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Diabetes insipidus or diabetes mellitus would most likely be indicated by ________.

  1. anuria
  2. polyuria
  3. oliguria
  4. none of the above

The color of urine is determined mainly by ________.

  1. diet
  2. filtration rate
  3. byproducts of red blood cell breakdown
  4. filtration efficiency

Production of less than 50 mL/day of urine is called ________.

  1. normal
  2. polyuria
  3. oliguria
  4. anuria

Peristaltic contractions occur in the ________.

  1. urethra
  2. bladder
  3. ureters
  4. urethra, bladder, and ureters

Somatic motor neurons must be ________ to relax the external urethral sphincter to allow urination.

  1. stimulated
  2. inhibited

Which part of the urinary system is not completely retroperitoneal?

  1. kidneys
  2. ureters
  3. bladder
  4. nephrons

The renal pyramids are separated from each other by extensions of the renal cortex called ________.

  1. renal medulla
  2. minor calyces
  3. medullary cortices
  4. renal columns

The primary structure found within the medulla is the ________.

  1. loop of Henle
  2. minor calyces
  3. portal system
  4. ureter

The right kidney is slightly lower because ________.

  1. it is displaced by the liver
  2. it is displace by the heart
  3. it is slightly smaller
  4. it needs protection of the lower ribs

Blood filtrate is captured in the lumen of the ________.

  1. glomerulus
  2. Bowman’s capsule
  3. calyces
  4. renal papillae

What are the names of the capillaries following the efferent arteriole?

  1. arcuate and medullary
  2. interlobar and interlobular
  3. peritubular and vasa recta
  4. peritubular and medullary

The functional unit of the kidney is called ________.

  1. the renal hilus
  2. the renal corpuscle
  3. the nephron
  4. Bowman’s capsule

________ pressure must be greater on the capillary side of the filtration membrane to achieve filtration.

  1. Osmotic
  2. Hydrostatic

Production of urine to modify plasma makeup is the result of ________.

  1. filtration
  2. absorption
  3. secretion
  4. filtration, absorption, and secretion

Systemic blood pressure must stay above 60 so that the proper amount of filtration occurs.

  1. true
  2. false

Aquaporin channels are only found in the collecting duct.

  1. true
  2. false

Most absorption and secretion occurs in this part of the nephron.

  1. proximal convoluted tubule
  2. descending loop of Henle
  3. ascending loop of Henle
  4. distal convoluted tubule
  5. collecting ducts

The fine tuning of water recovery or disposal occurs in ________.

  1. the proximal convoluted tubule
  2. the collecting ducts
  3. the ascending loop of Henle
  4. the distal convoluted tubule

Vasodilation of blood vessels to the kidneys is due to ________.

  1. more frequent action potentials
  2. less frequent action potentials

When blood pressure increases, blood vessels supplying the kidney will ________ to mount a steady rate of filtration.

  1. contract
  2. relax

Which of these three paracrine chemicals cause vasodilation?

  1. ATP
  2. adenosine
  3. nitric oxide

What hormone directly opposes the actions of natriuretic hormones?

  1. renin
  2. nitric oxide
  3. dopamine
  4. aldosterone

Which of these is a vasoconstrictor?

  1. nitric oxide
  2. natriuretic hormone
  3. bradykinin
  4. angiotensin II

What signal causes the heart to secrete atrial natriuretic hormone?

  1. increased blood pressure
  2. decreased blood pressure
  3. increased Na+ levels
  4. decreased Na+ levels

Which of these beverages does not have a diuretic effect?

  1. tea
  2. coffee
  3. alcohol
  4. milk

Progesterone can bind to receptors for which hormone that, when released, activates water retention?

  1. aldosterone
  2. ADH
  3. PTH
  4. ANH

Renin is released in response to ________.

  1. increased blood pressure
  2. decreased blood pressure
  3. ACE
  4. diuretics

Which step in vitamin D production does the kidney perform?

  1. converts cholecalciferol into calcidiol
  2. converts calcidiol into calcitriol
  3. stores vitamin D
  4. none of these

Which hormone does the kidney produce that stimulates red blood cell production?

  1. thrombopoietin
  2. vitamin D
  3. EPO
  4. renin

If there were no aquaporin channels in the collecting duct, ________.

  1. you would develop systemic edema
  2. you would retain excess Na+
  3. you would lose vitamins and electrolytes
  4. you would suffer severe dehydration
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