A newly discovered hormone contains four amino acids linked together. Under which chemical class would this hormone be classified?
- lipid-derived hormone
- amino acid-derived hormone
- peptide hormone
Which class of hormones can diffuse through plasma membranes?
- lipid-derived hormones
- amino acid-derived hormones
- peptide hormones
- glycoprotein hormones
Why are steroids able to diffuse across the plasma membrane?
- Their transport protein moves them through the membrane.
- They are amphipathic, allowing them to interact with the entire phospholipid.
- Cells express channels that let hormones flow down their concentration gradient into the cells.
- They are non-polar molecules.
A new antagonist molecule has been discovered that binds to and blocks plasma membrane receptors. What effect will this antagonist have on testosterone, a steroid hormone?
- It will block testosterone from binding to its receptor.
- It will block testosterone from activating cAMP signaling.
- It will increase testosterone-mediated signaling.
- It will not affect testosterone-mediated signaling.
What effect will a cAMP inhibitor have on a peptide hormone-mediated signaling pathway?
- It will prevent the hormone from binding its receptor.
- It will prevent activation of a G-protein.
- It will prevent activation of adenylate cyclase.
- It will prevent activation of protein kinases.
When insulin binds to its receptor, the complex is endocytosed into the cell. This is an example of ______ in response to hormone signaling.
- cAMP activation
- generating an intracellular receptor
- activation of a hormone response element
- receptor down-regulation
Drinking alcoholic beverages causes an increase in urine output. This most likely occurs because alcohol:
- inhibits ADH release.
- stimulates ADH release.
- inhibits TSH release.
- stimulates TSH release.
FSH and LH release from the anterior pituitary is stimulated by ________.
What hormone is produced by beta cells of the pancreas?
When blood calcium levels are low, PTH stimulates:
- excretion of calcium from the kidneys.
- excretion of calcium from the intestines.
How would mutations that completely ablate the function of the androgen receptor impact the phenotypic development of humans with XY chromosomes?
- Patients would appear phenotypically female.
- Patients would appear phenotypically male with underdeveloped secondary sex characteristics.
- Patients would appear phenotypically male, but cannot produce sperm.
- Patients would express both male and female secondary sex characteristics.
A rise in blood glucose levels triggers release of insulin from the pancreas. This mechanism of hormone production is stimulated by:
- humoral stimuli
- hormonal stimuli
- neural stimuli
- negative stimuli
Which mechanism of hormonal stimulation would be affected if signaling and hormone release from the hypothalamus was blocked?
- humoral and hormonal stimuli
- hormonal and neural stimuli
- neural and humoral stimuli
- hormonal and negative stimuli
A scientist hypothesizes that the pancreas’s hormone production is controlled by neural stimuli. Which observation would support this hypothesis?
- Insulin is produced in response to sudden stress without a rise in blood glucose.
- Insulin is produced in response to a rise in glucagon levels.
- Beta cells express epinephrine receptors.
- Insulin is produced in response to a rise in blood glucose in the brain.
Which endocrine glands are associated with the kidneys?
- thyroid glands
- pituitary glands
- adrenal glands
Which of the following hormones is not produced by the anterior pituitary?
- growth hormone
- thyroid-stimulating hormone
Recent studies suggest that blue light exposure can impact human circadian rhythms. This suggests that blue light disrupts the function of the _____ gland(s).