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Biology for AP® Courses

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Biology for AP® CoursesCritical Thinking Questions
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  1. Preface
  2. Unit 1
    1. 1 The Study of Life
      1. Introduction
      2. 1.1 The Science of Biology
      3. 1.2 Themes and Concepts of Biology
      4. Key Terms
      5. Chapter Summary
      6. Review Questions
      7. Critical Thinking Questions
      8. Test Prep for AP® Courses
    2. 2 The Chemical Foundation of Life
      1. Introduction
      2. 2.1 Atoms, Isotopes, Ions, and Molecules: The Building Blocks
      3. 2.2 Water
      4. 2.3 Carbon
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 3 Biological Macromolecules
      1. Introduction
      2. 3.1 Synthesis of Biological Macromolecules
      3. 3.2 Carbohydrates
      4. 3.3 Lipids
      5. 3.4 Proteins
      6. 3.5 Nucleic Acids
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  3. Unit 2
    1. 4 Cell Structure
      1. Introduction
      2. 4.1 Studying Cells
      3. 4.2 Prokaryotic Cells
      4. 4.3 Eukaryotic Cells
      5. 4.4 The Endomembrane System and Proteins
      6. 4.5 Cytoskeleton
      7. 4.6 Connections between Cells and Cellular Activities
      8. Key Terms
      9. Chapter Summary
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
      12. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      13. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    2. 5 Structure and Function of Plasma Membranes
      1. Introduction
      2. 5.1 Components and Structure
      3. 5.2 Passive Transport
      4. 5.3 Active Transport
      5. 5.4 Bulk Transport
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 6 Metabolism
      1. Introduction
      2. 6.1 Energy and Metabolism
      3. 6.2 Potential, Kinetic, Free, and Activation Energy
      4. 6.3 The Laws of Thermodynamics
      5. 6.4 ATP: Adenosine Triphosphate
      6. 6.5 Enzymes
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    4. 7 Cellular Respiration
      1. Introduction
      2. 7.1 Energy in Living Systems
      3. 7.2 Glycolysis
      4. 7.3 Oxidation of Pyruvate and the Citric Acid Cycle
      5. 7.4 Oxidative Phosphorylation
      6. 7.5 Metabolism without Oxygen
      7. 7.6 Connections of Carbohydrate, Protein, and Lipid Metabolic Pathways
      8. 7.7 Regulation of Cellular Respiration
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Summary
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
      13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      14. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    5. 8 Photosynthesis
      1. Introduction
      2. 8.1 Overview of Photosynthesis
      3. 8.2 The Light-Dependent Reaction of Photosynthesis
      4. 8.3 Using Light to Make Organic Molecules
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    6. 9 Cell Communication
      1. Introduction
      2. 9.1 Signaling Molecules and Cellular Receptors
      3. 9.2 Propagation of the Signal
      4. 9.3 Response to the Signal
      5. 9.4 Signaling in Single-Celled Organisms
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    7. 10 Cell Reproduction
      1. Introduction
      2. 10.1 Cell Division
      3. 10.2 The Cell Cycle
      4. 10.3 Control of the Cell Cycle
      5. 10.4 Cancer and the Cell Cycle
      6. 10.5 Prokaryotic Cell Division
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  4. Unit 3
    1. 11 Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction
      1. Introduction
      2. 11.1 The Process of Meiosis
      3. 11.2 Sexual Reproduction
      4. Key Terms
      5. Chapter Summary
      6. Review Questions
      7. Critical Thinking Questions
      8. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      9. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    2. 12 Mendel's Experiments and Heredity
      1. Introduction
      2. 12.1 Mendel’s Experiments and the Laws of Probability
      3. 12.2 Characteristics and Traits
      4. 12.3 Laws of Inheritance
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 13 Modern Understandings of Inheritance
      1. Introduction
      2. 13.1 Chromosomal Theory and Genetic Linkages
      3. 13.2 Chromosomal Basis of Inherited Disorders
      4. Key Terms
      5. Chapter Summary
      6. Review Questions
      7. Critical Thinking Questions
      8. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      9. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    4. 14 DNA Structure and Function
      1. Introduction
      2. 14.1 Historical Basis of Modern Understanding
      3. 14.2 DNA Structure and Sequencing
      4. 14.3 Basics of DNA Replication
      5. 14.4 DNA Replication in Prokaryotes
      6. 14.5 DNA Replication in Eukaryotes
      7. 14.6 DNA Repair
      8. Key Terms
      9. Chapter Summary
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
      12. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      13. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    5. 15 Genes and Proteins
      1. Introduction
      2. 15.1 The Genetic Code
      3. 15.2 Prokaryotic Transcription
      4. 15.3 Eukaryotic Transcription
      5. 15.4 RNA Processing in Eukaryotes
      6. 15.5 Ribosomes and Protein Synthesis
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    6. 16 Gene Regulation
      1. Introduction
      2. 16.1 Regulation of Gene Expression
      3. 16.2 Prokaryotic Gene Regulation
      4. 16.3 Eukaryotic Epigenetic Gene Regulation
      5. 16.4 Eukaryotic Transcriptional Gene Regulation
      6. 16.5 Eukaryotic Post-transcriptional Gene Regulation
      7. 16.6 Eukaryotic Translational and Post-translational Gene Regulation
      8. 16.7 Cancer and Gene Regulation
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Summary
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
      13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      14. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    7. 17 Biotechnology and Genomics
      1. Introduction
      2. 17.1 Biotechnology
      3. 17.2 Mapping Genomes
      4. 17.3 Whole-Genome Sequencing
      5. 17.4 Applying Genomics
      6. 17.5 Genomics and Proteomics
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  5. Unit 4
    1. 18 Evolution and Origin of Species
      1. Introduction
      2. 18.1 Understanding Evolution
      3. 18.2 Formation of New Species
      4. 18.3 Reconnection and Rates of Speciation
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    2. 19 The Evolution of Populations
      1. Introduction
      2. 19.1 Population Evolution
      3. 19.2 Population Genetics
      4. 19.3 Adaptive Evolution
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 20 Phylogenies and the History of Life
      1. Introduction
      2. 20.1 Organizing Life on Earth
      3. 20.2 Determining Evolutionary Relationships
      4. 20.3 Perspectives on the Phylogenetic Tree
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  6. Unit 5
    1. 21 Viruses
      1. Introduction
      2. 21.1 Viral Evolution, Morphology, and Classification
      3. 21.2 Virus Infection and Hosts
      4. 21.3 Prevention and Treatment of Viral Infections
      5. 21.4 Other Acellular Entities: Prions and Viroids
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    2. 22 Prokaryotes: Bacteria and Archaea
      1. Introduction
      2. 22.1 Prokaryotic Diversity
      3. 22.2 Structure of Prokaryotes
      4. 22.3 Prokaryotic Metabolism
      5. 22.4 Bacterial Diseases in Humans
      6. 22.5 Beneficial Prokaryotes
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  7. Unit 6
    1. 23 Plant Form and Physiology
      1. Introduction
      2. 23.1 The Plant Body
      3. 23.2 Stems
      4. 23.3 Roots
      5. 23.4 Leaves
      6. 23.5 Transport of Water and Solutes in Plants
      7. 23.6 Plant Sensory Systems and Responses
      8. Key Terms
      9. Chapter Summary
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
      12. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      13. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  8. Unit 7
    1. 24 The Animal Body: Basic Form and Function
      1. Introduction
      2. 24.1 Animal Form and Function
      3. 24.2 Animal Primary Tissues
      4. 24.3 Homeostasis
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
    2. 25 Animal Nutrition and the Digestive System
      1. Introduction
      2. 25.1 Digestive Systems
      3. 25.2 Nutrition and Energy Production
      4. 25.3 Digestive System Processes
      5. 25.4 Digestive System Regulation
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 26 The Nervous System
      1. Introduction
      2. 26.1 Neurons and Glial Cells
      3. 26.2 How Neurons Communicate
      4. 26.3 The Central Nervous System
      5. 26.4 The Peripheral Nervous System
      6. 26.5 Nervous System Disorders
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    4. 27 Sensory Systems
      1. Introduction
      2. 27.1 Sensory Processes
      3. 27.2 Somatosensation
      4. 27.3 Taste and Smell
      5. 27.4 Hearing and Vestibular Sensation
      6. 27.5 Vision
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    5. 28 The Endocrine System
      1. Introduction
      2. 28.1 Types of Hormones
      3. 28.2 How Hormones Work
      4. 28.3 Regulation of Body Processes
      5. 28.4 Regulation of Hormone Production
      6. 28.5 Endocrine Glands
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    6. 29 The Musculoskeletal System
      1. Introduction
      2. 29.1 Types of Skeletal Systems
      3. 29.2 Bone
      4. 29.3 Joints and Skeletal Movement
      5. 29.4 Muscle Contraction and Locomotion
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    7. 30 The Respiratory System
      1. Introduction
      2. 30.1 Systems of Gas Exchange
      3. 30.2 Gas Exchange across Respiratory Surfaces
      4. 30.3 Breathing
      5. 30.4 Transport of Gases in Human Bodily Fluids
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    8. 31 The Circulatory System
      1. Introduction
      2. 31.1 Overview of the Circulatory System
      3. 31.2 Components of the Blood
      4. 31.3 Mammalian Heart and Blood Vessels
      5. 31.4 Blood Flow and Blood Pressure Regulation
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    9. 32 Osmotic Regulation and Excretion
      1. Introduction
      2. 32.1 Osmoregulation and Osmotic Balance
      3. 32.2 The Kidneys and Osmoregulatory Organs
      4. 32.3 Excretion Systems
      5. 32.4 Nitrogenous Wastes
      6. 32.5 Hormonal Control of Osmoregulatory Functions
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
    10. 33 The Immune System
      1. Introduction
      2. 33.1 Innate Immune Response
      3. 33.2 Adaptive Immune Response
      4. 33.3 Antibodies
      5. 33.4 Disruptions in the Immune System
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    11. 34 Animal Reproduction and Development
      1. Introduction
      2. 34.1 Reproduction Methods
      3. 34.2 Fertilization
      4. 34.3 Human Reproductive Anatomy and Gametogenesis
      5. 34.4 Hormonal Control of Human Reproduction
      6. 34.5 Fertilization and Early Embryonic Development
      7. 34.6 Organogenesis and Vertebrate Formation
      8. 34.7 Human Pregnancy and Birth
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Summary
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
      13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      14. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  9. Unit 8
    1. 35 Ecology and the Biosphere
      1. Introduction
      2. 35.1 The Scope of Ecology
      3. 35.2 Biogeography
      4. 35.3 Terrestrial Biomes
      5. 35.4 Aquatic Biomes
      6. 35.5 Climate and the Effects of Global Climate Change
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    2. 36 Population and Community Ecology
      1. Introduction
      2. 36.1 Population Demography
      3. 36.2 Life Histories and Natural Selection
      4. 36.3 Environmental Limits to Population Growth
      5. 36.4 Population Dynamics and Regulation
      6. 36.5 Human Population Growth
      7. 36.6 Community Ecology
      8. 36.7 Behavioral Biology: Proximate and Ultimate Causes of Behavior
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Summary
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
      13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      14. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 37 Ecosystems
      1. Introduction
      2. 37.1 Ecology for Ecosystems
      3. 37.2 Energy Flow through Ecosystems
      4. 37.3 Biogeochemical Cycles
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    4. 38 Conservation Biology and Biodiversity
      1. Introduction
      2. 38.1 The Biodiversity Crisis
      3. 38.2 The Importance of Biodiversity to Human Life
      4. 38.3 Threats to Biodiversity
      5. 38.4 Preserving Biodiversity
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  10. A | The Periodic Table of Elements
  11. B | Geological Time
  12. C | Measurements and the Metric System
  13. Index
37.
Which statement explains how the two types of sensory transduction differ?
  1. Receptors can respond to multiple stimuli, whereas free nerve endings are specialized cells that detect a specific stimulus.
  2. Receptors are specialized cells that detect a specific stimulus, whereas free nerve endings can respond to multiple stimuli.
  3. Receptors are similar for different stimuli, whereas free nerve endings are different for different stimuli.
  4. Receptors are specialized cells that detect a specific stimulus, whereas free nerve endings can respond to pressure.
38.
Describe how the steps of sensory perception would be affected if a person sustains damage to axons that lead from sensory receptors to the central nervous system.
  1. Reception would not be affected. However, signal transduction and perception will be incomplete.
  2. Perception would not be affected. However, signal transduction and reception will be incomplete.
  3. Signal transduction would not be affected. However, reception and perception will be incomplete.
  4. Reception and signal transduction would not be affected. However, perception will be incomplete.
39.
Give an example of how Weber’s law is applicable to a just-noticeable difference.
  1. A difference between 20 and 21 units of weight is more likely detectable than a difference between 1 and 2 units.
  2. A difference between 1 and 2 units of weight is more likely detectable than a difference between 20 and 21 units.
  3. A difference between 1 and 2 units of weight is more likely detectable than a difference between 2 and 4 units.
  4. A difference between 20 and 21 units of weight is more likely detectable than a difference between 2 and 4 units.
40.
Humans have both special and general senses. Which statement explains what both types of senses have in common?
  1. All types of senses undergo sensory transduction by converting a stimulus into a chemical signal via the central nervous system.
  2. All types of senses undergo sensory transduction by converting a stimulus into an electrical signal via the peripheral nervous system.
  3. All types of senses undergo sensory transduction by converting a stimulus into a chemical signal via the nervous system.
  4. All types of senses undergo sensory transduction by converting a stimulus into an electrical signal via the nervous system.
41.
Explain why there are more Merkel’s disks and Meissner’s corpuscles in your fingertips than in your palms.
  1. These two types of thermoreceptors are used to detect warmth and cold which is necessary to maintain body temperature.
  2. These two types of mechanoreceptors are used to detect fine details necessary for many roles of fingertips but not palms such as typing.
  3. These two types of proprioceptors are used to detect fine details necessary for many roles of fingertips but not palms, such as typing.
  4. These two types of mechanoreceptors are used to detect fine details, which are necessary for many roles of fingertips as well as palms.
42.
Explain what can be inferred about the relative sizes of the areas of cortex that process signals from skin not densely innervated with sensory receptors versus skin that is densely innervated with sensory receptors.
  1. Areas of the cortex that process signals from skin with fewer sensory receptors are likely to be larger than those having large numbers of sensory receptors.
  2. Areas of the cortex that process signals from skin with fewer sensory receptors are likely to be smaller than those having large numbers of sensory receptors.
  3. Areas of the cortex that process signals from skin with fewer sensory receptors and large numbers of sensory receptors will likely be the same.
  4. There is no relationship between the relative sizes of areas of cortex that process signals from skin and the sensory receptor numbers.
43.
Explain why some people think that peppers are painful or hot, while other people do not find peppers painful or hot.
  1. Peppers contain capsaicin, which opens the same sodium channels as warm receptors. Excess stimulation gives the perception of pain. Thus people who can tolerate more heat find peppers to be less painful.
  2. Peppers contain capsaicin, which opens the same calcium channels as warm receptors. Excess stimulation gives the perception of pain. Thus people who can tolerate more heat find peppers to be less painful.
  3. Peppers contain quinine, which opens the same calcium channels as warm receptors. Excess stimulation gives the perception of pain. Thus people who can tolerate more heat find peppers to be less painful.
  4. Peppers contain quinine, which opens the same sodium channels as warm receptors. Excess stimulation gives the perception of pain. Thus people who can tolerate more heat find peppers to be less painful.
44.
Discuss how the location of mechanoreceptors affect their ability to sense different stimuli.
  1. Merkel’s disks and Meissner’s corpuscles are found in specialized regions and detect the amount of stretch. Pacinian corpuscles and Ruffini endings are able to sense deeper touch, such as deeper pressure.
  2. Merkel’s disks and Meissner’s corpuscles are found deeper in the skin and are able to sense deeper touch, such as deeper pressure. Pacinian corpuscles and Ruffini endings are able to better detect fine touch.
  3. Merkel’s disks and Meissner’s corpuscles are found deeper in the skin and detect fine touch. Pacinian corpuscles and Ruffini endings are able to sense deeper touch, such as deeper pressure.
  4. Merkel’s disks and Meissner’s corpuscles are found in more upper parts of the skin and detect fine touch. Pacinian corpuscles and Ruffini endings are able to sense deeper touch, such as deeper pressure.
45.
Explain what happens to the ability to perceive taste and smell as people age.
  1. All senses decline with age, most dramatically by age 50 and then continue to decline thereafter.
  2. All senses increase with age, most dramatically by age 50 and then continue to increase thereafter.
  3. All senses decline with age, most dramatically by age 50 and then increase thereafter.
  4. All senses increase with age, most dramatically by age 50 and then decline thereafter.
46.
Predict a possible effect on an animal of not being able to perceive taste.
  1. The animal might not be able to eat food.
  2. The animal might not be able to eat sweet and unspoiled food.
  3. The animal might not be able to distinguish food that is bitter and sour.
  4. The animal might not be able to distinguish food that is dangerous, bitter, spoiled, sour or sweet.
47.
If a young child goes missing, predict why a bloodhound and not a poodle would be used to find the child.
  1. Bloodhounds were bred to have a better sense of smell, and thus have fewer olfactory receptors and larger olfactory epithelia.
  2. Bloodhounds were bred to have a better sense of smell, and thus have more olfactory receptors and larger olfactory epithelia.
  3. Bloodhounds were bred to have a better sense of smell, and thus have more olfactory receptors and smaller olfactory epithelia.
  4. Bloodhounds were bred to have a better sense of smell, and thus have more olfactory bulbs and larger olfactory receptors.
48.
Explain how pheromones differ from other odorants, from the perspective of the recipient of the signal.
  1. Pheromones are sent to the main olfactory bulb instead of the amygdala and are not consciously perceived.
  2. Pheromones are sent to the amygdala instead of the main olfactory bulb and are consciously perceived.
  3. Pheromones are sent to the amygdala instead of the main olfactory bulb and are not consciously perceived.
  4. Pheromones are sent to the main olfactory bulb instead of the amygdala and are consciously perceived.
49.
You are sitting with a dog and a cat and decide to test a 50,000 Hz ringtone. Identify which of you is likely to respond to the sound and explain why.
  1. The human and dog will respond, because they can hear up to 50,000 Hz.
  2. The cat and dog will respond, because they can hear up to 50,000 Hz.
  3. Only the dog will respond, because they can hear up to 50,000 Hz.
  4. Only the cat will respond, because cats can hear up to 50,000 Hz.
50.
You are having a debate with someone in a library. A librarian asks you to “speak softer.” What characteristic of sound does the librarian want you to change and how can you change it?
  1. wavelength, by lowering the amplitude at which you are speaking
  2. amplitude, by lowering the frequency at which you are speaking
  3. frequency, by lowering the volume at which you are speaking
  4. amplitude, by lowering the volume at which you are speaking.
51.
If an individual was born without the malleus in either ear, explain why they might have problems with hearing.
  1. Without the malleus and incus, the vibrations of the tympanum would not be able to reach the stapes and then be sent to the cochlea.
  2. Without the malleus and incus, the vibrations of the pinna would not be able to reach the stapes and then be sent to the cochlea.
  3. Without the malleus and incus, sound waves would not be collected by the tympanum.
  4. Without the malleus and incus, sound waves would not be collected by the pinna.
52.
Explain how being on the moon, which has less gravity than Earth, might affect vestibular sensation and why.
  1. Vestibular sensation relies on gravity’s effects on tiny crystals in the inner nostril; therefore, reduced gravity on the moon would likely impair vestibular sensation.
  2. Vestibular sensation relies on gravity’s effects on huge crystals in the inner ear; therefore, reduced gravity on the moon would likely impair vestibular sensation.
  3. Vestibular sensation relies on gravity’s effects on tiny crystals in the inner ear; therefore, reduced gravity on the moon would likely impair vestibular sensation.
  4. Vestibular sensation relies on gravity’s effects on tiny crystals in the outer ear; therefore, reduced gravity on the moon would likely impair vestibular sensation.
53.
Explain why you are unable to see the heat emitted by a cricket.
  1. Ultraviolet light includes heat emitted by prey organisms of reptiles which is outside the visual spectrum for humans because the wavelength is less than 380 nm.
  2. Infrared light includes heat emitted by prey organisms of reptiles which is outside the visual spectrum for humans because the wavelength is less than 380 nm.
  3. Infrared light includes heat emitted by prey organisms of reptiles, which is outside the visual spectrum for humans because the wavelength is more than 400 nm.
  4. Ultraviolet light includes heat emitted by prey organisms of reptiles, which is outside the visual spectrum for humans because the wavelength is more than 400 nm.
54.
Explain what the color receptors in your eyes are perceiving if you see a white building.
  1. All of the color receptors in your eyes are equally stimulated when you see the color white.
  2. Both L and M cones are equally stimulated in your eyes when you see the color white.
  3. Only the S cones are stimulated in your eyes when you see the color white.
  4. L cones are stimulated strongly and S cones are weakly stimulated when you see the color white.
55.
Discuss how the relationship between photoreceptors and bipolar cells is different from other sensory receptors and adjacent cells.
  1. Photoreceptors and bipolar cells are depolarized, whereas other sensory receptors typically remain polarized.
  2. Photoreceptors and bipolar cells are hyperpolarized, whereas other sensory receptors typically remain polarized.
  3. Photoreceptors and bipolar cells are depolarized, whereas other sensory receptors typically become hyperpolarized.
  4. Photoreceptors and bipolar cells are hyperpolarized, whereas other sensory receptors typically become depolarized.
56.
Explain what happens once visual signals reach the visual cortex.
  1. Some signals go to the temporal lobe, which detects “where” information, and other signals go to the parietal lobe, which detects “where” and “what” signals.
  2. Some signals go to the parietal lobe, which detects “where” information, and other signals go to the temporal lobe, which detects “what” signals.
  3. Some signals go to the parietal lobe, which detects “where” and “what” information and other signals go to the temporal lobe, which also detects “where” and “what” signals.
  4. Some signals go to the parietal lobe, which detects “where” information, and other signals go to the temporal lobe, which detects “where” and “what” signals.
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