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Biology for AP® Courses

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Biology for AP® CoursesCritical Thinking Questions
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  1. Preface
  2. Unit 1
    1. 1 The Study of Life
      1. Introduction
      2. 1.1 The Science of Biology
      3. 1.2 Themes and Concepts of Biology
      4. Key Terms
      5. Chapter Summary
      6. Review Questions
      7. Critical Thinking Questions
      8. Test Prep for AP® Courses
    2. 2 The Chemical Foundation of Life
      1. Introduction
      2. 2.1 Atoms, Isotopes, Ions, and Molecules: The Building Blocks
      3. 2.2 Water
      4. 2.3 Carbon
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 3 Biological Macromolecules
      1. Introduction
      2. 3.1 Synthesis of Biological Macromolecules
      3. 3.2 Carbohydrates
      4. 3.3 Lipids
      5. 3.4 Proteins
      6. 3.5 Nucleic Acids
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  3. Unit 2
    1. 4 Cell Structure
      1. Introduction
      2. 4.1 Studying Cells
      3. 4.2 Prokaryotic Cells
      4. 4.3 Eukaryotic Cells
      5. 4.4 The Endomembrane System and Proteins
      6. 4.5 Cytoskeleton
      7. 4.6 Connections between Cells and Cellular Activities
      8. Key Terms
      9. Chapter Summary
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
      12. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      13. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    2. 5 Structure and Function of Plasma Membranes
      1. Introduction
      2. 5.1 Components and Structure
      3. 5.2 Passive Transport
      4. 5.3 Active Transport
      5. 5.4 Bulk Transport
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 6 Metabolism
      1. Introduction
      2. 6.1 Energy and Metabolism
      3. 6.2 Potential, Kinetic, Free, and Activation Energy
      4. 6.3 The Laws of Thermodynamics
      5. 6.4 ATP: Adenosine Triphosphate
      6. 6.5 Enzymes
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    4. 7 Cellular Respiration
      1. Introduction
      2. 7.1 Energy in Living Systems
      3. 7.2 Glycolysis
      4. 7.3 Oxidation of Pyruvate and the Citric Acid Cycle
      5. 7.4 Oxidative Phosphorylation
      6. 7.5 Metabolism without Oxygen
      7. 7.6 Connections of Carbohydrate, Protein, and Lipid Metabolic Pathways
      8. 7.7 Regulation of Cellular Respiration
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Summary
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
      13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      14. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    5. 8 Photosynthesis
      1. Introduction
      2. 8.1 Overview of Photosynthesis
      3. 8.2 The Light-Dependent Reaction of Photosynthesis
      4. 8.3 Using Light to Make Organic Molecules
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    6. 9 Cell Communication
      1. Introduction
      2. 9.1 Signaling Molecules and Cellular Receptors
      3. 9.2 Propagation of the Signal
      4. 9.3 Response to the Signal
      5. 9.4 Signaling in Single-Celled Organisms
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    7. 10 Cell Reproduction
      1. Introduction
      2. 10.1 Cell Division
      3. 10.2 The Cell Cycle
      4. 10.3 Control of the Cell Cycle
      5. 10.4 Cancer and the Cell Cycle
      6. 10.5 Prokaryotic Cell Division
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  4. Unit 3
    1. 11 Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction
      1. Introduction
      2. 11.1 The Process of Meiosis
      3. 11.2 Sexual Reproduction
      4. Key Terms
      5. Chapter Summary
      6. Review Questions
      7. Critical Thinking Questions
      8. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      9. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    2. 12 Mendel's Experiments and Heredity
      1. Introduction
      2. 12.1 Mendel’s Experiments and the Laws of Probability
      3. 12.2 Characteristics and Traits
      4. 12.3 Laws of Inheritance
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 13 Modern Understandings of Inheritance
      1. Introduction
      2. 13.1 Chromosomal Theory and Genetic Linkages
      3. 13.2 Chromosomal Basis of Inherited Disorders
      4. Key Terms
      5. Chapter Summary
      6. Review Questions
      7. Critical Thinking Questions
      8. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      9. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    4. 14 DNA Structure and Function
      1. Introduction
      2. 14.1 Historical Basis of Modern Understanding
      3. 14.2 DNA Structure and Sequencing
      4. 14.3 Basics of DNA Replication
      5. 14.4 DNA Replication in Prokaryotes
      6. 14.5 DNA Replication in Eukaryotes
      7. 14.6 DNA Repair
      8. Key Terms
      9. Chapter Summary
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
      12. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      13. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    5. 15 Genes and Proteins
      1. Introduction
      2. 15.1 The Genetic Code
      3. 15.2 Prokaryotic Transcription
      4. 15.3 Eukaryotic Transcription
      5. 15.4 RNA Processing in Eukaryotes
      6. 15.5 Ribosomes and Protein Synthesis
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    6. 16 Gene Regulation
      1. Introduction
      2. 16.1 Regulation of Gene Expression
      3. 16.2 Prokaryotic Gene Regulation
      4. 16.3 Eukaryotic Epigenetic Gene Regulation
      5. 16.4 Eukaryotic Transcriptional Gene Regulation
      6. 16.5 Eukaryotic Post-transcriptional Gene Regulation
      7. 16.6 Eukaryotic Translational and Post-translational Gene Regulation
      8. 16.7 Cancer and Gene Regulation
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Summary
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
      13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      14. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    7. 17 Biotechnology and Genomics
      1. Introduction
      2. 17.1 Biotechnology
      3. 17.2 Mapping Genomes
      4. 17.3 Whole-Genome Sequencing
      5. 17.4 Applying Genomics
      6. 17.5 Genomics and Proteomics
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  5. Unit 4
    1. 18 Evolution and Origin of Species
      1. Introduction
      2. 18.1 Understanding Evolution
      3. 18.2 Formation of New Species
      4. 18.3 Reconnection and Rates of Speciation
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    2. 19 The Evolution of Populations
      1. Introduction
      2. 19.1 Population Evolution
      3. 19.2 Population Genetics
      4. 19.3 Adaptive Evolution
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 20 Phylogenies and the History of Life
      1. Introduction
      2. 20.1 Organizing Life on Earth
      3. 20.2 Determining Evolutionary Relationships
      4. 20.3 Perspectives on the Phylogenetic Tree
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  6. Unit 5
    1. 21 Viruses
      1. Introduction
      2. 21.1 Viral Evolution, Morphology, and Classification
      3. 21.2 Virus Infection and Hosts
      4. 21.3 Prevention and Treatment of Viral Infections
      5. 21.4 Other Acellular Entities: Prions and Viroids
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    2. 22 Prokaryotes: Bacteria and Archaea
      1. Introduction
      2. 22.1 Prokaryotic Diversity
      3. 22.2 Structure of Prokaryotes
      4. 22.3 Prokaryotic Metabolism
      5. 22.4 Bacterial Diseases in Humans
      6. 22.5 Beneficial Prokaryotes
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  7. Unit 6
    1. 23 Plant Form and Physiology
      1. Introduction
      2. 23.1 The Plant Body
      3. 23.2 Stems
      4. 23.3 Roots
      5. 23.4 Leaves
      6. 23.5 Transport of Water and Solutes in Plants
      7. 23.6 Plant Sensory Systems and Responses
      8. Key Terms
      9. Chapter Summary
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
      12. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      13. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  8. Unit 7
    1. 24 The Animal Body: Basic Form and Function
      1. Introduction
      2. 24.1 Animal Form and Function
      3. 24.2 Animal Primary Tissues
      4. 24.3 Homeostasis
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
    2. 25 Animal Nutrition and the Digestive System
      1. Introduction
      2. 25.1 Digestive Systems
      3. 25.2 Nutrition and Energy Production
      4. 25.3 Digestive System Processes
      5. 25.4 Digestive System Regulation
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 26 The Nervous System
      1. Introduction
      2. 26.1 Neurons and Glial Cells
      3. 26.2 How Neurons Communicate
      4. 26.3 The Central Nervous System
      5. 26.4 The Peripheral Nervous System
      6. 26.5 Nervous System Disorders
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    4. 27 Sensory Systems
      1. Introduction
      2. 27.1 Sensory Processes
      3. 27.2 Somatosensation
      4. 27.3 Taste and Smell
      5. 27.4 Hearing and Vestibular Sensation
      6. 27.5 Vision
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    5. 28 The Endocrine System
      1. Introduction
      2. 28.1 Types of Hormones
      3. 28.2 How Hormones Work
      4. 28.3 Regulation of Body Processes
      5. 28.4 Regulation of Hormone Production
      6. 28.5 Endocrine Glands
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    6. 29 The Musculoskeletal System
      1. Introduction
      2. 29.1 Types of Skeletal Systems
      3. 29.2 Bone
      4. 29.3 Joints and Skeletal Movement
      5. 29.4 Muscle Contraction and Locomotion
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    7. 30 The Respiratory System
      1. Introduction
      2. 30.1 Systems of Gas Exchange
      3. 30.2 Gas Exchange across Respiratory Surfaces
      4. 30.3 Breathing
      5. 30.4 Transport of Gases in Human Bodily Fluids
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    8. 31 The Circulatory System
      1. Introduction
      2. 31.1 Overview of the Circulatory System
      3. 31.2 Components of the Blood
      4. 31.3 Mammalian Heart and Blood Vessels
      5. 31.4 Blood Flow and Blood Pressure Regulation
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    9. 32 Osmotic Regulation and Excretion
      1. Introduction
      2. 32.1 Osmoregulation and Osmotic Balance
      3. 32.2 The Kidneys and Osmoregulatory Organs
      4. 32.3 Excretion Systems
      5. 32.4 Nitrogenous Wastes
      6. 32.5 Hormonal Control of Osmoregulatory Functions
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
    10. 33 The Immune System
      1. Introduction
      2. 33.1 Innate Immune Response
      3. 33.2 Adaptive Immune Response
      4. 33.3 Antibodies
      5. 33.4 Disruptions in the Immune System
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    11. 34 Animal Reproduction and Development
      1. Introduction
      2. 34.1 Reproduction Methods
      3. 34.2 Fertilization
      4. 34.3 Human Reproductive Anatomy and Gametogenesis
      5. 34.4 Hormonal Control of Human Reproduction
      6. 34.5 Fertilization and Early Embryonic Development
      7. 34.6 Organogenesis and Vertebrate Formation
      8. 34.7 Human Pregnancy and Birth
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Summary
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
      13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      14. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  9. Unit 8
    1. 35 Ecology and the Biosphere
      1. Introduction
      2. 35.1 The Scope of Ecology
      3. 35.2 Biogeography
      4. 35.3 Terrestrial Biomes
      5. 35.4 Aquatic Biomes
      6. 35.5 Climate and the Effects of Global Climate Change
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    2. 36 Population and Community Ecology
      1. Introduction
      2. 36.1 Population Demography
      3. 36.2 Life Histories and Natural Selection
      4. 36.3 Environmental Limits to Population Growth
      5. 36.4 Population Dynamics and Regulation
      6. 36.5 Human Population Growth
      7. 36.6 Community Ecology
      8. 36.7 Behavioral Biology: Proximate and Ultimate Causes of Behavior
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Summary
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
      13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      14. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 37 Ecosystems
      1. Introduction
      2. 37.1 Ecology for Ecosystems
      3. 37.2 Energy Flow through Ecosystems
      4. 37.3 Biogeochemical Cycles
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    4. 38 Conservation Biology and Biodiversity
      1. Introduction
      2. 38.1 The Biodiversity Crisis
      3. 38.2 The Importance of Biodiversity to Human Life
      4. 38.3 Threats to Biodiversity
      5. 38.4 Preserving Biodiversity
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  10. A | The Periodic Table of Elements
  11. B | Geological Time
  12. C | Measurements and the Metric System
  13. Index
29.
Why does the human body need more than its skin to function as a barrier to infecting pathogens?
  1. Skin works only against some types of bacteria. To prevent the entry of other pathogens, other physical or chemical barriers are needed.
  2. Skin does not provide a broad coverage against invasion of the body by any foreign particle, so it is not a very effective barrier.
  3. Pathogens could enter the body through several places that are not covered by skin that need to have a barrier to prevent infection.
  4. Skin acts only as a chemical barrier against pathogens. The body also needs physical barriers to prevent various types of infection.
30.
Cell surface recognition occurs during many types of immune responses, including immediate and induced immune responses. How do natural killer cells and interferons represent one of each type of immune response (immediate and induced), and how does cell surface recognition play a role?
  1. Natural killer cells are an example of induced immune response as they attack host cells that have lost normal cell surface markers. Interferons are an example of immediate immune response as they are induced after cell surface markers on invading pathogens are recognized by host cells.
  2. Natural killer cells are an example of immediate immune response as they attack host cells that have lost normal cell surface markers. Interferons are an example of induced immune response as they are induced after cell surface markers on invading pathogens are recognized by host cells.
  3. Natural killer cells are an example of immediate immune response as they are induced after cell surface markers on invading pathogens are recognized by host cells. Interferons are an example of induced immune response as they attack host cells that have lost normal cell surface markers.
  4. Natural killer cells are an example of induced immune response as they are induced after cell surface markers on invading pathogens are recognized by host cells. Interferons are an example of immediate immune response as they attack host cells that have lost normal cell surface markers.
31.
Why might different MHC I molecules between donor and recipient cells lead to rejection of a transplanted organ or tissue?
  1. The natural killer cells in the recipient will identify the MHC I molecules on transplanted organ as non-self proteins, causing lysis of transplanted cells. Other host cells will join to phagocytize the foreign cells.
  2. The neutrophils in the recipient will identify the MHC I molecules on transplanted organ as non-self proteins, causing lysis of transplanted cells. Other host cells will join to phagocytize the foreign cells.
  3. B lymphocytes in the recipient will identify the MHC I molecules on transplanted organ as non-self proteins. The foreign cells will then be engulfed and destroyed by B lymphocytes.
  4. The macrophages in the recipient will identify the MHC I molecules on transplanted organ as non-self proteins, causing lysis of transplanted cells. Other host cells will join to phagocytize the foreign cells.
32.
Suppose a person was born without the ability to produce MHC I molecules. What problem would that create?
  1. A person without the ability to produce MHC I molecules would die immediately.
  2. A person without the ability to produce MHC I molecules would recognize self as non-self, resulting in autoimmune disease.
  3. The person’s immune system would not be able to distinguish self and non-self. This would make the person very vulnerable to infection.
  4. The person’s immune system would not be able to destroy foreign pathogen due to lack of hydrolytic enzymes. This would make the person very vulnerable to infection.
33.
Suppose a series of genetic mutations prevented some, but not all, of the complement proteins from binding antibodies or pathogens. Would the entire complement system be compromised? Why or why not?
  1. No, because the complement system functions as a cascade, with each protein triggering the activity of the next protein in the cascade.
  2. Yes, because the complement system functions as a cascade, with each protein triggering the activity of the next protein in the cascade.
  3. Yes, because all the proteins of the complement system function independently.
  4. No, because all the proteins of the complement system function independently.
34.
What is a likely reason to explain why vertebrate animals evolved an adaptive immune system rather than an innate system involving specific responses to specific pathogens?
  1. An adaptive immune system requires an immense amount of information to be stored, which allows vertebrate cells to be able to mount specific responses to every pathogen.
  2. As new pathogens evolve all the time, it is more conservative of energy and information storage to have an adaptive immune system that can respond to same pathogens in different ways.
  3. As new pathogens evolve all the time, it is more conservative of energy and information storage to have an adaptive immune system that can respond to different pathogens in a specific way.
  4. As new pathogens evolve all the time, it is more conservative of energy and information storage to have an adaptive immune system that can respond to different pathogens in a non-specific way.
35.
Invertebrate animals have innate immune systems but lack adaptive immune systems. Vertebrates, including fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals have both systems. What does this suggest about the evolution of these two immune systems?
  1. This suggests that the innate immune system evolved first. Invertebrates and vertebrates had a common ancestor, which had an innate immune system. After the two lineages diverged, the vertebrate line developed adaptive immunity, which continued to evolve in all vertebrates.
  2. This suggests that the adaptive immune system evolved first. Invertebrates and vertebrates had a common ancestor, which had an innate immune system. After the two lineages diverged, the vertebrate line developed adaptive immunity, which continued to evolve in all vertebrates.
  3. This suggests that the innate immune system evolved first. Invertebrates and vertebrates had a common ancestor, which had an adaptive immune system. After the two lineages diverged, the vertebrate line developed innate immunity, which continued to evolve in all vertebrates.
  4. This suggests that the adaptive immune system evolved first. Invertebrates and vertebrates had a common ancestor, which had an adaptive immune system. After the two lineages diverged, the vertebrate line developed innate immunity, which continued to evolve in all vertebrates.
36.
What are naïve B or T cells and how do they function in cell-mediated and humoral immune responses?
  1. Naïve B and T cells are lymphocytes of the B and T types that have come into contact with pathogenic antigens. Naïve T cells produce antibodies in the humoral immune response, while naïve B cells stimulate the cell-mediated immune response.
  2. Naïve B and T cells are lymphocytes of the B and T types that normally circulate in the body at all times and have not come into contact with any pathogenic antigens. Activated T cells produce antibodies in the humoral immune response, while activated B cells stimulate the cell-mediated immune response.
  3. Naïve B and T cells are lymphocytes of the B and T types that normally circulate in the body at all times and have not come into contact with any pathogenic antigens. Activated B cells produce antibodies in the humoral immune response, while activated T cells stimulate the cell-mediated immune response.
  4. Naïve B and T cells are lymphocytes of the B and T types that have come into contact with pathogenic antigens. Naïve B cells produce antibodies in the humoral immune response, while naïve T cells stimulate the cell-mediated immune response.
37.
A person given a flu vaccine in November comes down with a severe case of influenza in January. What can you conclude about the flu vaccine and cross reactivity?
  1. The flu vaccine elicited antibodies in the person’s body that were specific to a particular flu virus. Unfortunately, the flu virus that infected the person later in January was different enough for cross reactivity to occur between the virus antigens causing the infection.
  2. The flu vaccine suppresses antibodies in the person’s body that were specific to a particular flu virus. Unfortunately, the flu virus that infected the person later in January was different enough for cross reactivity to occur between the virus antigens causing the infection.
  3. The flu vaccine suppresses antibodies in the person’s body that were specific to a particular flu virus. Unfortunately, the flu virus that infected the person later in January was similar enough for cross reactivity to occur between the virus antigens causing the infection.
  4. The flu vaccine suppresses antibodies in the person’s body that were specific to a particular flu virus. Unfortunately, the flu virus that infected the person later in January was similar enough for cross reactivity to occur between the virus antigens causing the infection.
38.
What function does the diversity of the variable region of an antibody help it perform?
  1. It helps in communication of antibodies with other components of immune system.
  2. It helps the antibodies to function with very low affinity and specificity.
  3. It enables many different antibodies to be made that all have different specificities of binding.
  4. It enables many different antibodies to be made that all have same specificities of binding.
39.
How can you explain that the same antibodies found in an infant’s body are also present in the infant’s mother?
  1. Antibodies produced in the mother’s body are passed to the infant via passive immunity through breast milk.
  2. Antibodies produced in the mother’s body are passed to the infant via active immunity through breast milk.
  3. Antibodies produced in the mother’s body are passed to the infant via passive immunity through the placenta.
  4. Antibodies produced in the infant’s body are passed to the mother through the placenta.
40.
Researchers have been working on developing methods for stimulating the human immune system to recognize foreign proteins as self proteins. Why would this research be applicable to treating allergies?
  1. In an allergy, a person’s immune system has been compromised, which causes unpleasant symptoms.
  2. In an allergy, a person’s immune system reacts to its own proteins, which causes unpleasant symptoms.
  3. In an allergy, a person’s immune system reacts to a harmless protein from the environment, which causes unpleasant symptoms.
  4. In an allergy, a person’s immune system reacts to a harmless protein from the environment, which causes pleasant symptoms.
41.
A patient has just been informed that they have an autoimmune disease that attacks the salivary glands. How would you explain to the patient what is happening inside their body?
  1. The immune system is producing antibodies against their own proteins present in their salivary glands, causing the salivary glands to break down and become non-functional.
  2. The ability of the immune system to fight the antigen present in the salivary glands might have been compromised, causing the salivary glands to break down and become non-functional.
  3. The immune system might have reacted in an abnormal way to an antigen that may have entered salivary glands, causing the salivary glands to break down and become non-functional.
  4. Some pathogen might have entered the salivary glands, causing the salivary glands to break down and become non-functional.
42.
An allergic response sometimes leads to a person’s death. How can you explain this?
  1. The allergen may bind to the hemoglobin, decreasing the affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen, leading to death.
  2. If a person has a very strong and fast response to an allergen, the tissues in the throat can swell so much in a very short time that the person cannot breathe and blood pressure may increase very quickly. Oxygen will not be carried to the brain and the person may die.
  3. If a person has a very strong and fast response to an allergen, the tissues in the throat can swell so much in a very short time that the person cannot breathe and blood pressure may drop very quickly. Oxygen will reach the cells at a faster rate and the person may die.
  4. If a person has a very strong and fast response to an allergen, the tissues in the throat can swell so much in a very short time that the person cannot breathe and blood pressure may drop very quickly. Oxygen will not be carried to the brain and the person may die.
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