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Biology for AP® Courses

Critical Thinking Questions

Biology for AP® CoursesCritical Thinking Questions
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  1. Preface
  2. Unit 1
    1. 1 The Study of Life
      1. Introduction
      2. 1.1 The Science of Biology
      3. 1.2 Themes and Concepts of Biology
      4. Key Terms
      5. Chapter Summary
      6. Review Questions
      7. Critical Thinking Questions
      8. Test Prep for AP® Courses
    2. 2 The Chemical Foundation of Life
      1. Introduction
      2. 2.1 Atoms, Isotopes, Ions, and Molecules: The Building Blocks
      3. 2.2 Water
      4. 2.3 Carbon
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 3 Biological Macromolecules
      1. Introduction
      2. 3.1 Synthesis of Biological Macromolecules
      3. 3.2 Carbohydrates
      4. 3.3 Lipids
      5. 3.4 Proteins
      6. 3.5 Nucleic Acids
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  3. Unit 2
    1. 4 Cell Structure
      1. Introduction
      2. 4.1 Studying Cells
      3. 4.2 Prokaryotic Cells
      4. 4.3 Eukaryotic Cells
      5. 4.4 The Endomembrane System and Proteins
      6. 4.5 Cytoskeleton
      7. 4.6 Connections between Cells and Cellular Activities
      8. Key Terms
      9. Chapter Summary
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
      12. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      13. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    2. 5 Structure and Function of Plasma Membranes
      1. Introduction
      2. 5.1 Components and Structure
      3. 5.2 Passive Transport
      4. 5.3 Active Transport
      5. 5.4 Bulk Transport
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 6 Metabolism
      1. Introduction
      2. 6.1 Energy and Metabolism
      3. 6.2 Potential, Kinetic, Free, and Activation Energy
      4. 6.3 The Laws of Thermodynamics
      5. 6.4 ATP: Adenosine Triphosphate
      6. 6.5 Enzymes
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    4. 7 Cellular Respiration
      1. Introduction
      2. 7.1 Energy in Living Systems
      3. 7.2 Glycolysis
      4. 7.3 Oxidation of Pyruvate and the Citric Acid Cycle
      5. 7.4 Oxidative Phosphorylation
      6. 7.5 Metabolism without Oxygen
      7. 7.6 Connections of Carbohydrate, Protein, and Lipid Metabolic Pathways
      8. 7.7 Regulation of Cellular Respiration
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Summary
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
      13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      14. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    5. 8 Photosynthesis
      1. Introduction
      2. 8.1 Overview of Photosynthesis
      3. 8.2 The Light-Dependent Reaction of Photosynthesis
      4. 8.3 Using Light to Make Organic Molecules
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    6. 9 Cell Communication
      1. Introduction
      2. 9.1 Signaling Molecules and Cellular Receptors
      3. 9.2 Propagation of the Signal
      4. 9.3 Response to the Signal
      5. 9.4 Signaling in Single-Celled Organisms
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    7. 10 Cell Reproduction
      1. Introduction
      2. 10.1 Cell Division
      3. 10.2 The Cell Cycle
      4. 10.3 Control of the Cell Cycle
      5. 10.4 Cancer and the Cell Cycle
      6. 10.5 Prokaryotic Cell Division
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  4. Unit 3
    1. 11 Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction
      1. Introduction
      2. 11.1 The Process of Meiosis
      3. 11.2 Sexual Reproduction
      4. Key Terms
      5. Chapter Summary
      6. Review Questions
      7. Critical Thinking Questions
      8. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      9. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    2. 12 Mendel's Experiments and Heredity
      1. Introduction
      2. 12.1 Mendel’s Experiments and the Laws of Probability
      3. 12.2 Characteristics and Traits
      4. 12.3 Laws of Inheritance
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 13 Modern Understandings of Inheritance
      1. Introduction
      2. 13.1 Chromosomal Theory and Genetic Linkages
      3. 13.2 Chromosomal Basis of Inherited Disorders
      4. Key Terms
      5. Chapter Summary
      6. Review Questions
      7. Critical Thinking Questions
      8. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      9. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    4. 14 DNA Structure and Function
      1. Introduction
      2. 14.1 Historical Basis of Modern Understanding
      3. 14.2 DNA Structure and Sequencing
      4. 14.3 Basics of DNA Replication
      5. 14.4 DNA Replication in Prokaryotes
      6. 14.5 DNA Replication in Eukaryotes
      7. 14.6 DNA Repair
      8. Key Terms
      9. Chapter Summary
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
      12. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      13. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    5. 15 Genes and Proteins
      1. Introduction
      2. 15.1 The Genetic Code
      3. 15.2 Prokaryotic Transcription
      4. 15.3 Eukaryotic Transcription
      5. 15.4 RNA Processing in Eukaryotes
      6. 15.5 Ribosomes and Protein Synthesis
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    6. 16 Gene Regulation
      1. Introduction
      2. 16.1 Regulation of Gene Expression
      3. 16.2 Prokaryotic Gene Regulation
      4. 16.3 Eukaryotic Epigenetic Gene Regulation
      5. 16.4 Eukaryotic Transcriptional Gene Regulation
      6. 16.5 Eukaryotic Post-transcriptional Gene Regulation
      7. 16.6 Eukaryotic Translational and Post-translational Gene Regulation
      8. 16.7 Cancer and Gene Regulation
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Summary
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
      13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      14. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    7. 17 Biotechnology and Genomics
      1. Introduction
      2. 17.1 Biotechnology
      3. 17.2 Mapping Genomes
      4. 17.3 Whole-Genome Sequencing
      5. 17.4 Applying Genomics
      6. 17.5 Genomics and Proteomics
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  5. Unit 4
    1. 18 Evolution and Origin of Species
      1. Introduction
      2. 18.1 Understanding Evolution
      3. 18.2 Formation of New Species
      4. 18.3 Reconnection and Rates of Speciation
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    2. 19 The Evolution of Populations
      1. Introduction
      2. 19.1 Population Evolution
      3. 19.2 Population Genetics
      4. 19.3 Adaptive Evolution
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 20 Phylogenies and the History of Life
      1. Introduction
      2. 20.1 Organizing Life on Earth
      3. 20.2 Determining Evolutionary Relationships
      4. 20.3 Perspectives on the Phylogenetic Tree
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  6. Unit 5
    1. 21 Viruses
      1. Introduction
      2. 21.1 Viral Evolution, Morphology, and Classification
      3. 21.2 Virus Infection and Hosts
      4. 21.3 Prevention and Treatment of Viral Infections
      5. 21.4 Other Acellular Entities: Prions and Viroids
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    2. 22 Prokaryotes: Bacteria and Archaea
      1. Introduction
      2. 22.1 Prokaryotic Diversity
      3. 22.2 Structure of Prokaryotes
      4. 22.3 Prokaryotic Metabolism
      5. 22.4 Bacterial Diseases in Humans
      6. 22.5 Beneficial Prokaryotes
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  7. Unit 6
    1. 23 Plant Form and Physiology
      1. Introduction
      2. 23.1 The Plant Body
      3. 23.2 Stems
      4. 23.3 Roots
      5. 23.4 Leaves
      6. 23.5 Transport of Water and Solutes in Plants
      7. 23.6 Plant Sensory Systems and Responses
      8. Key Terms
      9. Chapter Summary
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
      12. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      13. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  8. Unit 7
    1. 24 The Animal Body: Basic Form and Function
      1. Introduction
      2. 24.1 Animal Form and Function
      3. 24.2 Animal Primary Tissues
      4. 24.3 Homeostasis
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
    2. 25 Animal Nutrition and the Digestive System
      1. Introduction
      2. 25.1 Digestive Systems
      3. 25.2 Nutrition and Energy Production
      4. 25.3 Digestive System Processes
      5. 25.4 Digestive System Regulation
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 26 The Nervous System
      1. Introduction
      2. 26.1 Neurons and Glial Cells
      3. 26.2 How Neurons Communicate
      4. 26.3 The Central Nervous System
      5. 26.4 The Peripheral Nervous System
      6. 26.5 Nervous System Disorders
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    4. 27 Sensory Systems
      1. Introduction
      2. 27.1 Sensory Processes
      3. 27.2 Somatosensation
      4. 27.3 Taste and Smell
      5. 27.4 Hearing and Vestibular Sensation
      6. 27.5 Vision
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    5. 28 The Endocrine System
      1. Introduction
      2. 28.1 Types of Hormones
      3. 28.2 How Hormones Work
      4. 28.3 Regulation of Body Processes
      5. 28.4 Regulation of Hormone Production
      6. 28.5 Endocrine Glands
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    6. 29 The Musculoskeletal System
      1. Introduction
      2. 29.1 Types of Skeletal Systems
      3. 29.2 Bone
      4. 29.3 Joints and Skeletal Movement
      5. 29.4 Muscle Contraction and Locomotion
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    7. 30 The Respiratory System
      1. Introduction
      2. 30.1 Systems of Gas Exchange
      3. 30.2 Gas Exchange across Respiratory Surfaces
      4. 30.3 Breathing
      5. 30.4 Transport of Gases in Human Bodily Fluids
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    8. 31 The Circulatory System
      1. Introduction
      2. 31.1 Overview of the Circulatory System
      3. 31.2 Components of the Blood
      4. 31.3 Mammalian Heart and Blood Vessels
      5. 31.4 Blood Flow and Blood Pressure Regulation
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    9. 32 Osmotic Regulation and Excretion
      1. Introduction
      2. 32.1 Osmoregulation and Osmotic Balance
      3. 32.2 The Kidneys and Osmoregulatory Organs
      4. 32.3 Excretion Systems
      5. 32.4 Nitrogenous Wastes
      6. 32.5 Hormonal Control of Osmoregulatory Functions
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
    10. 33 The Immune System
      1. Introduction
      2. 33.1 Innate Immune Response
      3. 33.2 Adaptive Immune Response
      4. 33.3 Antibodies
      5. 33.4 Disruptions in the Immune System
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    11. 34 Animal Reproduction and Development
      1. Introduction
      2. 34.1 Reproduction Methods
      3. 34.2 Fertilization
      4. 34.3 Human Reproductive Anatomy and Gametogenesis
      5. 34.4 Hormonal Control of Human Reproduction
      6. 34.5 Fertilization and Early Embryonic Development
      7. 34.6 Organogenesis and Vertebrate Formation
      8. 34.7 Human Pregnancy and Birth
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Summary
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
      13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      14. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  9. Unit 8
    1. 35 Ecology and the Biosphere
      1. Introduction
      2. 35.1 The Scope of Ecology
      3. 35.2 Biogeography
      4. 35.3 Terrestrial Biomes
      5. 35.4 Aquatic Biomes
      6. 35.5 Climate and the Effects of Global Climate Change
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    2. 36 Population and Community Ecology
      1. Introduction
      2. 36.1 Population Demography
      3. 36.2 Life Histories and Natural Selection
      4. 36.3 Environmental Limits to Population Growth
      5. 36.4 Population Dynamics and Regulation
      6. 36.5 Human Population Growth
      7. 36.6 Community Ecology
      8. 36.7 Behavioral Biology: Proximate and Ultimate Causes of Behavior
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Summary
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
      13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      14. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 37 Ecosystems
      1. Introduction
      2. 37.1 Ecology for Ecosystems
      3. 37.2 Energy Flow through Ecosystems
      4. 37.3 Biogeochemical Cycles
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    4. 38 Conservation Biology and Biodiversity
      1. Introduction
      2. 38.1 The Biodiversity Crisis
      3. 38.2 The Importance of Biodiversity to Human Life
      4. 38.3 Threats to Biodiversity
      5. 38.4 Preserving Biodiversity
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  10. A | The Periodic Table of Elements
  11. B | Geological Time
  12. C | Measurements and the Metric System
  13. Index
62.
Why are plants with shallow roots more easily damaged by some herbivores?
  1. Shallow roots do not anchor the plant to the ground and can be easily uprooted. Once the plant is no longer in the ground, the roots are unable to grow back.
  2. Plants with shallow roots do not anchor the plant to the ground; meristems can be easily damaged and cannot grow back when not in the ground.
  3. Shallow roots do not anchor the plant to the ground and can be easily uprooted. Once the plant is no longer in the ground, roots take a long time to grow back.
  4. Shallow roots anchor the plant to the ground strongly but can be easily uprooted, and they grow back very slowly.
63.
A researcher intends to test the effects of several growth factors on the differentiation of plant tissue. What would be the best choice of experimental tissue?
  1. dermal tissue
  2. meristematic tissue
  3. vascular tissue
  4. ground tissue
64.
How do the locations and the functions of the three types of meristematic tissues compare?
  1. Apical meristems found in the tip of stems and roots promote growth by elongation; lateral meristems found at nodes and bases of leaf blades promote increase in length and intercalary meristems found in the vascular and cork cambia promote increase in girth.
  2. Apical meristems found at nodes and bases of leaf blades promote growth by elongation; lateral meristems found in the vascular and cork cambia promote increase in girth and intercalary meristems found in the tip of stems and roots promote increase in length.
  3. Apical meristems found in the tip of stems and roots promote growth by elongation; lateral meristems found in the vascular and cork cambia promote increase in girth and intercalary meristems found at nodes and bases of leaf blades promote increase in length.
  4. Apical meristems found in the tip of stems and roots promote growth by elongation; lateral meristems found in the vascular and cork cambia promote increase in length and intercalary meristems found at nodes and bases of leaf blades promote increase in length.
65.
In an experiment on transport in plants, seedlings are exposed to radiolabeled minerals. In a second experiment, plants are provided with CO2 that is labeled with 14C. At the end of each experiment, tissue slices are analyzed for the presence of radiolabeled minerals and radioactive sucrose. Which plant tissue would show the presence of labeled minerals and which would show the presence of radioactive sucrose?
  1. Phloem tissue would show the presence of labeled minerals and xylem tissue would show the presence of radioactive sucrose.
  2. Xylem tissue would show the presence of labeled minerals and phloem tissue would show the presence of radioactive sucrose.
  3. Parenchyma would show the presence of labeled minerals and sclerenchyma would show the presence of radioactive sucrose.
  4. Sclerenchyma would show the presence of labeled minerals and parenchyma would show the presence of radioactive sucrose.
66.
How could the morphology of cells observed microscopically indicate that the specimen is probably simple tissue?
  1. Simple tissue is made of cells that have different shapes, so the specimen will show oval, polygonal, and other shapes.
  2. Simple tissue is made of cells that have intercellular spaces, so the specimen will contain spaces.
  3. Simple tissue is made of cells that are elongated and tapered, so the specimen will show elongated cells.
  4. Simple tissue is made of cells that are morphologically similar, so the specimen will appear uniform.
67.
Which statements list two advantages of a taproot?
  1. It anchors the plant, so that it is not easily uprooted by predators or wind. It is a sink for proteins that is protected from herbivores by being underground.
  2. It anchors the plant, so that it is not easily uprooted by predators or wind. It is a source of starches that is protected from herbivores by being underground.
  3. It anchors the plant, so that it cannot be uprooted by predators or wind. It is a sink for starches that is protected from herbivores by being underground.
  4. It anchors the plant, so that it is not easily uprooted by predators or wind. It is a sink for starches that is protected from herbivores by being underground.
68.
Students observe several slides of tissue cross-sections under the microscope. They are asked to develop a key system to classify the slides as coming from either monocot or dicots. What key system should the students develop?
  1. In monocots, the vascular bundles form a distinct ring. In dicots, the vascular bundles are scattered in the ground tissue.
  2. In monocots, the vascular tissue forms a characteristic X shape in the center. In dicots, the phloem and xylem cells are scattered in the pith.
  3. In monocots, the vascular bundles are scattered in the ground tissue. In dicots the vascular bundles form a distinct ring.
  4. In monocot roots, the pith is absent or very small. In dicots, the pith is large and well developed.
69.
What are the functions of stomata and guard cells, and what would happen to a plant if these cells did not function correctly?
  1. Guard cells allow carbon dioxide to enter and exit the plant. Stomata regulate the opening and closing of guard cells. If the cells didn’t function, photosynthesis and transpiration would cease, which would interfere with the necessary continuous flow of water upward from roots to leaves.
  2. Stomata allow oxygen to enter and exit the plant. Guard cells regulate the opening and closing of stomata. If the cells didn’t function, photosynthesis would continue but transpiration would cease, which would interfere with the necessary continuous flow of water upward from roots to leaves.
  3. Guard cells allow carbon dioxide to enter and exit the plant. Stomata regulate the opening and closing of guard cells. Transpiration and in turn, photosynthesis would not occur which is necessary to maintain a continuous flow of water upwards from the roots to the leaves.
  4. Stomata allow gases to enter and exit the plant. Guard cells regulate the opening and closing of stomata. Photosynthesis and, in turn, transpiration, would not occur which is necessary to maintain a continuous flow of water upwards from the roots to the leaves.
70.
An herbicide is developed that impairs the function of the cork cambium in woody plants. Which changes in the plant should be monitored to gauge the effectiveness of the herbicide?
  1. Cork will not be produced and the plant will not increase in girth.
  2. Excess cork will be produced and annual rings will not be formed.
  3. Cork will not be produced and the plant will not be able to exchange gases.
  4. Excess cork will be produced and the plant will not increase in girth.
71.
Besides the age of a tree, what additional information can annual rings reveal?
  1. Annual rings can also indicate the height of the tree.
  2. Annual rings can also indicate the climatic conditions that prevailed during each growing season.
  3. Annual rings can also indicate in which season the tree was sown.
  4. Annual rings can also give an estimation of how long a particular tree is going to live.
72.
Modified stems give an advantage to plants. What advantage do rhizomes, stolons, and runners provide? What advantages do corms, tubers, and bulbs provide?
  1. Rhizomes, stolons and runners give rise to new plants that are the clones of the parents and they store food. Corms, tubers, and bulbs can also produce new plants.
  2. Rhizomes, stolons, and runners give rise to new plants that are the different from the parents. Corms, tubers, and bulbs can also produce new plants as well as store food.
  3. Rhizomes, stolons and runners give rise to new plants that are the clones of the parents. Corms, tubers, and bulbs can also produce new plants as well as store food.
  4. Rhizomes, stolons and runners give rise to new plants that are similar to the parents but show genetic variability. Corms, tubers, and bulbs can also produce new plants as well as store food.
73.
A time course is developed to follow the fate of the vascular bundles in the stem of dicots. Sections along the stem are fixed, stained, and observed under a microscope. What happens to the vascular bundles in the stem of a dicot as the plant matures?
  1. The vascular bundles join to form growth rings.
  2. The vascular bundles divide into primary xylem and primary phloem.
  3. The vascular bundles divide into secondary xylem and primary phloem.
  4. The vascular bundles die out.
74.
Which description correctly compares a tap root system with a fibrous root system?
  1. A tap root system, such as that of carrots, has a single main root that grows down. A fibrous root system, such as that of wheat, forms a dense network of roots that is closer to the soil surface. Fibrous root systems are found in monocots and tap root systems are found in dicots.
  2. A fibrous root system, such as that of a carrot, has a single main root that grows down. A taproot system, such as that of wheat, forms a dense network of roots that is closer to the soil surface. Fibrous root systems are found in monocots and tap root systems are found in dicots.
  3. A taproot system, such as that of rice, has a single main root that grows down. A fibrous root system, such as that of a carrot, forms a dense network of roots that is closer to the soil surface. Fibrous root systems are found in monocots and tap root systems are found in dicots.
  4. A taproot system, such as that of a carrot, has a single main root that grows down. A fibrous root system, such as that of wheat, forms a dense network of roots that is closer to the soil surface. Taproot systems are found in monocots and fibrous root systems are found in dicots.
75.
What is the advantage of a root cap covering the apical meristem of a root?
  1. It provides protection and helps in absorption.
  2. It increases the surface area of root for absorption of water and minerals.
  3. It protects meristem against injury and provides lubrication for the growing root to dig through soil.
  4. It protects the meristem against injury and helps in absorption.
76.
How does selective uptake of water and mineral take place in a root?
  1. Water and minerals must follow entirely a path between cells, where selectivity occurs.
  2. Water and minerals must follow entirely a path between cells, where no selectivity occurs.
  3. Water and minerals must cross the endodermis.
  4. Water and minerals must cross the tracheids of the xylem.
77.
What are the advantages to a plant of storing a food reserve underground?
  1. Food reserves are more nutritious underground. The soil conditions make these food reserves abundant.
  2. Food reserves underground are hidden from potential predators. The soil conditions make these food reserves abundant.
  3. Food reserves are more nutritious underground. The soil conditions such as moisture and temperature are less variable.
  4. Food reserves underground are hidden from potential predators. Soil conditions such as moisture and temperature are less variable.
78.
Some desert plants have taproots that extend up to 20-30 feet underground. Others have fibrous root systems that cover wide areas. What are the advantages of a deep taproot and the advantages of a fibrous root system in a desert?
  1. A deep taproot can reach the deeper soil regions that stay moist after several rainfalls. A shallow fibrous system provides additional support to anchor the plant in the desert.
  2. A deep taproot provides additional support to anchor the plant in the desert. A shallow fibrous system increases the amount of water that can be absorbed after a light rainfall when the soil dries quickly in the desert.
  3. A deep taproot increases the amount of water that can be absorbed after a light rainfall when the soil dries quickly in the desert. A shallow fibrous system can reach the deeper soil regions that stay moist after several rainfalls.
  4. A deep taproot can reach the deeper soil regions that stay moist after several rainfalls. A shallow fibrous system increases the amount of water that can be absorbed after a light rainfall when the soil dries quickly in the desert.
79.
Samples of leaves from monocots and dicots are piled on the table in a laboratory and students are sorting the leaves. What information will help them know which leaves to identify as monocots?
  1. Bulliform cells are usually absent from monocots whereas they are present on the upper epidermis of dicot leaves.
  2. Monocots have leaves with parallel venation and dicot leaves have reticulate, net-like venation.
  3. Dorsiventral symmetry is observed in monocot leaves whereas isobilateral symmetry is observed in dicot leaves.
  4. Monocots have leaves with reticulate, net-like venation and dicot leaves have parallel venation.
80.
How does a compound leaf give a selective advantage to avoid herbivory?
  1. Compound leaves produce certain types of chemical compounds that are harmful to herbivores.
  2. It is more efficient for large herbivores to eat large, simple leaves.
  3. Compound leaves are thicker than simple leaves.
  4. It is more efficient for large herbivores to eat the small leaflets of compound leaves.
81.
Stomata are usually found in higher numbers on the abaxial or bottom surface of a leaf. What is the advantage of such an arrangement?
  1. Presence of stomata on the abaxial or bottom surface ensures that no, or very little, water is lost due to guttation.
  2. The abaxial or bottom surface receives more sunlight and water evaporates faster by transpiration.
  3. Herbivores do not prefer to eat leaves with stomata on the abaxial or bottom surface.
  4. The adaxial or upper surface receives more sunlight and water evaporates faster by transpiration.
82.
Which plants have leaves that are adapted to cold temperatures?
  1. Conifers such as spruce, fir, and pine have oval-shaped leaves with sunken stomata, helping to reduce water loss.
  2. Succulents such as aloes and agaves have waxy cuticles with sunken stomata, helping to reduce water loss.
  3. Conifers such as spruce, orchids, and pine have needle-shaped leaves with sunken stomata, helping to reduce water loss.
  4. Conifers such as spruce, fir, and pine have needle-shaped leaves with sunken stomata, helping to reduce water loss.
83.
How is a leaf different from a leaflet?
  1. A leaf petiole attaches directly to the stem at a bud node, whereas a leaflet petiole is attached to the main petiole or the midrib, not the stem.
  2. A leaf has reticulate venation whereas leaflets show parallel venation.
  3. A leaf petiole attaches to the main petiole or the midrib, not the stem, whereas a leaflet petiole attaches directly to the stem at a bud node.
  4. A leaf has parallel venation whereas leaflets show reticulate venation.
84.

Scientists on a new project to restore a damaged salt marsh are investigating several plants that could be introduced. Plant X is considered a possible candidate. Before the decision is made, the following data are examined. Assume that the contribution of gravity and matric potential are negligible and can be ignored. Recall that the overall water potential for a system is represented by the equation: Ψsystem = Ψtotal = Ψs + Ψp + Ψg + Ψm

overall Ψ of the soil: -2.1MPa solute potential of the plant’s cell contents: -0.12MPa pressure potential (Ψp) of the plant’s cells: -2.3 MPa

Is Plant X a good candidate for introduction to the salt marsh?

  1. Yes, because the overall water potential of the plant is less negative than the water potential of the soil.
  2. No, because the overall water potential of the plant is less negative than the water potential of the soil.
  3. Yes, because the overall water potential of the plant is more negative than the water potential of the soil.
  4. No, because the overall water potential of the plant is more negative than the water potential of the soil.
85.

What organs in humans are similar in function to the vascular tissues of vascular plants?

86.

Apoptosis, or programmed cell death, is an important step in the development of xylem. How does apoptosis contribute to xylem development?

87.
A florist decided to paint the leaves of poinsettia with a gold paint to embellish them. The plant soon wilted and the leaves drooped. What explains this damage?
  1. The paint clogged the stomata. Without photosynthesis, the plant could not pull water from the soil.
  2. The paint clogged the stomata. Without transpiration, the plant could not pull water from the soil.
  3. The paint clogged the hydathodes. Without transpiration, the plant could not pull water from the soil.
  4. The paint clogged the stomata. Without guttation, the plant could not pull water from the soil.
88.
The process of bulk flow transports fluids in a plant. What are the two main bulk flow processes?
  1. Movement of water up the xylem and movement of solutes up and down the phloem
  2. Movement of water up the phloem and movement of solutes up and down the xylem.
  3. Movement of water up and down the xylem and movement of solutes up the phloem
  4. Movement of solutes up the xylem and movement of water up and down the phloem
89.
During a severe drought, the soil becomes dry and its water potential decreases. Many plants will wilt in such an environment. Consider that the overall water potential for a system is represented by the equation: Ψsystem = Ψtotal = Ψs + Ψp + Ψg + Ψm What is one reason that plants are unable to draw water from the soil?
  1. The water potential of the soil becomes lower than the water potential of the plants.
  2. The water potential of the soil becomes lower than the solute potential of the plants.
  3. The water potential of the soil becomes higher than the water potential of the plants.
  4. The solute potential of the soil becomes lower than the water potential of the plants.
90.
A botanist compares the number of stomata between two plants. One plant, a eucalyptus, has stomata equally distributed on both sides of the leaf. The other plant has most of its stomata on the underside of the leaf. What does the positioning of the stomata indicate about which leaf surfaces on the two plants receive light in their natural environment?
  1. The first plant receives light only on the upper surface of the leaves whereas the leaves of the second plant are equally exposed to sunlight.
  2. The first plant receives light only on the lower surface whereas the second plant receives light only on the upper surface.
  3. The first plant receives light only on the upper surface whereas the second plant receives light only on the lower surface.
  4. The first plant has leaves that are equally exposed to sunlight whereas the second plant receives light only on the upper surface.
91.
In the Northern Hemisphere, owners and managers of plant nurseries have to plan lighting schedules for a long-day plant that will flower in February. What lighting periods and color will be most effective?
  1. Long periods of illumination with light enriched in the red range of the spectrum
  2. Short periods of illumination with light enriched in the red range of the spectrum
  3. Long periods of illumination with light enriched in the far-red range of the spectrum
  4. Short periods of illumination with light enriched in the far-red range of the spectrum
92.
Why do plants that cannot detect gravity show stunted growth with tangled roots and trailing stems?
  1. Without gravitropism, both roots and seedlings would grow upward.
  2. Without gravitropism, roots would grow in all directions and seedlings would grow upward.
  3. Without gravitropism, roots would grow upward but seedlings would not grow upward toward the surface.
  4. Without gravitropism, roots would grow in all directions but seedlings would not grow upward toward the surface.
93.
Storage facilities for fruits and vegetables are usually refrigerated and well ventilated. Why are these conditions advantageous?
  1. Refrigeration slows chemical reactions, including fruit ripening. Ventilation adds the ethylene gas that speeds up fruit maturation.
  2. Refrigeration slows chemical reactions, including fruit maturation. Ventilation removes the ethylene gas that reduces fruit ripening.
  3. Refrigeration slows chemical reactions, including fruit maturation. Ventilation removes the ethylene gas that speeds up fruit ripening.
  4. Refrigeration removes the ethylene gas that speeds up fruit ripening. Ventilation slows chemical reactions, including fruit maturation.
94.
A Venus fly trap has a very low sensitivity threshold, yet it can tell the difference between the light touch of an insect and a drop of rainwater or wind. How can the Venus fly trap differentiate between a random stimulus and an actual prey?
  1. Hair-like appendages on the surface of the leaves respond to repeated contact.
  2. Hair-like appendages on the surface of the leaves respond to a single contact.
  3. Hair-like appendages on the surface of the leaves respond to chemical stimulus from the insect.
  4. Hair-like appendages on the surface of the leaves respond to the electrical stimulus from the insect.
95.
Stomata close in response to bacterial infection. This response is a defense mechanism because it ________ , and the hormone involved is ________ .
  1. restricts the entry of O2; gibberellin
  2. restricts the entry of CO2; abscisic acid
  3. prevents further entry of pathogens; auxin
  4. prevents further entry of pathogens; abscisic acid
96.
Why is shade avoidance an important survival mechanism for plants? Would you expect seeds with large energy storage to display as strong a response of shade avoidance as small seeds with limited reserves?
  1. A seedling growing in the shade of a mature plant will not have enough light to promote meristematic growth. A seed with large storage will be able to sustain growth until its seedling can reach enough light for photosynthesis.
  2. A seedling growing in the shade of a mature plant will not have enough light to promote photosynthesis. Small seeds with limited reserve will be able to sustain growth until seedlings can reach enough light for photosynthesis.
  3. A seedling growing in the shade of a mature plant will not have enough light to promote photosynthesis. A seed with large storage will be able to sustain growth until its seedling can reach enough light for photosynthesis.
  4. A seedling growing in the shade of a mature plant will not have enough light to promote respiration. Small seeds with limited reserve will be able to sustain growth until their seedlings can reach enough light for photosynthesis.
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