Skip to Content
OpenStax Logo
Biology for AP® Courses

Review Questions

Biology for AP® CoursesReview Questions
Buy book
  1. Preface
  2. Unit 1
    1. 1 The Study of Life
      1. Introduction
      2. 1.1 The Science of Biology
      3. 1.2 Themes and Concepts of Biology
      4. Key Terms
      5. Chapter Summary
      6. Review Questions
      7. Critical Thinking Questions
      8. Test Prep for AP® Courses
    2. 2 The Chemical Foundation of Life
      1. Introduction
      2. 2.1 Atoms, Isotopes, Ions, and Molecules: The Building Blocks
      3. 2.2 Water
      4. 2.3 Carbon
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 3 Biological Macromolecules
      1. Introduction
      2. 3.1 Synthesis of Biological Macromolecules
      3. 3.2 Carbohydrates
      4. 3.3 Lipids
      5. 3.4 Proteins
      6. 3.5 Nucleic Acids
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  3. Unit 2
    1. 4 Cell Structure
      1. Introduction
      2. 4.1 Studying Cells
      3. 4.2 Prokaryotic Cells
      4. 4.3 Eukaryotic Cells
      5. 4.4 The Endomembrane System and Proteins
      6. 4.5 Cytoskeleton
      7. 4.6 Connections between Cells and Cellular Activities
      8. Key Terms
      9. Chapter Summary
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
      12. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      13. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    2. 5 Structure and Function of Plasma Membranes
      1. Introduction
      2. 5.1 Components and Structure
      3. 5.2 Passive Transport
      4. 5.3 Active Transport
      5. 5.4 Bulk Transport
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 6 Metabolism
      1. Introduction
      2. 6.1 Energy and Metabolism
      3. 6.2 Potential, Kinetic, Free, and Activation Energy
      4. 6.3 The Laws of Thermodynamics
      5. 6.4 ATP: Adenosine Triphosphate
      6. 6.5 Enzymes
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    4. 7 Cellular Respiration
      1. Introduction
      2. 7.1 Energy in Living Systems
      3. 7.2 Glycolysis
      4. 7.3 Oxidation of Pyruvate and the Citric Acid Cycle
      5. 7.4 Oxidative Phosphorylation
      6. 7.5 Metabolism without Oxygen
      7. 7.6 Connections of Carbohydrate, Protein, and Lipid Metabolic Pathways
      8. 7.7 Regulation of Cellular Respiration
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Summary
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
      13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      14. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    5. 8 Photosynthesis
      1. Introduction
      2. 8.1 Overview of Photosynthesis
      3. 8.2 The Light-Dependent Reaction of Photosynthesis
      4. 8.3 Using Light to Make Organic Molecules
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    6. 9 Cell Communication
      1. Introduction
      2. 9.1 Signaling Molecules and Cellular Receptors
      3. 9.2 Propagation of the Signal
      4. 9.3 Response to the Signal
      5. 9.4 Signaling in Single-Celled Organisms
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    7. 10 Cell Reproduction
      1. Introduction
      2. 10.1 Cell Division
      3. 10.2 The Cell Cycle
      4. 10.3 Control of the Cell Cycle
      5. 10.4 Cancer and the Cell Cycle
      6. 10.5 Prokaryotic Cell Division
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  4. Unit 3
    1. 11 Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction
      1. Introduction
      2. 11.1 The Process of Meiosis
      3. 11.2 Sexual Reproduction
      4. Key Terms
      5. Chapter Summary
      6. Review Questions
      7. Critical Thinking Questions
      8. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      9. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    2. 12 Mendel's Experiments and Heredity
      1. Introduction
      2. 12.1 Mendel’s Experiments and the Laws of Probability
      3. 12.2 Characteristics and Traits
      4. 12.3 Laws of Inheritance
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 13 Modern Understandings of Inheritance
      1. Introduction
      2. 13.1 Chromosomal Theory and Genetic Linkages
      3. 13.2 Chromosomal Basis of Inherited Disorders
      4. Key Terms
      5. Chapter Summary
      6. Review Questions
      7. Critical Thinking Questions
      8. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      9. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    4. 14 DNA Structure and Function
      1. Introduction
      2. 14.1 Historical Basis of Modern Understanding
      3. 14.2 DNA Structure and Sequencing
      4. 14.3 Basics of DNA Replication
      5. 14.4 DNA Replication in Prokaryotes
      6. 14.5 DNA Replication in Eukaryotes
      7. 14.6 DNA Repair
      8. Key Terms
      9. Chapter Summary
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
      12. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      13. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    5. 15 Genes and Proteins
      1. Introduction
      2. 15.1 The Genetic Code
      3. 15.2 Prokaryotic Transcription
      4. 15.3 Eukaryotic Transcription
      5. 15.4 RNA Processing in Eukaryotes
      6. 15.5 Ribosomes and Protein Synthesis
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    6. 16 Gene Regulation
      1. Introduction
      2. 16.1 Regulation of Gene Expression
      3. 16.2 Prokaryotic Gene Regulation
      4. 16.3 Eukaryotic Epigenetic Gene Regulation
      5. 16.4 Eukaryotic Transcriptional Gene Regulation
      6. 16.5 Eukaryotic Post-transcriptional Gene Regulation
      7. 16.6 Eukaryotic Translational and Post-translational Gene Regulation
      8. 16.7 Cancer and Gene Regulation
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Summary
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
      13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      14. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    7. 17 Biotechnology and Genomics
      1. Introduction
      2. 17.1 Biotechnology
      3. 17.2 Mapping Genomes
      4. 17.3 Whole-Genome Sequencing
      5. 17.4 Applying Genomics
      6. 17.5 Genomics and Proteomics
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  5. Unit 4
    1. 18 Evolution and Origin of Species
      1. Introduction
      2. 18.1 Understanding Evolution
      3. 18.2 Formation of New Species
      4. 18.3 Reconnection and Rates of Speciation
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    2. 19 The Evolution of Populations
      1. Introduction
      2. 19.1 Population Evolution
      3. 19.2 Population Genetics
      4. 19.3 Adaptive Evolution
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 20 Phylogenies and the History of Life
      1. Introduction
      2. 20.1 Organizing Life on Earth
      3. 20.2 Determining Evolutionary Relationships
      4. 20.3 Perspectives on the Phylogenetic Tree
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  6. Unit 5
    1. 21 Viruses
      1. Introduction
      2. 21.1 Viral Evolution, Morphology, and Classification
      3. 21.2 Virus Infection and Hosts
      4. 21.3 Prevention and Treatment of Viral Infections
      5. 21.4 Other Acellular Entities: Prions and Viroids
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    2. 22 Prokaryotes: Bacteria and Archaea
      1. Introduction
      2. 22.1 Prokaryotic Diversity
      3. 22.2 Structure of Prokaryotes
      4. 22.3 Prokaryotic Metabolism
      5. 22.4 Bacterial Diseases in Humans
      6. 22.5 Beneficial Prokaryotes
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  7. Unit 6
    1. 23 Plant Form and Physiology
      1. Introduction
      2. 23.1 The Plant Body
      3. 23.2 Stems
      4. 23.3 Roots
      5. 23.4 Leaves
      6. 23.5 Transport of Water and Solutes in Plants
      7. 23.6 Plant Sensory Systems and Responses
      8. Key Terms
      9. Chapter Summary
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
      12. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      13. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  8. Unit 7
    1. 24 The Animal Body: Basic Form and Function
      1. Introduction
      2. 24.1 Animal Form and Function
      3. 24.2 Animal Primary Tissues
      4. 24.3 Homeostasis
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
    2. 25 Animal Nutrition and the Digestive System
      1. Introduction
      2. 25.1 Digestive Systems
      3. 25.2 Nutrition and Energy Production
      4. 25.3 Digestive System Processes
      5. 25.4 Digestive System Regulation
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 26 The Nervous System
      1. Introduction
      2. 26.1 Neurons and Glial Cells
      3. 26.2 How Neurons Communicate
      4. 26.3 The Central Nervous System
      5. 26.4 The Peripheral Nervous System
      6. 26.5 Nervous System Disorders
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    4. 27 Sensory Systems
      1. Introduction
      2. 27.1 Sensory Processes
      3. 27.2 Somatosensation
      4. 27.3 Taste and Smell
      5. 27.4 Hearing and Vestibular Sensation
      6. 27.5 Vision
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    5. 28 The Endocrine System
      1. Introduction
      2. 28.1 Types of Hormones
      3. 28.2 How Hormones Work
      4. 28.3 Regulation of Body Processes
      5. 28.4 Regulation of Hormone Production
      6. 28.5 Endocrine Glands
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    6. 29 The Musculoskeletal System
      1. Introduction
      2. 29.1 Types of Skeletal Systems
      3. 29.2 Bone
      4. 29.3 Joints and Skeletal Movement
      5. 29.4 Muscle Contraction and Locomotion
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    7. 30 The Respiratory System
      1. Introduction
      2. 30.1 Systems of Gas Exchange
      3. 30.2 Gas Exchange across Respiratory Surfaces
      4. 30.3 Breathing
      5. 30.4 Transport of Gases in Human Bodily Fluids
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    8. 31 The Circulatory System
      1. Introduction
      2. 31.1 Overview of the Circulatory System
      3. 31.2 Components of the Blood
      4. 31.3 Mammalian Heart and Blood Vessels
      5. 31.4 Blood Flow and Blood Pressure Regulation
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    9. 32 Osmotic Regulation and Excretion
      1. Introduction
      2. 32.1 Osmoregulation and Osmotic Balance
      3. 32.2 The Kidneys and Osmoregulatory Organs
      4. 32.3 Excretion Systems
      5. 32.4 Nitrogenous Wastes
      6. 32.5 Hormonal Control of Osmoregulatory Functions
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
    10. 33 The Immune System
      1. Introduction
      2. 33.1 Innate Immune Response
      3. 33.2 Adaptive Immune Response
      4. 33.3 Antibodies
      5. 33.4 Disruptions in the Immune System
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    11. 34 Animal Reproduction and Development
      1. Introduction
      2. 34.1 Reproduction Methods
      3. 34.2 Fertilization
      4. 34.3 Human Reproductive Anatomy and Gametogenesis
      5. 34.4 Hormonal Control of Human Reproduction
      6. 34.5 Fertilization and Early Embryonic Development
      7. 34.6 Organogenesis and Vertebrate Formation
      8. 34.7 Human Pregnancy and Birth
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Summary
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
      13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      14. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  9. Unit 8
    1. 35 Ecology and the Biosphere
      1. Introduction
      2. 35.1 The Scope of Ecology
      3. 35.2 Biogeography
      4. 35.3 Terrestrial Biomes
      5. 35.4 Aquatic Biomes
      6. 35.5 Climate and the Effects of Global Climate Change
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    2. 36 Population and Community Ecology
      1. Introduction
      2. 36.1 Population Demography
      3. 36.2 Life Histories and Natural Selection
      4. 36.3 Environmental Limits to Population Growth
      5. 36.4 Population Dynamics and Regulation
      6. 36.5 Human Population Growth
      7. 36.6 Community Ecology
      8. 36.7 Behavioral Biology: Proximate and Ultimate Causes of Behavior
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Summary
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
      13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      14. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 37 Ecosystems
      1. Introduction
      2. 37.1 Ecology for Ecosystems
      3. 37.2 Energy Flow through Ecosystems
      4. 37.3 Biogeochemical Cycles
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    4. 38 Conservation Biology and Biodiversity
      1. Introduction
      2. 38.1 The Biodiversity Crisis
      3. 38.2 The Importance of Biodiversity to Human Life
      4. 38.3 Threats to Biodiversity
      5. 38.4 Preserving Biodiversity
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  10. A | The Periodic Table of Elements
  11. B | Geological Time
  12. C | Measurements and the Metric System
  13. Index
1.
Which is the best evidence that prokaryotes evolved about 3 billion years ago?
  1. Scientists believe photosynthesis evolved about 3.0 billion years ago.
  2. There is fossil evidence of mammalian forms going back about 4.0 billion years.
  3. Earth and its moon are thought to be about 4.5 billion years old.
  4. There is fossil evidence of microbial mats—large multi-layered sheets of prokaryotes—starting about 3.5 billion years ago.
2.
Which statement describing the environment of early Earth is false?
  1. The atmosphere contained much less molecular oxygen.
  2. Strong volcanic activity was common.
  3. It was subject to mutagenic radiation from the Sun.
  4. There was little to no geologic activity.
3.
Which type of extremophile grows optimally at temperatures of –15 to 10 ºC or lower?
  1. alkaliphiles
  2. thermophiles
  3. hyperthermophiles
  4. psychrophiles
4.
Which is an example of a relatively moderate environmental condition to which some prokaryotes are adapted and can survive as spores?
  1. extremely low temperature
  2. hypersalinity
  3. high doses of radiation
  4. normal drought
5.
Over _____ percent of bacteria and archaea cannot be successfully cultured in a laboratory setting.
  1. 9
  2. 19
  3. 91
  4. 99
6.
The most substantial difficulty in culturing prokaryotes in laboratory settings is related to _____.
  1. the lack of knowledge about their needs for growth
  2. growth requirements that are too difficult to meet
  3. inefficient methods for resuscitation of viable but nonculturable (VBNC) organisms
  4. the expense of techniques such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
7.
Which of the following represents the earliest forms of life on Earth?
  1. hydrothermal vent
  2. microbial mat
  3. meteorite
  4. stromatolite
8.
Which best summarizes the conditions of early Earth at the time that life first evolved?
  1. The atmosphere of early Earth was very different from today’s atmosphere, but most other conditions (such as geologic upheaval and volcanic activity) were very much the same.
  2. The atmosphere of early Earth was very much like today’s atmosphere, but many other conditions (such as geologic upheaval and volcanic activity) were very different.
  3. Early Earth had a very different atmosphere, was subject to extreme radiation, and had a lot of geologic upheaval and volcanic activity.
  4. Early Earth had a very different atmosphere and was subject to extreme radiation, but there was very little geologic upheaval or volcanic activity.
9.
Halophiles prefer conditions in which there is a _____.
  1. high sugar concentration
  2. salt concentration of at least 0.2 M
  3. pH of 3 or below
  4. high level of radiation
10.
The presence of a membrane-enclosed nucleus is a characteristic of ____.
  1. prokaryotic cells
  2. eukaryotic cells
  3. all cells
  4. viruses
11.
All prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells have four structures in common: the plasma membrane, the cytoplasm, nucleic acid, and ____.
  1. the cell wall
  2. ribosomes
  3. the nucleus
  4. organelles
12.
Which statement comparing the prokaryotes Bacteria and Archaea is false?
  1. The cytoplasm of both bacterial and archaean prokaryotic cells has a high concentration of dissolved solutes.
  2. Osmotic pressure in both types of prokaryotic cells is relatively high.
  3. The domains Bacteria and Archaea differ in the use of fatty acids versus phytanal groups in their cell membranes.
  4. The domains Bacteria and Archaea have very similar cell wall structure.
13.
Pseudopeptidoglycan is a characteristic of the walls of some _____.
  1. eukaryotic cells
  2. bacterial prokaryotic cells
  3. archaean prokaryotic cells
  4. bacterial and archaean prokaryotic cells
14.
The cell wall, a feature of most prokaryotes, is _______.
  1. interior to the cell membrane
  2. exterior to the cell membrane
  3. a part of the cell membrane
  4. interior or exterior, depending on the particular cell
15.
Which statement summarizes what is known about macronutrient needs of prokaryotes?
  1. Boron is required in small amounts by some prokaryotic organisms.
  2. Manganese is required in small amounts by some prokaryotic organisms.
  3. Iron is required in small amounts by some prokaryotic organisms.
  4. Sulfur is needed in large amounts by prokaryotic organisms. It is part of the structure of some amino acids and is also present in some vitamins and coenzymes.
16.
Which statement about the importance of particular nutrients is false?
  1. Carbon is a macronutrient and major element in all macromolecules.
  2. Nitrogen is a macronutrient and necessary component of proteins and nucleic acids.
  3. Hydrogen is a macronutrient and key component of many organic compounds, including water.
  4. Iron is a macronutrient necessary for the function of cytochromes.
17.
What are prokaryotes that obtain their energy from chemical compounds called?
  1. phototrophs
  2. autotrophs
  3. chemotrophs
  4. heterotrophs
18.
What uses organic compounds as both an energy source and as a carbon source?
  1. chemolithotrophs
  2. photoautotrophs
  3. photoheterotrophs
  4. chemoorganotrophs
19.
A primary role of many prokaryotes in the carbon cycle is that of ____.
  1. producers
  2. decomposers
  3. fixers
  4. synthesizers
20.
Ammonification is the process by which ____.
  1. ammonia is released during the decomposition of nitrogen-containing organic compounds
  2. ammonium is converted to nitrite and nitrate in soils
  3. nitrate from soil is transformed to gaseous nitrogen compounds
  4. gaseous nitrogen is fixed to yield ammonia
21.
Which is a macronutrient needed by prokaryotes?
  1. phosphorus
  2. iron
  3. chromium
  4. boron
22.
A disease that is constantly present in a population is called _______.
  1. pandemic
  2. endemic
  3. emerging
  4. re-emerging
23.
Which set of terms names diseases caused by bacteria?
  1. diptheria, bubonic plague, yellow fever
  2. yellow fever, dengue fever, bubonic plague
  3. bubonic plague, diptheria, cholera
  4. cholera, diptheria, dengue fever
24.
Which of the following health issues is caused by biofilm colonization?
  1. dental plaque
  2. dry scalp
  3. skin rash
  4. prosthetic discomfort
25.
Which of the statements about the loci of biofilm-related disease is false?
  1. Biofilms are related to foodborne illnesses because they colonize food surfaces and food-processing equipment.
  2. In healthcare environments, biofilms grow on ventilators, shunts, and other medical equipment.
  3. Biofilms tend to colonize medical devices such as prostheses, contact lenses, and catheters.
  4. Biofilms form in open wounds, burned tissue, or internal medical devices such as pacemakers.
26.
Which best describes the crisis related to antibiotics?
  1. It is becoming too expensive to manufacture effective antibiotics.
  2. It takes too much time to develop effective antibiotics; infections spread before treatment is available.
  3. Bacteria are increasingly resistant to antibiotics used to treat and eradicate infections.
  4. People are increasingly allergic to antibiotics commonly used in treatment.
27.
Which statement about the cause of resistant bacteria is false?
  1. The excessive use of antibiotics has resulted in the natural selection of resistant forms of bacteria.
  2. Antibiotics are used by patients with colds or the flu, the treatment for which antibiotics are useless.
  3. There is excessive use of antibiotics in livestock and in animal feed.
  4. Antibiotics are used by patients of different ages and the fact that their ages differ increases resistance.
28.
Which statement about diseases is false?
  1. An epidemic is a disease that occurs in a high number of individuals in a population at a time.
  2. A pandemic is a widespread, usually worldwide, epidemic.
  3. An endemic disease is a disease that is constantly present, usually at high incidence, in a population.
  4. An emerging disease is a disease that has appeared in a population for the first time.
29.
Which statement best explains which organisms need nitrogen fixation and why?
  1. Prokaryotes cannot use gaseous nitrogen to synthesize macromolecules, so it must be converted into ammonia.
  2. Prokaryotes cannot use ammonia to synthesize macromolecules, so it must be converted into gaseous nitrogen.
  3. Eukaryotes cannot use ammonia to synthesize macromolecules, so it must be converted into gaseous nitrogen.
  4. Eukaryotes cannot use gaseous nitrogen to synthesize macromolecules, so it must be converted into ammonia.
30.
Which statement about nitrogen fixation is false?
  1. It can be accomplished abiotically, as a result of lightning.
  2. It can be accomplished abiotically, as a result of industrial processes.
  3. It can be accomplished biologically, by algae.
  4. It can be accomplished biologically, by cyanobacteria.
31.
Which are three foods for which prokaryotes are used in their processing?
  1. cheese, yogurt, and milk
  2. cheese, yogurt, and bread
  3. wine, bread, and butter
  4. milk, wine, and beer
32.
What was the initial benefit for humans in processing foods with prokaryotes?
  1. The foods taste better.
  2. Nutrients are preserved.
  3. The food is less stable.
  4. Nutrients were safer.
33.
Which best defines bioremediation?
  1. the use of microbial metabolism to clean up oil spills
  2. the use of microbial metabolism to ferment food
  3. the use of microbial metabolism to remove pollutants
  4. the use of microbial metabolism to fix nitrogen
34.
Which statement about bioremediation is false?
  1. It includes removing agricultural chemicals.
  2. It includes removing industrial by-products.
  3. It includes cleaning up oil spills.
  4. It includes cleaning up ammonia in soil.
35.
Nitrogen is an essential element that is widely available in the atmosphere. Because eukaryotes cannot use nitrogen in its gaseous form, they benefit from prokaryotes’ conversion of gaseous nitrogen to ____.
  1. nitrates, a form of nitrogen they can use
  2. phosphate, a different essential element they can use
  3. ammonia, a form of nitrogen they can use
  4. hydrogen, a different essential element they can use
Citation/Attribution

Want to cite, share, or modify this book? This book is Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 and you must attribute OpenStax.

Attribution information
  • If you are redistributing all or part of this book in a print format, then you must include on every physical page the following attribution:
    Access for free at https://openstax.org/books/biology-ap-courses/pages/1-introduction
  • If you are redistributing all or part of this book in a digital format, then you must include on every digital page view the following attribution:
    Access for free at https://openstax.org/books/biology-ap-courses/pages/1-introduction
Citation information

© Mar 8, 2018 OpenStax. Textbook content produced by OpenStax is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 license. The OpenStax name, OpenStax logo, OpenStax book covers, OpenStax CNX name, and OpenStax CNX logo are not subject to the Creative Commons license and may not be reproduced without the prior and express written consent of Rice University.