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Biology for AP® Courses

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Biology for AP® CoursesReview Questions
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  1. Preface
  2. Unit 1
    1. 1 The Study of Life
      1. Introduction
      2. 1.1 The Science of Biology
      3. 1.2 Themes and Concepts of Biology
      4. Key Terms
      5. Chapter Summary
      6. Review Questions
      7. Critical Thinking Questions
      8. Test Prep for AP® Courses
    2. 2 The Chemical Foundation of Life
      1. Introduction
      2. 2.1 Atoms, Isotopes, Ions, and Molecules: The Building Blocks
      3. 2.2 Water
      4. 2.3 Carbon
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 3 Biological Macromolecules
      1. Introduction
      2. 3.1 Synthesis of Biological Macromolecules
      3. 3.2 Carbohydrates
      4. 3.3 Lipids
      5. 3.4 Proteins
      6. 3.5 Nucleic Acids
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  3. Unit 2
    1. 4 Cell Structure
      1. Introduction
      2. 4.1 Studying Cells
      3. 4.2 Prokaryotic Cells
      4. 4.3 Eukaryotic Cells
      5. 4.4 The Endomembrane System and Proteins
      6. 4.5 Cytoskeleton
      7. 4.6 Connections between Cells and Cellular Activities
      8. Key Terms
      9. Chapter Summary
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
      12. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      13. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    2. 5 Structure and Function of Plasma Membranes
      1. Introduction
      2. 5.1 Components and Structure
      3. 5.2 Passive Transport
      4. 5.3 Active Transport
      5. 5.4 Bulk Transport
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 6 Metabolism
      1. Introduction
      2. 6.1 Energy and Metabolism
      3. 6.2 Potential, Kinetic, Free, and Activation Energy
      4. 6.3 The Laws of Thermodynamics
      5. 6.4 ATP: Adenosine Triphosphate
      6. 6.5 Enzymes
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    4. 7 Cellular Respiration
      1. Introduction
      2. 7.1 Energy in Living Systems
      3. 7.2 Glycolysis
      4. 7.3 Oxidation of Pyruvate and the Citric Acid Cycle
      5. 7.4 Oxidative Phosphorylation
      6. 7.5 Metabolism without Oxygen
      7. 7.6 Connections of Carbohydrate, Protein, and Lipid Metabolic Pathways
      8. 7.7 Regulation of Cellular Respiration
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Summary
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
      13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      14. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    5. 8 Photosynthesis
      1. Introduction
      2. 8.1 Overview of Photosynthesis
      3. 8.2 The Light-Dependent Reaction of Photosynthesis
      4. 8.3 Using Light to Make Organic Molecules
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    6. 9 Cell Communication
      1. Introduction
      2. 9.1 Signaling Molecules and Cellular Receptors
      3. 9.2 Propagation of the Signal
      4. 9.3 Response to the Signal
      5. 9.4 Signaling in Single-Celled Organisms
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    7. 10 Cell Reproduction
      1. Introduction
      2. 10.1 Cell Division
      3. 10.2 The Cell Cycle
      4. 10.3 Control of the Cell Cycle
      5. 10.4 Cancer and the Cell Cycle
      6. 10.5 Prokaryotic Cell Division
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  4. Unit 3
    1. 11 Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction
      1. Introduction
      2. 11.1 The Process of Meiosis
      3. 11.2 Sexual Reproduction
      4. Key Terms
      5. Chapter Summary
      6. Review Questions
      7. Critical Thinking Questions
      8. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      9. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    2. 12 Mendel's Experiments and Heredity
      1. Introduction
      2. 12.1 Mendel’s Experiments and the Laws of Probability
      3. 12.2 Characteristics and Traits
      4. 12.3 Laws of Inheritance
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 13 Modern Understandings of Inheritance
      1. Introduction
      2. 13.1 Chromosomal Theory and Genetic Linkages
      3. 13.2 Chromosomal Basis of Inherited Disorders
      4. Key Terms
      5. Chapter Summary
      6. Review Questions
      7. Critical Thinking Questions
      8. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      9. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    4. 14 DNA Structure and Function
      1. Introduction
      2. 14.1 Historical Basis of Modern Understanding
      3. 14.2 DNA Structure and Sequencing
      4. 14.3 Basics of DNA Replication
      5. 14.4 DNA Replication in Prokaryotes
      6. 14.5 DNA Replication in Eukaryotes
      7. 14.6 DNA Repair
      8. Key Terms
      9. Chapter Summary
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
      12. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      13. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    5. 15 Genes and Proteins
      1. Introduction
      2. 15.1 The Genetic Code
      3. 15.2 Prokaryotic Transcription
      4. 15.3 Eukaryotic Transcription
      5. 15.4 RNA Processing in Eukaryotes
      6. 15.5 Ribosomes and Protein Synthesis
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    6. 16 Gene Regulation
      1. Introduction
      2. 16.1 Regulation of Gene Expression
      3. 16.2 Prokaryotic Gene Regulation
      4. 16.3 Eukaryotic Epigenetic Gene Regulation
      5. 16.4 Eukaryotic Transcriptional Gene Regulation
      6. 16.5 Eukaryotic Post-transcriptional Gene Regulation
      7. 16.6 Eukaryotic Translational and Post-translational Gene Regulation
      8. 16.7 Cancer and Gene Regulation
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Summary
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
      13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      14. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    7. 17 Biotechnology and Genomics
      1. Introduction
      2. 17.1 Biotechnology
      3. 17.2 Mapping Genomes
      4. 17.3 Whole-Genome Sequencing
      5. 17.4 Applying Genomics
      6. 17.5 Genomics and Proteomics
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  5. Unit 4
    1. 18 Evolution and Origin of Species
      1. Introduction
      2. 18.1 Understanding Evolution
      3. 18.2 Formation of New Species
      4. 18.3 Reconnection and Rates of Speciation
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    2. 19 The Evolution of Populations
      1. Introduction
      2. 19.1 Population Evolution
      3. 19.2 Population Genetics
      4. 19.3 Adaptive Evolution
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 20 Phylogenies and the History of Life
      1. Introduction
      2. 20.1 Organizing Life on Earth
      3. 20.2 Determining Evolutionary Relationships
      4. 20.3 Perspectives on the Phylogenetic Tree
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  6. Unit 5
    1. 21 Viruses
      1. Introduction
      2. 21.1 Viral Evolution, Morphology, and Classification
      3. 21.2 Virus Infection and Hosts
      4. 21.3 Prevention and Treatment of Viral Infections
      5. 21.4 Other Acellular Entities: Prions and Viroids
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    2. 22 Prokaryotes: Bacteria and Archaea
      1. Introduction
      2. 22.1 Prokaryotic Diversity
      3. 22.2 Structure of Prokaryotes
      4. 22.3 Prokaryotic Metabolism
      5. 22.4 Bacterial Diseases in Humans
      6. 22.5 Beneficial Prokaryotes
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  7. Unit 6
    1. 23 Plant Form and Physiology
      1. Introduction
      2. 23.1 The Plant Body
      3. 23.2 Stems
      4. 23.3 Roots
      5. 23.4 Leaves
      6. 23.5 Transport of Water and Solutes in Plants
      7. 23.6 Plant Sensory Systems and Responses
      8. Key Terms
      9. Chapter Summary
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
      12. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      13. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  8. Unit 7
    1. 24 The Animal Body: Basic Form and Function
      1. Introduction
      2. 24.1 Animal Form and Function
      3. 24.2 Animal Primary Tissues
      4. 24.3 Homeostasis
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
    2. 25 Animal Nutrition and the Digestive System
      1. Introduction
      2. 25.1 Digestive Systems
      3. 25.2 Nutrition and Energy Production
      4. 25.3 Digestive System Processes
      5. 25.4 Digestive System Regulation
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 26 The Nervous System
      1. Introduction
      2. 26.1 Neurons and Glial Cells
      3. 26.2 How Neurons Communicate
      4. 26.3 The Central Nervous System
      5. 26.4 The Peripheral Nervous System
      6. 26.5 Nervous System Disorders
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    4. 27 Sensory Systems
      1. Introduction
      2. 27.1 Sensory Processes
      3. 27.2 Somatosensation
      4. 27.3 Taste and Smell
      5. 27.4 Hearing and Vestibular Sensation
      6. 27.5 Vision
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    5. 28 The Endocrine System
      1. Introduction
      2. 28.1 Types of Hormones
      3. 28.2 How Hormones Work
      4. 28.3 Regulation of Body Processes
      5. 28.4 Regulation of Hormone Production
      6. 28.5 Endocrine Glands
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    6. 29 The Musculoskeletal System
      1. Introduction
      2. 29.1 Types of Skeletal Systems
      3. 29.2 Bone
      4. 29.3 Joints and Skeletal Movement
      5. 29.4 Muscle Contraction and Locomotion
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    7. 30 The Respiratory System
      1. Introduction
      2. 30.1 Systems of Gas Exchange
      3. 30.2 Gas Exchange across Respiratory Surfaces
      4. 30.3 Breathing
      5. 30.4 Transport of Gases in Human Bodily Fluids
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    8. 31 The Circulatory System
      1. Introduction
      2. 31.1 Overview of the Circulatory System
      3. 31.2 Components of the Blood
      4. 31.3 Mammalian Heart and Blood Vessels
      5. 31.4 Blood Flow and Blood Pressure Regulation
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    9. 32 Osmotic Regulation and Excretion
      1. Introduction
      2. 32.1 Osmoregulation and Osmotic Balance
      3. 32.2 The Kidneys and Osmoregulatory Organs
      4. 32.3 Excretion Systems
      5. 32.4 Nitrogenous Wastes
      6. 32.5 Hormonal Control of Osmoregulatory Functions
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
    10. 33 The Immune System
      1. Introduction
      2. 33.1 Innate Immune Response
      3. 33.2 Adaptive Immune Response
      4. 33.3 Antibodies
      5. 33.4 Disruptions in the Immune System
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    11. 34 Animal Reproduction and Development
      1. Introduction
      2. 34.1 Reproduction Methods
      3. 34.2 Fertilization
      4. 34.3 Human Reproductive Anatomy and Gametogenesis
      5. 34.4 Hormonal Control of Human Reproduction
      6. 34.5 Fertilization and Early Embryonic Development
      7. 34.6 Organogenesis and Vertebrate Formation
      8. 34.7 Human Pregnancy and Birth
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Summary
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
      13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      14. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  9. Unit 8
    1. 35 Ecology and the Biosphere
      1. Introduction
      2. 35.1 The Scope of Ecology
      3. 35.2 Biogeography
      4. 35.3 Terrestrial Biomes
      5. 35.4 Aquatic Biomes
      6. 35.5 Climate and the Effects of Global Climate Change
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    2. 36 Population and Community Ecology
      1. Introduction
      2. 36.1 Population Demography
      3. 36.2 Life Histories and Natural Selection
      4. 36.3 Environmental Limits to Population Growth
      5. 36.4 Population Dynamics and Regulation
      6. 36.5 Human Population Growth
      7. 36.6 Community Ecology
      8. 36.7 Behavioral Biology: Proximate and Ultimate Causes of Behavior
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Summary
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
      13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      14. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 37 Ecosystems
      1. Introduction
      2. 37.1 Ecology for Ecosystems
      3. 37.2 Energy Flow through Ecosystems
      4. 37.3 Biogeochemical Cycles
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    4. 38 Conservation Biology and Biodiversity
      1. Introduction
      2. 38.1 The Biodiversity Crisis
      3. 38.2 The Importance of Biodiversity to Human Life
      4. 38.3 Threats to Biodiversity
      5. 38.4 Preserving Biodiversity
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  10. A | The Periodic Table of Elements
  11. B | Geological Time
  12. C | Measurements and the Metric System
  13. Index
1.
What is the mechanism that skin uses to protect against diseases caused by organisms?
  1. high pH
  2. mucus
  3. tears
  4. desiccation
2.
How does the human body use a chemical barrier as part of the innate immune response?
  1. Mucus secretions trap and rinse pathogens out of the body.
  2. Urination carries pathogens out of the urinary tract.
  3. Low pH conditions in the stomach kill some pathogens and prevent other pathogens from growing.
  4. Cilia in the nasal passages and respiratory tract push mucus containing trapped pathogens out of the body.
3.
Which of the following produces an immediate innate immune response by recognizing an invading pathogen and engulfing it?
  1. macrophage
  2. cytokine
  3. inflammation
  4. antibody
4.
How does inflammation develop?
  1. Inflammation is induced by molecules such as cytokines and histamine that are produced by various host cells in response to pathogens at the site of injury or infection.
  2. During inflammation, all blood cells retreat from the site of infection in order to protect the circulatory system from pathogen infection.
  3. Inflammation is an ongoing condition in the human body, part of the way that the innate immune system can respond immediately to an infection.
  4. When an infection occurs, an immediate inflammatory response occurs as soon as pathogens enter the body.
5.
Which innate immune system component uses major histocompatibility class (MHC) I molecules directly in its defense strategy?
  1. macrophages
  2. neutrophils
  3. natural killer cells
  4. interferon
6.
What is the difference between natural killer cells and macrophages?
  1. Natural killer cells are not always present in the body and must be induced, whereas macrophages are constantly present.
  2. Natural killer cells actually kill foreign cells, whereas macrophages serve only a signaling function.
  3. Only macrophages can invade host tissues to fight foreign cells that make their way into those tissues.
  4. Natural killer cells kill foreign cells through the processes of lysis and proteolysis, whereas macrophages kill foreign cells by phagocytosis.
7.
What is the composition of major histocompatibility class (MHC) I molecules?
  1. lipids
  2. nucleic acids
  3. carbohydrates
  4. proteins
8.
What is the function of major histocompatibility class (MHC) I molecules?
  1. MHC I molecules assist with strengthening the cell membrane.
  2. MHC I molecules present antigens on the surface of a cell.
  3. MHC I molecules allow movement of materials across the cell membrane.
  4. MHC I molecules provide signals for processes involved in cell division.
9.
What is the complement system?
  1. The complement system contains macrophages that phagocytize foreign pathogens.
  2. The complement system monitors MHC I molecules on cells and destroys any cell that displays an antigen belonging to a pathogen.
  3. The complement system contains a group of about 20 proteins in the blood that attack pathogens in a cascading fashion to mark and destroy them.
  4. The complement system is made up of antibodies specific to each pathogen that are synthesized when a pathogen enters the body.
10.
Which of the following occurs more rapidly as the result of activation of the complement system?
  1. pathogen invasion
  2. pathogen detection
  3. pathogen reproduction
  4. pathogen engulfment
11.
What is another term for adaptive immunity?
  1. acquired immunity
  2. innate immunity
  3. passive immunity
  4. humoral immunity
12.
How does adaptive immunity work?
  1. A person is born having a specific immune responses against any pathogen that the body is exposed to.
  2. A person is born with the ability to develop a specific immune response against any pathogen within minutes of being exposed to that pathogen.
  3. A person does not have any immune response against a pathogen, but develops a temporary specific response to that pathogen that is then forgotten.
  4. A person does not have specific immune response against a pathogen, but develops a specific response to that pathogen that is rapidly recalled later if infection by the same pathogen occurs again.
13.
What component of the innate immune system is not part of the adaptive immune system?
  1. T cells
  2. antibodies
  3. mast cells
  4. B cells
14.
What is the difference between innate and adaptive immune responses?
  1. The adaptive immune system is faster-acting than the innate immune system.
  2. The adaptive immune system produces a longer-lasting defense than the innate immune system.
  3. The innate immune system produces a more specific defense than the adaptive immune system.
  4. The innate immune system has a more sophisticated memory than the adaptive immune system.
15.
Which cells are unique to the humoral immune response?
  1. cytotoxic T cells
  2. antigen-presenting cells
  3. helper T cells
  4. B cells
16.
How does the humoral immune response operate?
  1. The humoral immune response primarily targets infected host cells to destroy them before the infecting pathogen can reproduce.
  2. The humoral immune response produces antibodies that are specifically targeted against each pathogen.
  3. The humoral immune response produces cytotoxic T cells that induce apoptosis in pathogen-infected cells.
  4. The humoral immune response is the only system that involves memory cells that are able to respond later to a pathogen that has invaded the body at an earlier time.
17.
An antibody sometimes binds to an antigen other than the antigen that elicited its synthesis. What term refers to this behavior?
  1. avidity
  2. cross reactivity
  3. hypersensitivity
  4. affinity
18.
A biologist runs some tests and observes that the same antibody binds to several different proteins. Why might this occur?
  1. The antibody is showing that it has high affinity for antigens.
  2. The antibody is showing that it has high avidity for antigens.
  3. The antibody is showing cross reactivity to the antigens.
  4. The antibody is showing hypersensitivity to the antigens.
19.
How many and what types of polypeptides make up an antibody molecule?
  1. One heavy polypeptide chain and one light polypeptide chain
  2. Two heavy polypeptide chains and one light polypeptide chain
  3. Two heavy polypeptide chains and two light polypeptide chains
  4. One heavy polypeptide chain and two light polypeptide chains
20.
Why do antibodies isolated from the same individual show a variety of constant domains?
  1. The antibodies were synthesized in response to infections by different pathogens.
  2. The antibodies were transmitted as the result of passive immunity.
  3. The antibodies have different specificities of antigen binding.
  4. The antibodies belong to different classes of immunoglobulin molecules.
21.
What enzyme is responsible for the random excision of variable gene segments making up an antibody light chain in DNA?
  1. DNA polymerase
  2. DNA recombinase
  3. DNA ligase
  4. DNA helicase
22.
How are antibodies produced in a B cell?
  1. RNA processing → DNA rearrangement → transcription → translation → mature antibody
  2. Transcription → RNA processing → DNA rearrangement → translation → mature antibody
  3. DNA rearrangement → RNA processing → transcription → translation → mature antibody
  4. DNA rearrangement → transcription → RNA processing → translation → mature antibody
23.
What is a definition of hypersensitivity?
  1. maladaptive immune responses to otherwise harmless proteins
  2. measure of the attraction between an antigen and an antibody
  3. total binding strength of a multivalent antibody with an antigen
  4. binding of an antibody to an antigen different from the one that elicited its synthesis
24.
An allergy has been described as a non-protective immune response. Which statement provides information supporting this description?
  1. An allergic response occurs when B cells produce IgE molecules in response to a foreign protein, which causes histamine to be released.
  2. An allergy results from an immune response to a protein that does not cause harm and that the body needs no defense against.
  3. People with allergies develop unpleasant symptoms such as watery, itchy eyes, swollen tissues, and sneezing.
  4. When their blood is tested, people with allergies show that they have antibodies that bind to one or more foreign proteins.
25.
What is the term for antibodies that inappropriately mark self components as foreign?
  1. cross reactive
  2. epitopes
  3. allergens
  4. autoantibodies
26.
Why do some people with type 1 diabetes develop the disease as the result of an immune response?
  1. Their B cells produced IgE molecules in response to a harmless protein, which caused histamine to be released.
  2. Their B cells responded to a self protein to produce autoantibodies, which elicited inflammation that caused organ damage.
  3. They had a delayed response to a harmful protein that entered the body and activated both the innate and adaptive immune systems.
  4. They acquired antibodies to insulin through passive immunity, and these antibodies bind to insulin whenever it is produced in the body.
27.
What are the three types of hypersensitivity?
  1. innate, acquired, and immunodeficiency
  2. variable, constant, and recombinant
  3. immediate, delayed, and autoimmunity
  4. active, passive, and adaptive
28.
What is the definition of autoimmunity?
  1. binding of an antibody to a viral antigen
  2. immune response to self antigens
  3. maladaptive immune response to harmless foreign proteins
  4. failure to mount an immune response
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