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Biology for AP® Courses

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Biology for AP® CoursesCritical Thinking Questions

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Table of contents
  1. Preface
  2. The Chemistry of Life
    1. 1 The Study of Life
      1. Introduction
      2. 1.1 The Science of Biology
      3. 1.2 Themes and Concepts of Biology
      4. Key Terms
      5. Chapter Summary
      6. Review Questions
      7. Critical Thinking Questions
      8. Test Prep for AP® Courses
    2. 2 The Chemical Foundation of Life
      1. Introduction
      2. 2.1 Atoms, Isotopes, Ions, and Molecules: The Building Blocks
      3. 2.2 Water
      4. 2.3 Carbon
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 3 Biological Macromolecules
      1. Introduction
      2. 3.1 Synthesis of Biological Macromolecules
      3. 3.2 Carbohydrates
      4. 3.3 Lipids
      5. 3.4 Proteins
      6. 3.5 Nucleic Acids
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  3. The Cell
    1. 4 Cell Structure
      1. Introduction
      2. 4.1 Studying Cells
      3. 4.2 Prokaryotic Cells
      4. 4.3 Eukaryotic Cells
      5. 4.4 The Endomembrane System and Proteins
      6. 4.5 Cytoskeleton
      7. 4.6 Connections between Cells and Cellular Activities
      8. Key Terms
      9. Chapter Summary
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
      12. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      13. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    2. 5 Structure and Function of Plasma Membranes
      1. Introduction
      2. 5.1 Components and Structure
      3. 5.2 Passive Transport
      4. 5.3 Active Transport
      5. 5.4 Bulk Transport
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 6 Metabolism
      1. Introduction
      2. 6.1 Energy and Metabolism
      3. 6.2 Potential, Kinetic, Free, and Activation Energy
      4. 6.3 The Laws of Thermodynamics
      5. 6.4 ATP: Adenosine Triphosphate
      6. 6.5 Enzymes
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    4. 7 Cellular Respiration
      1. Introduction
      2. 7.1 Energy in Living Systems
      3. 7.2 Glycolysis
      4. 7.3 Oxidation of Pyruvate and the Citric Acid Cycle
      5. 7.4 Oxidative Phosphorylation
      6. 7.5 Metabolism without Oxygen
      7. 7.6 Connections of Carbohydrate, Protein, and Lipid Metabolic Pathways
      8. 7.7 Regulation of Cellular Respiration
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Summary
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
      13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      14. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    5. 8 Photosynthesis
      1. Introduction
      2. 8.1 Overview of Photosynthesis
      3. 8.2 The Light-Dependent Reaction of Photosynthesis
      4. 8.3 Using Light to Make Organic Molecules
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    6. 9 Cell Communication
      1. Introduction
      2. 9.1 Signaling Molecules and Cellular Receptors
      3. 9.2 Propagation of the Signal
      4. 9.3 Response to the Signal
      5. 9.4 Signaling in Single-Celled Organisms
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    7. 10 Cell Reproduction
      1. Introduction
      2. 10.1 Cell Division
      3. 10.2 The Cell Cycle
      4. 10.3 Control of the Cell Cycle
      5. 10.4 Cancer and the Cell Cycle
      6. 10.5 Prokaryotic Cell Division
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  4. Genetics
    1. 11 Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction
      1. Introduction
      2. 11.1 The Process of Meiosis
      3. 11.2 Sexual Reproduction
      4. Key Terms
      5. Chapter Summary
      6. Review Questions
      7. Critical Thinking Questions
      8. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      9. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    2. 12 Mendel's Experiments and Heredity
      1. Introduction
      2. 12.1 Mendel’s Experiments and the Laws of Probability
      3. 12.2 Characteristics and Traits
      4. 12.3 Laws of Inheritance
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 13 Modern Understandings of Inheritance
      1. Introduction
      2. 13.1 Chromosomal Theory and Genetic Linkages
      3. 13.2 Chromosomal Basis of Inherited Disorders
      4. Key Terms
      5. Chapter Summary
      6. Review Questions
      7. Critical Thinking Questions
      8. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      9. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    4. 14 DNA Structure and Function
      1. Introduction
      2. 14.1 Historical Basis of Modern Understanding
      3. 14.2 DNA Structure and Sequencing
      4. 14.3 Basics of DNA Replication
      5. 14.4 DNA Replication in Prokaryotes
      6. 14.5 DNA Replication in Eukaryotes
      7. 14.6 DNA Repair
      8. Key Terms
      9. Chapter Summary
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
      12. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      13. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    5. 15 Genes and Proteins
      1. Introduction
      2. 15.1 The Genetic Code
      3. 15.2 Prokaryotic Transcription
      4. 15.3 Eukaryotic Transcription
      5. 15.4 RNA Processing in Eukaryotes
      6. 15.5 Ribosomes and Protein Synthesis
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    6. 16 Gene Regulation
      1. Introduction
      2. 16.1 Regulation of Gene Expression
      3. 16.2 Prokaryotic Gene Regulation
      4. 16.3 Eukaryotic Epigenetic Gene Regulation
      5. 16.4 Eukaryotic Transcriptional Gene Regulation
      6. 16.5 Eukaryotic Post-transcriptional Gene Regulation
      7. 16.6 Eukaryotic Translational and Post-translational Gene Regulation
      8. 16.7 Cancer and Gene Regulation
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Summary
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
      13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      14. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    7. 17 Biotechnology and Genomics
      1. Introduction
      2. 17.1 Biotechnology
      3. 17.2 Mapping Genomes
      4. 17.3 Whole-Genome Sequencing
      5. 17.4 Applying Genomics
      6. 17.5 Genomics and Proteomics
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  5. Evolutionary Processes
    1. 18 Evolution and Origin of Species
      1. Introduction
      2. 18.1 Understanding Evolution
      3. 18.2 Formation of New Species
      4. 18.3 Reconnection and Rates of Speciation
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    2. 19 The Evolution of Populations
      1. Introduction
      2. 19.1 Population Evolution
      3. 19.2 Population Genetics
      4. 19.3 Adaptive Evolution
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 20 Phylogenies and the History of Life
      1. Introduction
      2. 20.1 Organizing Life on Earth
      3. 20.2 Determining Evolutionary Relationships
      4. 20.3 Perspectives on the Phylogenetic Tree
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  6. Biological Diversity
    1. 21 Viruses
      1. Introduction
      2. 21.1 Viral Evolution, Morphology, and Classification
      3. 21.2 Virus Infection and Hosts
      4. 21.3 Prevention and Treatment of Viral Infections
      5. 21.4 Other Acellular Entities: Prions and Viroids
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    2. 22 Prokaryotes: Bacteria and Archaea
      1. Introduction
      2. 22.1 Prokaryotic Diversity
      3. 22.2 Structure of Prokaryotes
      4. 22.3 Prokaryotic Metabolism
      5. 22.4 Bacterial Diseases in Humans
      6. 22.5 Beneficial Prokaryotes
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  7. Plant Structure and Function
    1. 23 Plant Form and Physiology
      1. Introduction
      2. 23.1 The Plant Body
      3. 23.2 Stems
      4. 23.3 Roots
      5. 23.4 Leaves
      6. 23.5 Transport of Water and Solutes in Plants
      7. 23.6 Plant Sensory Systems and Responses
      8. Key Terms
      9. Chapter Summary
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
      12. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      13. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  8. Animal Structure and Function
    1. 24 The Animal Body: Basic Form and Function
      1. Introduction
      2. 24.1 Animal Form and Function
      3. 24.2 Animal Primary Tissues
      4. 24.3 Homeostasis
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
    2. 25 Animal Nutrition and the Digestive System
      1. Introduction
      2. 25.1 Digestive Systems
      3. 25.2 Nutrition and Energy Production
      4. 25.3 Digestive System Processes
      5. 25.4 Digestive System Regulation
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 26 The Nervous System
      1. Introduction
      2. 26.1 Neurons and Glial Cells
      3. 26.2 How Neurons Communicate
      4. 26.3 The Central Nervous System
      5. 26.4 The Peripheral Nervous System
      6. 26.5 Nervous System Disorders
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    4. 27 Sensory Systems
      1. Introduction
      2. 27.1 Sensory Processes
      3. 27.2 Somatosensation
      4. 27.3 Taste and Smell
      5. 27.4 Hearing and Vestibular Sensation
      6. 27.5 Vision
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    5. 28 The Endocrine System
      1. Introduction
      2. 28.1 Types of Hormones
      3. 28.2 How Hormones Work
      4. 28.3 Regulation of Body Processes
      5. 28.4 Regulation of Hormone Production
      6. 28.5 Endocrine Glands
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    6. 29 The Musculoskeletal System
      1. Introduction
      2. 29.1 Types of Skeletal Systems
      3. 29.2 Bone
      4. 29.3 Joints and Skeletal Movement
      5. 29.4 Muscle Contraction and Locomotion
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    7. 30 The Respiratory System
      1. Introduction
      2. 30.1 Systems of Gas Exchange
      3. 30.2 Gas Exchange across Respiratory Surfaces
      4. 30.3 Breathing
      5. 30.4 Transport of Gases in Human Bodily Fluids
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    8. 31 The Circulatory System
      1. Introduction
      2. 31.1 Overview of the Circulatory System
      3. 31.2 Components of the Blood
      4. 31.3 Mammalian Heart and Blood Vessels
      5. 31.4 Blood Flow and Blood Pressure Regulation
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    9. 32 Osmotic Regulation and Excretion
      1. Introduction
      2. 32.1 Osmoregulation and Osmotic Balance
      3. 32.2 The Kidneys and Osmoregulatory Organs
      4. 32.3 Excretion Systems
      5. 32.4 Nitrogenous Wastes
      6. 32.5 Hormonal Control of Osmoregulatory Functions
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
    10. 33 The Immune System
      1. Introduction
      2. 33.1 Innate Immune Response
      3. 33.2 Adaptive Immune Response
      4. 33.3 Antibodies
      5. 33.4 Disruptions in the Immune System
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    11. 34 Animal Reproduction and Development
      1. Introduction
      2. 34.1 Reproduction Methods
      3. 34.2 Fertilization
      4. 34.3 Human Reproductive Anatomy and Gametogenesis
      5. 34.4 Hormonal Control of Human Reproduction
      6. 34.5 Fertilization and Early Embryonic Development
      7. 34.6 Organogenesis and Vertebrate Formation
      8. 34.7 Human Pregnancy and Birth
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Summary
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
      13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      14. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  9. Ecology
    1. 35 Ecology and the Biosphere
      1. Introduction
      2. 35.1 The Scope of Ecology
      3. 35.2 Biogeography
      4. 35.3 Terrestrial Biomes
      5. 35.4 Aquatic Biomes
      6. 35.5 Climate and the Effects of Global Climate Change
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    2. 36 Population and Community Ecology
      1. Introduction
      2. 36.1 Population Demography
      3. 36.2 Life Histories and Natural Selection
      4. 36.3 Environmental Limits to Population Growth
      5. 36.4 Population Dynamics and Regulation
      6. 36.5 Human Population Growth
      7. 36.6 Community Ecology
      8. 36.7 Behavioral Biology: Proximate and Ultimate Causes of Behavior
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Summary
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
      13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      14. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 37 Ecosystems
      1. Introduction
      2. 37.1 Ecology for Ecosystems
      3. 37.2 Energy Flow through Ecosystems
      4. 37.3 Biogeochemical Cycles
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    4. 38 Conservation Biology and Biodiversity
      1. Introduction
      2. 38.1 The Biodiversity Crisis
      3. 38.2 The Importance of Biodiversity to Human Life
      4. 38.3 Threats to Biodiversity
      5. 38.4 Preserving Biodiversity
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  10. A | The Periodic Table of Elements
  11. B | Geological Time
  12. C | Measurements and the Metric System
  13. Index
37.
Which statement explains how the two types of sensory transduction differ?
  1. Receptors can respond to multiple stimuli, whereas free nerve endings are specialized cells that detect a specific stimulus.
  2. Receptors are specialized cells that detect a specific stimulus, whereas free nerve endings can respond to multiple stimuli.
  3. Receptors are similar for different stimuli, whereas free nerve endings are different for different stimuli.
  4. Receptors are specialized cells that detect a specific stimulus, whereas free nerve endings can respond to pressure.
38.
Describe how the steps of sensory perception would be affected if a person sustains damage to axons that lead from sensory receptors to the central nervous system.
  1. Reception would not be affected. However, signal transduction and perception will be incomplete.
  2. Perception would not be affected. However, signal transduction and reception will be incomplete.
  3. Signal transduction would not be affected. However, reception and perception will be incomplete.
  4. Reception and signal transduction would not be affected. However, perception will be incomplete.
39.
(credit: modification of work by Ziemer, Tim)
Figure 27.25

This graph shows the just noticeable difference versus the sound loudness. The CPS values show sound frequency.

What is a claim that can be said based on this graph?

  1. People cannot hear more minute differences for louder sounds.
  2. Sound frequency has no effect on hearing minute differences.
  3. People hear more minute differences in louder sounds.
  4. People can hear more minute differences in sounds with higher CPS (frequency)
40.
Humans have both special and general senses. Which statement explains what both types of senses have in common?
  1. All types of senses undergo sensory transduction by converting a stimulus into a chemical signal via the central nervous system.
  2. All types of senses undergo sensory transduction by converting a stimulus into an electrical signal via the peripheral nervous system.
  3. All types of senses undergo sensory transduction by converting a stimulus into a chemical signal via the nervous system.
  4. All types of senses undergo sensory transduction by converting a stimulus into an electrical signal via the nervous system.
41.
Explain why there are more Merkel’s disks and Meissner’s corpuscles in your fingertips than in your palms.
  1. These two types of thermoreceptors are used to detect warmth and cold which is necessary to maintain body temperature.
  2. These two types of mechanoreceptors are used to detect fine details necessary for many roles of fingertips but not palms such as typing.
  3. These two types of proprioceptors are used to detect fine details necessary for many roles of fingertips but not palms, such as typing.
  4. These two types of mechanoreceptors are used to detect fine details, which are necessary for many roles of fingertips as well as palms.
42.
(credit: modification of work by Silva, Paula et al./Semantic Scholar)
Figure 27.26

The table shows the results of the two-point discrimination test for a population.

In the test, two sharp points, such as two thumbtacks, are brought into contact with the subject’s skin. The subject reports if he or she feels one point or two points. The test can be used to determine the density of receptors in skin.

What is a conclusion that can be made based on this data?

  1. The highest concentration of mechanoreceptors are in the lower arm.
  2. The upper arm has a higher density of receptors than the lower arm.
  3. The long and little fingers have the highest concentration of receptors.
  4. There are no mechanoreceptors in the fingers other than the thumb, the long finger and the little finger.
43.
Explain why some people think that peppers are painful or hot, while other people do not find peppers painful or hot.
  1. Peppers contain capsaicin, which opens the same sodium channels as warm receptors. Excess stimulation gives the perception of pain. Thus people who can tolerate more heat find peppers to be less painful.
  2. Peppers contain capsaicin, which opens the same calcium channels as warm receptors. Excess stimulation gives the perception of pain. Thus people who can tolerate more heat find peppers to be less painful.
  3. Peppers contain quinine, which opens the same calcium channels as warm receptors. Excess stimulation gives the perception of pain. Thus people who can tolerate more heat find peppers to be less painful.
  4. Peppers contain quinine, which opens the same sodium channels as warm receptors. Excess stimulation gives the perception of pain. Thus people who can tolerate more heat find peppers to be less painful.
44.
Discuss how the location of mechanoreceptors affect their ability to sense different stimuli.
  1. Merkel’s disks and Meissner’s corpuscles are found in specialized regions and detect the amount of stretch. Pacinian corpuscles and Ruffini endings are able to sense deeper touch, such as deeper pressure.
  2. Merkel’s disks and Meissner’s corpuscles are found deeper in the skin and are able to sense deeper touch, such as deeper pressure. Pacinian corpuscles and Ruffini endings are able to better detect fine touch.
  3. Merkel’s disks and Meissner’s corpuscles are found deeper in the skin and detect fine touch. Pacinian corpuscles and Ruffini endings are able to sense deeper touch, such as deeper pressure.
  4. Merkel’s disks and Meissner’s corpuscles are found in more upper parts of the skin and detect fine touch. Pacinian corpuscles and Ruffini endings are able to sense deeper touch, such as deeper pressure.
45.
(credit: modification of work by Arianna Vignini et al./Hindawi, CC BY-SA 4.0)
Figure 27.27

This graph shows the relation between body-mass index (BMI) and taste sensitivity.

Which option is a conclusion you can draw from this graph?

  1. BMI and sense of taste are not related.
  2. People with higher BMI tend to have a weaker sense of taste on average.
  3. People with higher BMI tend to have a stronger sense of taste on average.
  4. People with low BMI tend to have the weakest sense of taste.
46.
Predict a possible effect on an animal of not being able to perceive taste.
  1. The animal might not be able to eat food.
  2. The animal might not be able to eat sweet and unspoiled food.
  3. The animal might not be able to distinguish food that is bitter and sour.
  4. The animal might not be able to distinguish food that is dangerous, bitter, spoiled, sour or sweet.
47.
If a young child goes missing, predict why a bloodhound and not a poodle would be used to find the child.
  1. Bloodhounds were bred to have a better sense of smell, and thus have fewer olfactory receptors and larger olfactory epithelia.
  2. Bloodhounds were bred to have a better sense of smell, and thus have more olfactory receptors and larger olfactory epithelia.
  3. Bloodhounds were bred to have a better sense of smell, and thus have more olfactory receptors and smaller olfactory epithelia.
  4. Bloodhounds were bred to have a better sense of smell, and thus have more olfactory bulbs and larger olfactory receptors.
48.
Explain how pheromones differ from other odorants, from the perspective of the recipient of the signal.
  1. Pheromones are sent to the main olfactory bulb instead of the amygdala and are not consciously perceived.
  2. Pheromones are sent to the amygdala instead of the main olfactory bulb and are consciously perceived.
  3. Pheromones are sent to the amygdala instead of the main olfactory bulb and are not consciously perceived.
  4. Pheromones are sent to the main olfactory bulb instead of the amygdala and are consciously perceived.
49.
(credit: modification of work by Cmglee/Wikipedia, CC BY-SA 3.0)
Figure 27.28

The table shows the hearing range of some animals.

What is a conclusion we can draw from this data?

  1. Elephants can hear higher pitched sounds than humans can.
  2. A gerbil would not be able hear a sound at 40 kHz.
  3. Dolphins and whales can hear extremely high pitched sounds compared to humans.
  4. A sheep cannot hear a sound that is louder than 1 kHz.
50.
You are having a debate with someone in a library. A librarian asks you to “speak softer.” What characteristic of sound does the librarian want you to change and how can you change it?
  1. wavelength, by lowering the amplitude at which you are speaking
  2. amplitude, by lowering the frequency at which you are speaking
  3. frequency, by lowering the volume at which you are speaking
  4. amplitude, by lowering the volume at which you are speaking.
51.
Refer to Figure 27.13
.

The image shows the structure of a healthy ear.

If an individual was born without the malleus in either ear, explain why they might have problems with hearing.

  1. Without the malleus and incus, the vibrations of the tympanum would not be able to reach the stapes and then be sent to the cochlea.
  2. Without the malleus and incus, the vibrations of the pinna would not be able to reach the stapes and then be sent to the cochlea.
  3. Without the malleus and incus, sound waves would not be collected by the tympanum.
  4. Without the malleus and incus, sound waves would not be collected by the pinna.
52.
The moon has less gravity than Earth. How might this affect vestibular sensation of an astronaut on the Moon?
  1. Vestibular sensation relies on gravity’s effects to function properly. At a different gravity, the perception of motion would be different.
  2. Vestibular sensation does not rely on gravity’s effects, but requires pressure. Inside a pressurized suit, the astronaut would not feel any different.
  3. Vestibular sensation cannot function without Earth's gravity. On the Moon, astronauts would need to function completely without it.
  4. Vestibular sensation function with better efficiency in lower gravity. On the Moon, the astronauts senses would be enchanced.
53.
(credit: modification of work by Imaging Tech Solutions)
Figure 27.29

The image is taken by a special camera that can see bats on a dark night.

Why are human eyes unable to see bats like this?

  1. Warm objects give out infrared radiation. The frequency of infrared radiation is too low for our eyes to detect.
  2. Warm objects give out ultraviolet radiation. The frequency of infrared radiation is too low for our eyes to detect.
  3. The camera bounces off infrared light off the bats, and then detects it. Our eyes cannot emit light like the camera does.
  4. The camera bounces off ultraviolet light off the bats, and then detects it. Our eyes cannot emit light like the camera does.
54.
Refer to Figure 27.21
.

This graph shows the wavelengths of light the rods and cones of the eye can detect.

What receptors are active if you are seeing a white building on a bright day?

  1. All three cones in your eyes are stimulated when you see the color white. The rods do not play a role in color vision.
  2. The L and M cones are stimulated in your eyes when you see the color white. The rods do not play a role in color vision.
  3. The S cones and the rods are stimulated in your eyes when you see the color white.
  4. The L cones and the rods are stimulated in your eyes when you see the color white.
55.
Discuss how the relationship between photoreceptors and bipolar cells is different from other sensory receptors and adjacent cells.
  1. Photoreceptors and bipolar cells are depolarized, whereas other sensory receptors typically remain polarized.
  2. Photoreceptors and bipolar cells are hyperpolarized, whereas other sensory receptors typically remain polarized.
  3. Photoreceptors and bipolar cells are depolarized, whereas other sensory receptors typically become hyperpolarized.
  4. Photoreceptors and bipolar cells are hyperpolarized, whereas other sensory receptors typically become depolarized.
56.
Explain what happens once visual signals reach the visual cortex.
  1. Some signals go to the temporal lobe, which detects “where” information, and other signals go to the parietal lobe, which detects “where” and “what” signals.
  2. Some signals go to the parietal lobe, which detects “where” information, and other signals go to the temporal lobe, which detects “what” signals.
  3. Some signals go to the parietal lobe, which detects “where” and “what” information and other signals go to the temporal lobe, which also detects “where” and “what” signals.
  4. Some signals go to the parietal lobe, which detects “where” information, and other signals go to the temporal lobe, which detects “where” and “what” signals.
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