws of Inheritance
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 13 Modern Understandings of Inheritance
      1. Introduction
      2. 13.1 Chromosomal Theory and Genetic Linkages
      3. 13.2 Chromosomal Basis of Inherited Disorders
      4. Key Terms
      5. Chapter Summary
      6. Review Questions
      7. Critical Thinking Questions
      8. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      9. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    4. 14 DNA Structure and Function
      1. Introduction
      2. 14.1 Historical Basis of Modern Understanding
      3. 14.2 DNA Structure and Sequencing
      4. 14.3 Basics of DNA Replication
      5. 14.4 DNA Replication in Prokaryotes
      6. 14.5 DNA Replication in Eukaryotes
      7. 14.6 DNA Repair
      8. Key Terms
      9. Chapter Summary
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
      12. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      13. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    5. 15 Genes and Proteins
      1. Introduction
      2. 15.1 The Genetic Code
      3. 15.2 Prokaryotic Transcription
      4. 15.3 Eukaryotic Transcription
      5. 15.4 RNA Processing in Eukaryotes
      6. 15.5 Ribosomes and Protein Synthesis
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    6. 16 Gene Regulation
      1. Introduction
      2. 16.1 Regulation of Gene Expression
      3. 16.2 Prokaryotic Gene Regulation
      4. 16.3 Eukaryotic Epigenetic Gene Regulation
      5. 16.4 Eukaryotic Transcriptional Gene Regulation
      6. 16.5 Eukaryotic Post-transcriptional Gene Regulation
      7. 16.6 Eukaryotic Translational and Post-translational Gene Regulation
      8. 16.7 Cancer and Gene Regulation
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Summary
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
      13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      14. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    7. 17 Biotechnology and Genomics
      1. Introduction
      2. 17.1 Biotechnology
      3. 17.2 Mapping Genomes
      4. 17.3 Whole-Genome Sequencing
      5. 17.4 Applying Genomics
      6. 17.5 Genomics and Proteomics
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  5. Unit 4
    1. 18 Evolution and Origin of Species
      1. Introduction
      2. 18.1 Understanding Evolution
      3. 18.2 Formation of New Species
      4. 18.3 Reconnection and Rates of Speciation
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    2. 19 The Evolution of Populations
      1. Introduction
      2. 19.1 Population Evolution
      3. 19.2 Population Genetics
      4. 19.3 Adaptive Evolution
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 20 Phylogenies and the History of Life
      1. Introduction
      2. 20.1 Organizing Life on Earth
      3. 20.2 Determining Evolutionary Relationships
      4. 20.3 Perspectives on the Phylogenetic Tree
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  6. Unit 5
    1. 21 Viruses
      1. Introduction
      2. 21.1 Viral Evolution, Morphology, and Classification
      3. 21.2 Virus Infection and Hosts
      4. 21.3 Prevention and Treatment of Viral Infections
      5. 21.4 Other Acellular Entities: Prions and Viroids
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    2. 22 Prokaryotes: Bacteria and Archaea
      1. Introduction
      2. 22.1 Prokaryotic Diversity
      3. 22.2 Structure of Prokaryotes
      4. 22.3 Prokaryotic Metabolism
      5. 22.4 Bacterial Diseases in Humans
      6. 22.5 Beneficial Prokaryotes
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  7. Unit 6
    1. 23 Plant Form and Physiology
      1. Introduction
      2. 23.1 The Plant Body
      3. 23.2 Stems
      4. 23.3 Roots
      5. 23.4 Leaves
      6. 23.5 Transport of Water and Solutes in Plants
      7. 23.6 Plant Sensory Systems and Responses
      8. Key Terms
      9. Chapter Summary
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
      12. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      13. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  8. Unit 7
    1. 24 The Animal Body: Basic Form and Function
      1. Introduction
      2. 24.1 Animal Form and Function
      3. 24.2 Animal Primary Tissues
      4. 24.3 Homeostasis
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
    2. 25 Animal Nutrition and the Digestive System
      1. Introduction
      2. 25.1 Digestive Systems
      3. 25.2 Nutrition and Energy Production
      4. 25.3 Digestive System Processes
      5. 25.4 Digestive System Regulation
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 26 The Nervous System
      1. Introduction
      2. 26.1 Neurons and Glial Cells
      3. 26.2 How Neurons Communicate
      4. 26.3 The Central Nervous System
      5. 26.4 The Peripheral Nervous System
      6. 26.5 Nervous System Disorders
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    4. 27 Sensory Systems
      1. Introduction
      2. 27.1 Sensory Processes
      3. 27.2 Somatosensation
      4. 27.3 Taste and Smell
      5. 27.4 Hearing and Vestibular Sensation
      6. 27.5 Vision
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    5. 28 The Endocrine System
      1. Introduction
      2. 28.1 Types of Hormones
      3. 28.2 How Hormones Work
      4. 28.3 Regulation of Body Processes
      5. 28.4 Regulation of Hormone Production
      6. 28.5 Endocrine Glands
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    6. 29 The Musculoskeletal System
      1. Introduction
      2. 29.1 Types of Skeletal Systems
      3. 29.2 Bone
      4. 29.3 Joints and Skeletal Movement
      5. 29.4 Muscle Contraction and Locomotion
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    7. 30 The Respiratory System
      1. Introduction
      2. 30.1 Systems of Gas Exchange
      3. 30.2 Gas Exchange across Respiratory Surfaces
      4. 30.3 Breathing
      5. 30.4 Transport of Gases in Human Bodily Fluids
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    8. 31 The Circulatory System
      1. Introduction
      2. 31.1 Overview of the Circulatory System
      3. 31.2 Components of the Blood
      4. 31.3 Mammalian Heart and Blood Vessels
      5. 31.4 Blood Flow and Blood Pressure Regulation
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    9. 32 Osmotic Regulation and Excretion
      1. Introduction
      2. 32.1 Osmoregulation and Osmotic Balance
      3. 32.2 The Kidneys and Osmoregulatory Organs
      4. 32.3 Excretion Systems
      5. 32.4 Nitrogenous Wastes
      6. 32.5 Hormonal Control of Osmoregulatory Functions
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
    10. 33 The Immune System
      1. Introduction
      2. 33.1 Innate Immune Response
      3. 33.2 Adaptive Immune Response
      4. 33.3 Antibodies
      5. 33.4 Disruptions in the Immune System
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    11. 34 Animal Reproduction and Development
      1. Introduction
      2. 34.1 Reproduction Methods
      3. 34.2 Fertilization
      4. 34.3 Human Reproductive Anatomy and Gametogenesis
      5. 34.4 Hormonal Control of Human Reproduction
      6. 34.5 Fertilization and Early Embryonic Development
      7. 34.6 Organogenesis and Vertebrate Formation
      8. 34.7 Human Pregnancy and Birth
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Summary
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
      13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      14. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  9. Unit 8
    1. 35 Ecology and the Biosphere
      1. Introduction
      2. 35.1 The Scope of Ecology
      3. 35.2 Biogeography
      4. 35.3 Terrestrial Biomes
      5. 35.4 Aquatic Biomes
      6. 35.5 Climate and the Effects of Global Climate Change
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    2. 36 Population and Community Ecology
      1. Introduction
      2. 36.1 Population Demography
      3. 36.2 Life Histories and Natural Selection
      4. 36.3 Environmental Limits to Population Growth
      5. 36.4 Population Dynamics and Regulation
      6. 36.5 Human Population Growth
      7. 36.6 Community Ecology
      8. 36.7 Behavioral Biology: Proximate and Ultimate Causes of Behavior
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Summary
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
      13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      14. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 37 Ecosystems
      1. Introduction
      2. 37.1 Ecology for Ecosystems
      3. 37.2 Energy Flow through Ecosystems
      4. 37.3 Biogeochemical Cycles
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    4. 38 Conservation Biology and Biodiversity
      1. Introduction
      2. 38.1 The Biodiversity Crisis
      3. 38.2 The Importance of Biodiversity to Human Life
      4. 38.3 Threats to Biodiversity
      5. 38.4 Preserving Biodiversity
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  10. A | The Periodic Table of Elements
  11. B | Geological Time
  12. C | Measurements and the Metric System
  13. Index
29.
Describe the connection between anabolic and catabolic chemical reactions in a metabolic pathway.
  1. Catabolic reactions produce energy and simpler compounds, whereas anabolic reactions involve the use of energy to make more complex compounds.
  2. Catabolic reactions produce energy and complex compounds are formed, whereas in anabolic reactions free energy is utilized by complex compounds to make simpler molecules.
  3. Catabolic reactions utilize energy and gives simpler compounds, whereas in anabolic reactions reactions, energy is produced and simpler compounds are used to make complex molecules.
  4. Catabolic reactions produce energy and water molecules, whereas in anabolic reactions this free energy is utilized by simpler compounds to make only proteins and nucleic acids.
30.
Does physical exercise involve anabolic processes, catabolic processes, or both? Give evidence for your answer.
  1. Physical exercise involves both catabolic and anabolic processes. Glucose is broken down into simpler compounds during physical activity. The simpler compounds are then used to provide energy to the muscles for contraction by the anabolic pathway.
  2. Physical exercise is just a catabolic process. Glucose is broken down into simpler compounds during physical activity and the simpler compounds are then used to provide energy to the muscles for contraction.
  3. Physical activity involves only anabolic processes. Glucose is broken down into simpler compounds during physical activity and the simpler compounds are then used to provide energy to the muscles for contraction by anabolic pathways.
  4. Physical exercise involves both anabolic and catabolic processes. Cellulose is broken down into simpler compounds during physical activity. The simpler compounds are then used to provide energy to the muscles for contraction by anabolic pathways.
31.
How do chemical reactions play a role in energy transfer?
  1. Energy from the breakdown of glucose and other molecules in animals is released as ATP, which transfer energy to other reactions.
  2. Energy from the breakdown of glucose and other molecules in animals is released in the form of NADP, which transfers energy to other reactions.
  3. Energy is released in the form of glucose from the breakdown of ATP molecules. These ATP molecules transfer energy from one reaction to other.
  4. Energy is released in the form of water from the breakdown of glucose. These molecules transfer energy from one reaction to other.
32.
Name two different cellular functions that require energy.
  1. Phagocytosis helps amoebae take up nutrients and pseudopodia help the amoebae move.
  2. Phagocytosis allows amoebae to move and pseudopodia help in the uptake of nutrients.
  3. Phagocytosis helps amoebae to take up nutrients and cilia help amoebae move.
  4. Phagocytosis helps amoebae in cell division and pseudopodia help amoebae move.
33.
Explain the conversion of energy that takes place when the sluice of a dam is opened.
  1. Potential energy stored in the water held by the dam will convert to kinetic energy when it falls through the opening of the sluice.
  2. Kinetic energy stored in the water held by the dam will convert to potential energy when it falls through the opening of the sluice.
  3. Potential energy stored in the water held by the dam will convert to electrical energy, when it falls through the opening of the sluice.
  4. Hydrothermal energy stored in the water held by the dam will convert to kinetic energy, when it falls through the opening of the sluice.
34.
Explain in your own words the difference between a spontaneous reaction and one that occurs instantaneously.
  1. A spontaneous reaction is one which releases free energy and moves to a more stable state. Instantaneous reactions occur rapidly with sudden release of energy.
  2. A spontaneous reaction is one which utilizes free energy and moves to a more stable state. Instantaneous reactions occur rapidly with sudden release of energy.
  3. A spontaneous reaction is one which releases free energy and moves to a more stable state. Instantaneous reactions occur rapidly within a system by uptake of energy.
  4. A spontaneous reaction is one in which the reaction occurs rapidly with sudden release of energy. Instantaneous reaction releases free energy and moves to a more stable state.
35.
Describe the position of the transition state on a vertical energy scale, from low to high, relative to the position of the reactants and products, for both endergonic and exergonic reactions.
  1. The transition state of the reaction exists at a lower energy level than the reactants. Activation energy is always positive regardless of whether the reaction is exergonic or endergonic.
  2. The transition state of the reaction exists at a higher energy level than the reactants. Activation energy is always positive regardless of whether the reaction is exergonic or endergonic.
  3. The transition state of the reaction exists at a lower energy level than the reactants. Activation energy is always negative regardless of whether the reaction is exergonic or endergonic.
  4. The transition state of the reaction exists at an intermediate energy level than that of the reactants. Activation energy is always positive regardless of whether the reaction is exergonic or endergonic.
36.
Imagine an elaborate ant farm with tunnels and passageways through the sand where ants live in a large community. Now imagine that an earthquake shook the ground and demolished the ant farm. In which of these two scenarios, before or after the earthquake, was the ant farm system in a state of higher or lower entropy? Why?
  1. The ant farm is in the state of high entropy after the earthquake and energy must be spent to bring the system to low entropy.
  2. The ant farm is in the state of lower entropy after the earthquake and energy must be spent to bring the system to high entropy.
  3. The ant farm is in the state of higher entropy before the earthquake and energy is given out of the system after the earthquake.
  4. The ant farm is in the state of lower entropy before the earthquake and energy is given out of the system after the earthquake.
37.
Energy transfers take place constantly in every day activities. Think of two scenarios: cooking on a stove and driving. Explain how the second law of thermodynamics applies to these scenarios.
  1. Heat is lost into the room while cooking and into the metal of the engine during gasoline combustion.
  2. Heat gained while cooking helps to make the food and heat released due to gasoline combustion helps the car accelerate.
  3. The energy given to the system remains constant during cooking and more energy is added to the car engine when the gasoline combusts.
  4. The energy given to the system for cooking helps to make food and energy in the car engine remains conserved when gasoline combustion takes place.
38.
What does it mean for a system to be in a higher level of entropy? How can it be reduced?
  1. Higher level of entropy refers to higher state of disorder in the system and it can be reduced by input of energy to lower the entropy.
  2. Higher level of entropy refers to higher state of symmetry in the system and it can be reduced by release of energy to lower the entropy.
  3. Higher level of entropy refers to low disorder in the system and it can be reduced by input of energy to increase the entropy.
  4. Higher level of entropy refers to higher state of disorder in the system and it can be reduced by providing a catalyst to lower the entropy.
39.
When the air temperature drops and rain turns to snow, which law of thermodynamics is exhibited?
  1. first law of thermodynamics
  2. second law of thermodynamics
  3. third law of thermodynamics
  4. zeroth law of thermodynamics
40.
How does ATP supply energy to chemical reactions?
  1. ATP dissociates and the energy released by breaking of a phosphate bond within ATP is used for phosphorylation of another molecule. ATP hydrolysis also provides energy to power coupling reactions.
  2. ATP utilizes energy to power exergonic reactions by hydrolysis of ATP molecule. The free energy released as a result of ATP breakdown is used to carry out metabolism of products.
  3. ATP utilizes energy to power endergonic reactions by dehydration of ATP molecule. The free energy released as a result of ATP breakdown is used to carry out metabolism of products.
  4. ATP utilizes the energy released from the coupling reactions and that energy is used to power the endergonic and exergonic reactions.
41.
Is the E A for ATP hydrolysis relatively low or high? Explain your reasoning.
  1. E A for ATP hydrolysis is high because considerable energy is released.
  2. E A for ATP hydrolysis is low because considerable energy is released.
  3. E A for ATP hydrolysis is intermediate because considerable energy is released.
  4. E A for ATP hydrolysis is high because a low amount of energy is released.
42.
What is phosphorylation as it occurs in chemical reactions?
  1. Phosphorylation refers to the attachment of a phosphate to another molecule to facilitate a chemical reaction.
  2. Phosphorylation is the uptake of a phosphorous molecule by an ATP molecule to power chemical reactions.
  3. Phosphorylation is the release of a third phosphorous molecule of ATP during hydrolysis.
  4. Phosphorylation is the breakdown of a pyrophosphate molecule which gives phosphate ions.
43.
If a chemical reaction could occur without an enzyme, why is it important to have one?
  1. Enzymes are important because they give the desired products only from the reaction.
  2. Enzymes are important because the products are obtained consistently with time.
  3. Enzymes are important because it does not disturb the concentration of the products.
  4. Enzymes are important because energy remains conserved and no loss of energy occurs.
44.
How does enzyme feedback inhibition benefit a cell?
  1. Feedback inhibition benefits the cell by blocking the production of the products by changing the configuration of enzymes. This will prevent the cells from becoming toxic.
  2. Feedback inhibition benefits the cell by blocking the production of the reactants by changing the configuration of enzymes. This will prevent the cells from becoming toxic.
  3. Feedback inhibition benefits the cell by blocking the production of the products by changing the configuration of reactants. This will prevent the cells from becoming toxic.
  4. Feedback inhibition benefits the cell by blocking the production of the products by reducing the reactants. This will prevent the cells from becoming toxic.
45.
What type of reaction allows chemicals to be available for an organism’s growth and maintenance in a timely manner?
  1. enzymatically facilitated reactions
  2. redox reactions
  3. catabolic reactions
  4. hydrolysis of ATP
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