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Anatomy and Physiology 2e

Critical Thinking Questions

Anatomy and Physiology 2eCritical Thinking Questions


Explain how the enteric nervous system supports the digestive system. What might occur that could result in the autonomic nervous system having a negative impact on digestion?


What layer of the alimentary canal tissue is capable of helping to protect the body against disease, and through what mechanism?


Offer a theory to explain why segmentation occurs and peristalsis slows in the small intestine.


It has been several hours since you last ate. Walking past a bakery, you catch a whiff of freshly baked bread. What type of reflex is triggered, and what is the result?


The composition of saliva varies from gland to gland. Discuss how saliva produced by the parotid gland differs in action from saliva produced by the sublingual gland.


During a hockey game, the puck hits a player in the mouth, knocking out all eight of their most anterior teeth. Which teeth did the player lose and how does this loss affect food ingestion?


What prevents swallowed food from entering the airways?


Explain the mechanism responsible for gastroesophageal reflux.


Describe the three processes involved in the esophageal phase of deglutition.


Explain how the stomach is protected from self-digestion and why this is necessary.


Describe unique anatomical features that enable the stomach to perform digestive functions.


Explain how nutrients absorbed in the small intestine pass into the general circulation.


Why is it important that chyme from the stomach is delivered to the small intestine slowly and in small amounts?


Describe three of the differences between the walls of the large and small intestines.


Why does the pancreas secrete some enzymes in their inactive forms, and where are these enzymes activated?


Describe the location of hepatocytes in the liver and how this arrangement enhances their function.


Explain the role of bile salts and lecithin in the emulsification of lipids (fats).


How is vitamin B12 absorbed?

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