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Biology for AP® Courses

Critical Thinking Questions

Biology for AP® CoursesCritical Thinking Questions
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  1. Preface
  2. Unit 1
    1. 1 The Study of Life
      1. Introduction
      2. 1.1 The Science of Biology
      3. 1.2 Themes and Concepts of Biology
      4. Key Terms
      5. Chapter Summary
      6. Review Questions
      7. Critical Thinking Questions
      8. Test Prep for AP® Courses
    2. 2 The Chemical Foundation of Life
      1. Introduction
      2. 2.1 Atoms, Isotopes, Ions, and Molecules: The Building Blocks
      3. 2.2 Water
      4. 2.3 Carbon
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 3 Biological Macromolecules
      1. Introduction
      2. 3.1 Synthesis of Biological Macromolecules
      3. 3.2 Carbohydrates
      4. 3.3 Lipids
      5. 3.4 Proteins
      6. 3.5 Nucleic Acids
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  3. Unit 2
    1. 4 Cell Structure
      1. Introduction
      2. 4.1 Studying Cells
      3. 4.2 Prokaryotic Cells
      4. 4.3 Eukaryotic Cells
      5. 4.4 The Endomembrane System and Proteins
      6. 4.5 Cytoskeleton
      7. 4.6 Connections between Cells and Cellular Activities
      8. Key Terms
      9. Chapter Summary
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
      12. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      13. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    2. 5 Structure and Function of Plasma Membranes
      1. Introduction
      2. 5.1 Components and Structure
      3. 5.2 Passive Transport
      4. 5.3 Active Transport
      5. 5.4 Bulk Transport
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 6 Metabolism
      1. Introduction
      2. 6.1 Energy and Metabolism
      3. 6.2 Potential, Kinetic, Free, and Activation Energy
      4. 6.3 The Laws of Thermodynamics
      5. 6.4 ATP: Adenosine Triphosphate
      6. 6.5 Enzymes
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    4. 7 Cellular Respiration
      1. Introduction
      2. 7.1 Energy in Living Systems
      3. 7.2 Glycolysis
      4. 7.3 Oxidation of Pyruvate and the Citric Acid Cycle
      5. 7.4 Oxidative Phosphorylation
      6. 7.5 Metabolism without Oxygen
      7. 7.6 Connections of Carbohydrate, Protein, and Lipid Metabolic Pathways
      8. 7.7 Regulation of Cellular Respiration
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Summary
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
      13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      14. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    5. 8 Photosynthesis
      1. Introduction
      2. 8.1 Overview of Photosynthesis
      3. 8.2 The Light-Dependent Reaction of Photosynthesis
      4. 8.3 Using Light to Make Organic Molecules
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    6. 9 Cell Communication
      1. Introduction
      2. 9.1 Signaling Molecules and Cellular Receptors
      3. 9.2 Propagation of the Signal
      4. 9.3 Response to the Signal
      5. 9.4 Signaling in Single-Celled Organisms
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    7. 10 Cell Reproduction
      1. Introduction
      2. 10.1 Cell Division
      3. 10.2 The Cell Cycle
      4. 10.3 Control of the Cell Cycle
      5. 10.4 Cancer and the Cell Cycle
      6. 10.5 Prokaryotic Cell Division
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  4. Unit 3
    1. 11 Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction
      1. Introduction
      2. 11.1 The Process of Meiosis
      3. 11.2 Sexual Reproduction
      4. Key Terms
      5. Chapter Summary
      6. Review Questions
      7. Critical Thinking Questions
      8. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      9. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    2. 12 Mendel's Experiments and Heredity
      1. Introduction
      2. 12.1 Mendel’s Experiments and the Laws of Probability
      3. 12.2 Characteristics and Traits
      4. 12.3 Laws of Inheritance
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 13 Modern Understandings of Inheritance
      1. Introduction
      2. 13.1 Chromosomal Theory and Genetic Linkages
      3. 13.2 Chromosomal Basis of Inherited Disorders
      4. Key Terms
      5. Chapter Summary
      6. Review Questions
      7. Critical Thinking Questions
      8. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      9. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    4. 14 DNA Structure and Function
      1. Introduction
      2. 14.1 Historical Basis of Modern Understanding
      3. 14.2 DNA Structure and Sequencing
      4. 14.3 Basics of DNA Replication
      5. 14.4 DNA Replication in Prokaryotes
      6. 14.5 DNA Replication in Eukaryotes
      7. 14.6 DNA Repair
      8. Key Terms
      9. Chapter Summary
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
      12. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      13. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    5. 15 Genes and Proteins
      1. Introduction
      2. 15.1 The Genetic Code
      3. 15.2 Prokaryotic Transcription
      4. 15.3 Eukaryotic Transcription
      5. 15.4 RNA Processing in Eukaryotes
      6. 15.5 Ribosomes and Protein Synthesis
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    6. 16 Gene Regulation
      1. Introduction
      2. 16.1 Regulation of Gene Expression
      3. 16.2 Prokaryotic Gene Regulation
      4. 16.3 Eukaryotic Epigenetic Gene Regulation
      5. 16.4 Eukaryotic Transcriptional Gene Regulation
      6. 16.5 Eukaryotic Post-transcriptional Gene Regulation
      7. 16.6 Eukaryotic Translational and Post-translational Gene Regulation
      8. 16.7 Cancer and Gene Regulation
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Summary
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
      13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      14. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    7. 17 Biotechnology and Genomics
      1. Introduction
      2. 17.1 Biotechnology
      3. 17.2 Mapping Genomes
      4. 17.3 Whole-Genome Sequencing
      5. 17.4 Applying Genomics
      6. 17.5 Genomics and Proteomics
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  5. Unit 4
    1. 18 Evolution and Origin of Species
      1. Introduction
      2. 18.1 Understanding Evolution
      3. 18.2 Formation of New Species
      4. 18.3 Reconnection and Rates of Speciation
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    2. 19 The Evolution of Populations
      1. Introduction
      2. 19.1 Population Evolution
      3. 19.2 Population Genetics
      4. 19.3 Adaptive Evolution
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 20 Phylogenies and the History of Life
      1. Introduction
      2. 20.1 Organizing Life on Earth
      3. 20.2 Determining Evolutionary Relationships
      4. 20.3 Perspectives on the Phylogenetic Tree
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  6. Unit 5
    1. 21 Viruses
      1. Introduction
      2. 21.1 Viral Evolution, Morphology, and Classification
      3. 21.2 Virus Infection and Hosts
      4. 21.3 Prevention and Treatment of Viral Infections
      5. 21.4 Other Acellular Entities: Prions and Viroids
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    2. 22 Prokaryotes: Bacteria and Archaea
      1. Introduction
      2. 22.1 Prokaryotic Diversity
      3. 22.2 Structure of Prokaryotes
      4. 22.3 Prokaryotic Metabolism
      5. 22.4 Bacterial Diseases in Humans
      6. 22.5 Beneficial Prokaryotes
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  7. Unit 6
    1. 23 Plant Form and Physiology
      1. Introduction
      2. 23.1 The Plant Body
      3. 23.2 Stems
      4. 23.3 Roots
      5. 23.4 Leaves
      6. 23.5 Transport of Water and Solutes in Plants
      7. 23.6 Plant Sensory Systems and Responses
      8. Key Terms
      9. Chapter Summary
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
      12. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      13. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  8. Unit 7
    1. 24 The Animal Body: Basic Form and Function
      1. Introduction
      2. 24.1 Animal Form and Function
      3. 24.2 Animal Primary Tissues
      4. 24.3 Homeostasis
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
    2. 25 Animal Nutrition and the Digestive System
      1. Introduction
      2. 25.1 Digestive Systems
      3. 25.2 Nutrition and Energy Production
      4. 25.3 Digestive System Processes
      5. 25.4 Digestive System Regulation
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 26 The Nervous System
      1. Introduction
      2. 26.1 Neurons and Glial Cells
      3. 26.2 How Neurons Communicate
      4. 26.3 The Central Nervous System
      5. 26.4 The Peripheral Nervous System
      6. 26.5 Nervous System Disorders
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    4. 27 Sensory Systems
      1. Introduction
      2. 27.1 Sensory Processes
      3. 27.2 Somatosensation
      4. 27.3 Taste and Smell
      5. 27.4 Hearing and Vestibular Sensation
      6. 27.5 Vision
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    5. 28 The Endocrine System
      1. Introduction
      2. 28.1 Types of Hormones
      3. 28.2 How Hormones Work
      4. 28.3 Regulation of Body Processes
      5. 28.4 Regulation of Hormone Production
      6. 28.5 Endocrine Glands
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    6. 29 The Musculoskeletal System
      1. Introduction
      2. 29.1 Types of Skeletal Systems
      3. 29.2 Bone
      4. 29.3 Joints and Skeletal Movement
      5. 29.4 Muscle Contraction and Locomotion
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    7. 30 The Respiratory System
      1. Introduction
      2. 30.1 Systems of Gas Exchange
      3. 30.2 Gas Exchange across Respiratory Surfaces
      4. 30.3 Breathing
      5. 30.4 Transport of Gases in Human Bodily Fluids
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    8. 31 The Circulatory System
      1. Introduction
      2. 31.1 Overview of the Circulatory System
      3. 31.2 Components of the Blood
      4. 31.3 Mammalian Heart and Blood Vessels
      5. 31.4 Blood Flow and Blood Pressure Regulation
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    9. 32 Osmotic Regulation and Excretion
      1. Introduction
      2. 32.1 Osmoregulation and Osmotic Balance
      3. 32.2 The Kidneys and Osmoregulatory Organs
      4. 32.3 Excretion Systems
      5. 32.4 Nitrogenous Wastes
      6. 32.5 Hormonal Control of Osmoregulatory Functions
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
    10. 33 The Immune System
      1. Introduction
      2. 33.1 Innate Immune Response
      3. 33.2 Adaptive Immune Response
      4. 33.3 Antibodies
      5. 33.4 Disruptions in the Immune System
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      11. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    11. 34 Animal Reproduction and Development
      1. Introduction
      2. 34.1 Reproduction Methods
      3. 34.2 Fertilization
      4. 34.3 Human Reproductive Anatomy and Gametogenesis
      5. 34.4 Hormonal Control of Human Reproduction
      6. 34.5 Fertilization and Early Embryonic Development
      7. 34.6 Organogenesis and Vertebrate Formation
      8. 34.7 Human Pregnancy and Birth
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Summary
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
      13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      14. Science Practice Challenge Questions
  9. Unit 8
    1. 35 Ecology and the Biosphere
      1. Introduction
      2. 35.1 The Scope of Ecology
      3. 35.2 Biogeography
      4. 35.3 Terrestrial Biomes
      5. 35.4 Aquatic Biomes
      6. 35.5 Climate and the Effects of Global Climate Change
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      12. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    2. 36 Population and Community Ecology
      1. Introduction
      2. 36.1 Population Demography
      3. 36.2 Life Histories and Natural Selection
      4. 36.3 Environmental Limits to Population Growth
      5. 36.4 Population Dynamics and Regulation
      6. 36.5 Human Population Growth
      7. 36.6 Community Ecology
      8. 36.7 Behavioral Biology: Proximate and Ultimate Causes of Behavior
      9. Key Terms
      10. Chapter Summary
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
      13. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      14. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    3. 37 Ecosystems
      1. Introduction
      2. 37.1 Ecology for Ecosystems
      3. 37.2 Energy Flow through Ecosystems
      4. 37.3 Biogeochemical Cycles
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Test Prep for AP® Courses
      10. Science Practice Challenge Questions
    4. 38 Conservation Biology and Biodiversity
      1. Introduction
      2. 38.1 The Biodiversity Crisis
      3. 38.2 The Importance of Biodiversity to Human Life
      4. 38.3 Threats to Biodiversity
      5. 38.4 Preserving Biodiversity
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Test Prep for AP® Courses
  10. A | The Periodic Table of Elements
  11. B | Geological Time
  12. C | Measurements and the Metric System
  13. Index
27.
If mRNA is complementary to the DNA template strand and the DNA template stand is complementary to the DNA non-template strand, why are base sequences of mRNA and the DNA non-template strand not identical? Could they ever be?
  1. No, they cannot be identical because the T nucleotide in DNA is replaced with U nucleotide in RNA and AUG is the start codon.
  2. No, they cannot be identical because the T nucleotide in RNA is replaced with U nucleotide in DNA.
  3. They can be identical if methylation of the U nucleotide in RNA occurs and gives T nucleotide.
  4. They can be identical if de-methylation of the U nucleotide in RNA occurs and gives T nucleotide.
28.
Imagine if there were 200 commonly occurring amino acids instead of 20. Given what you know about the genetic code, what would be the shortest possible codon length? Explain.
  1. Four
  2. Five
  3. Two
  4. Three
29.
What part of central dogma is not always followed in viruses?
  1. The flow of information in HIV is from RNA to DNA, then back to RNA to proteins. Influenza viruses never go through DNA.
  2. The flow of information is from protein to RNA in HIV virus, while the influenza virus converts DNA to RNA.
  3. The flow of information is similar, but nucleic acids are synthesized as a result of translation in HIV and influenza viruses.
  4. The flow of information is from RNA to protein. This protein is used to synthesize the DNA of the viruses in HIV and influenza.
30.

Suppose a gene has the sequence ATGCGTTATCGGGAGTAG. A point mutation changes the gene to read ATGCGTTATGGGGAGTAG. How would the polypeptide product of this gene change?

31.
Explain the initiation of transcription in prokaryotes. Include all proteins involved.
  1. In prokaryotes the polymerase is composed of five polypeptide subunits, two of which are identical. Four of these subunits, denoted α , α , β , and β ’, comprise the polymerase core enzyme. The fifth subunit, σ , is involved only in transcription initiation. The polymerase comprised of all five subunits is called the holoenzyme.
  2. In prokaryotes the polymerase is composed of four polypeptide subunits, two of which are identical. These subunits, denoted α , α , β , and β ’, comprise the polymerase core enzyme. There is a fifth subunit that is involved in translation initiation. The polymerase comprised of all four subunits is called the holoenzyme.
  3. In prokaryotes the polymerase is composed of five polypeptide subunits, two of which are identical. Four of these subunits, denoted α , α , β , and β ’, comprise the polymerase holoenzyme. The fifth subunit, σ , is involved only in transcription initiation. The polymerase comprised of all five subunits is called the core enzyme.
  4. In prokaryotes the polymerase is composed of five polypeptide subunits, two of which are identical. Four of these subunits, denoted α , α α, β , and β ’, comprise the polymerase core enzyme. The fifth subunit, σ , is involved only in termination. The polymerase comprised of all five subunits is called the holoenzyme.
32.
In your own words, describe the difference between ρ -dependent and ρ -independent termination of transcription in prokaryotes.
  1. Rho-dependent termination is controlled by rho protein and the polymerase stalls near the end of the gene at a run of G nucleotides on the DNA template. In rho-independent termination, when the polymerase encounters a region rich in C-G nucleotides the mRNA folds into a hairpin loop that causes the polymerase to stall.
  2. Rho-independent termination is controlled by rho protein and the polymerase stalls near the end of the gene at a run of G nucleotides on the DNA template. In rho-dependent termination, when the polymerase encounters a region rich in C-G nucleotides, the mRNA folds into a hairpin loop that causes polymerase to stall.
  3. Rho-dependent termination is controlled by rho protein and the polymerase begins near the end of the gene at a run of G nucleotides on the DNA template. In rho-independent termination, when the polymerase encounters a region rich in C-G nucleotides, the mRNA creates a hairpin loop that causes polymerase to stall.
  4. Rho-dependent termination is controlled by rho protein and the polymerase stalls near the end of the gene at a run of G nucleotides on the DNA template. In rho-independent termination, when the polymerase encounters a region rich in A-T nucleotides, the mRNA creates a hairpin loop that causes polymerase to stall.
33.
What is the main structure that differentiates between ρ -dependent and ρ -independent termination in prokaryotes?
  1. Rho-independent termination involves the formation of a hairpin.
  2. Rho-dependent termination involves the formation of a hairpin.
  3. Rho-dependent termination stalls when the polymerase begins to transcribe a region rich in A-T nucleotides.
  4. Rho-independent termination stalls when the polymerase begins to transcribe a region rich in G nucleotides.
34.
Which step in the transcription of eukaryotic RNA differs the most from its prokaryotic counterpart?
  1. The initiation step in eukaryotes requires an initiation complex with enhancers and transcription factors. Also, the separation of the DNA strand is different as histones are involved.
  2. The initiation step in prokaryotes requires an initiation complex with enhancers and transcription factors. Also, the separation of the DNA strand is different as histones are involved.
  3. The elongation step in eukaryotes requires an initiation complex with enhancers and transcription factors. Also, the separation of the DNA strand is different as histones are involved.
  4. The initiation step in eukaryotes requires an initiation complex with enhancers and transcription factors. Also, the separation of the DNA strand is different as histones are not involved.
35.
Would you be able to determine which RNA polymerase you isolated from a eukaryotic cell without analyzing its products?
  1. No, because they have the same α -amanitin sensitivity in all products.
  2. No, quantitative analysis of products is done to determine the type of polymerase.
  3. Yes, they can be determined as they differ in α -amanitin sensitivity.
  4. Yes, they can be determined by the number of molecules that bind to DNA.
36.
Can you predict how alternative splicing may lead to an economy of genes? Do you need a different gene for every protein that the cell can produce?
  1. Alternative splicing can lead to the synthesis of several polypeptides from a single gene.
  2. Alternative splicing can lead to the synthesis of several forms of mRNA from a single gene.
  3. Alternative splicing can lead to the synthesis of several forms of codons from a set of genes.
  4. Alternative splicing can lead to the synthesis of several forms of ribosomes from a set of genes.
37.
What is the major challenge in the production of RNA in eukaryotes compared to prokaryotes?
  1. exporting the mRNA across the nuclear membrane
  2. importing the mRNA across the nuclear membrane
  3. the mRNA staying inside the nuclear membrane
  4. the mRNA translating into proteins within seconds
38.
What would happen if the 5’ methyl guanosine was not added to an mRNA?
  1. The transcript would degrade when the mRNA moves out of the nucleus to the cytoplasm.
  2. The mRNA molecule would stabilize and start the process of translation within the nucleus of the cell.
  3. The mRNA molecule would move out of the nucleus and create more copies of the mRNA molecule.
  4. The mRNA molecule would not be able to add the poly-A tail on its strand at the 5’ end.
39.
Transcribe and translate the following DNA sequence (nontemplate strand): 5’-ATGGCCGGTTATTAAGCA-3’
  1. The mRNA would be 5’-AUGGCCGGUUAUUAAGCA-3’ and the protein will be MAGY.
  2. The mRNA would be 3’-AUGGCCGGUUAUUAAGCA-5’ and the protein will be MAGY.
  3. The mRNA would be 5’-ATGGCCGGTTATTAAGCA-3’ and the protein will be MAGY.
  4. The mRNA would be 5’-AUGGCCGGUUAUUAAGCA-3’ and the protein will be MACY.
40.
The RNA world hypothesis proposes that the first complex molecule was RNA and it preceded protein formation. Which major function of the ribosomal RNA supports the hypothesis?
  1. rRNA has catalytic properties in the large subunit and it assembles proteins.
  2. rRNA is a protein molecule that helps in the synthesis of other proteins.
  3. rRNA is essential for the transcription process.
  4. rRNA plays a major role in post-translational processes.
41.
A tRNA is chemically modified so that the amino acid bound is different than the one specified by its anticodon. Which codon in the mRNA would the tRNA recognize: the one specified by its anticodon or the one that matches the modified amino acid it carries?
  1. The anticodon will match the codon in mRNA.
  2. The anticodon will match with the modified amino acid it carries.
  3. The anticodon will lose the specificity for the tRNA molecule.
  4. The enzyme amino acyl tRNA synthetase would lose control over the amino acid.
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