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Anatomy and Physiology 2e

Critical Thinking Questions

Anatomy and Physiology 2eCritical Thinking Questions


Darcy and Raul are having difficulty conceiving a child. Darcy ovulates every 28 days, and Raul’s sperm count is normal. If we could observe Raul’s sperm about an hour after ejaculation, however, we’d see that they appear to be moving only sluggishly. When Raul’s sperm eventually encounter Darcy’s oocyte, they appear to be incapable of generating an adequate acrosomal reaction. Which process has probably gone wrong?


On Saturday night, a female has unprotected sex with a male. On Tuesday morning, she experiences the twinge of mid-cycle pain that she typically feels when she is ovulating. This makes her extremely anxious that she might soon learn she is pregnant. Is the concern valid? Why or why not?


Approximately 3 weeks after her last menstrual period, a sexually active woman experiences a brief episode of abdominopelvic cramping and minor bleeding. What might be the explanation?


The Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine recommends that all people who might become pregnant consume at least 400 µg/day of folate from supplements or fortified foods. Why?


What is the physiological benefit of incorporating shunts into the fetal circulatory system?


Why would a premature infant require supplemental oxygen?


Devin is 35 weeks pregnant with their first child when they begin experiencing diffuse, mild contractions for several hours. Examination reveals, however, that the plug of mucus blocking their cervix is intact and the cervix has not yet begun to dilate. Devin is advised to return home. Why?


Janine is 41 weeks pregnant with her first child when she arrives at the birthing unit reporting that she believes she has been in labor “for days” but that “it’s just not going anywhere.” During the clinical exam, she experiences a few mild contractions, each lasting about 15–20 seconds; however, her cervix is found to be only 2 cm dilated, and the amniotic sac is intact. Janine is admitted to the birthing unit and an IV infusion of pitocin is started. Why?


Describe how the newborn’s first breath alters the circulatory pattern.


Newborns are at much higher risk for dehydration than adults. Why?


Describe the transit of breast milk from lactocytes to nipple pores.


A person who stopped breastfeeding suddenly is experiencing breast engorgement and leakage, just like they did in the first few weeks of breastfeeding. Why?


Explain why it was essential that Mendel perform his crosses using a large sample size?


How can a female carrier of an X-linked recessive disorder have a female child who is affected?

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