Figure 37.5 Heat shock proteins (HSP) are so named because they help refold misfolded proteins. In response to increased temperature (a “heat shock”), heat shock proteins are activated by release from the NR/HSP complex. At the same time, transcription of HSP genes is activated. Why do you think the cell responds to a heat shock by increasing the activity of proteins that help refold misfolded proteins?
Figure 37.11 Pancreatic tumors may cause excess secretion of glucagon. Type I diabetes results from the failure of the pancreas to produce insulin. Which of the following statement about these two conditions is true?
- A pancreatic tumor and type I diabetes will have the opposite effects on blood sugar levels.
- A pancreatic tumor and type I diabetes will both cause hyperglycemia.
- A pancreatic tumor and type I diabetes will both cause hypoglycemia.
- Both pancreatic tumors and type I diabetes result in the inability of cells to take up glucose.
Figure 37.14 Hyperthyroidism is a condition in which the thyroid gland is overactive. Hypothyroidism is a condition in which the thyroid gland is underactive. Which of the conditions are the following two patients most likely to have?
Patient A has symptoms including weight gain, cold sensitivity, low heart rate, and fatigue.
Patient B has symptoms including weight loss, profuse sweating, increased heart rate, and difficulty sleeping.