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Endocrine glands ________.

  1. secrete hormones that travel through a duct to the target organs
  2. release neurotransmitters into the synaptic cleft
  3. secrete chemical messengers that travel in the bloodstream
  4. include sebaceous glands and sweat glands

Chemical signaling that affects neighboring cells is called ________.

  1. autocrine
  2. paracrine
  3. endocrine
  4. neuron

A newly developed pesticide has been observed to bind to an intracellular hormone receptor. If ingested, residue from this pesticide could disrupt levels of ________.

  1. melatonin
  2. thyroid hormone
  3. growth hormone
  4. insulin

A small molecule binds to a G protein, preventing its activation. What direct effect will this have on signaling that involves cAMP?

  1. The hormone will not be able to bind to the hormone receptor.
  2. Adenylyl cyclase will not be activated.
  3. Excessive quantities of cAMP will be produced.
  4. The phosphorylation cascade will be initiated.

A student is in a car accident, and although not hurt, immediately experiences pupil dilation, increased heart rate, and rapid breathing. What type of endocrine system stimulus did the student receive?

  1. humoral
  2. hormonal
  3. neural
  4. positive feedback

The hypothalamus is functionally and anatomically connected to the posterior pituitary lobe by a bridge of ________.

  1. blood vessels
  2. nerve axons
  3. cartilage
  4. bone

Which of the following is an anterior pituitary hormone?

  1. ADH
  2. oxytocin
  3. TSH
  4. cortisol

How many hormones are produced by the posterior pituitary?

  1. 0
  2. 1
  3. 2
  4. 6

Which of the following hormones contributes to the regulation of the body’s fluid and electrolyte balance?

  1. adrenocorticotropic hormone
  2. antidiuretic hormone
  3. luteinizing hormone
  4. all of the above

Which of the following statements about the thyroid gland is true?

  1. It is located anterior to the trachea and inferior to the larynx.
  2. The parathyroid glands are embedded within it.
  3. It manufactures three hormones.
  4. all of the above

The secretion of thyroid hormones is controlled by ________.

  1. TSH from the hypothalamus
  2. TSH from the anterior pituitary
  3. thyroxine from the anterior pituitary
  4. thyroglobulin from the thyroid’s parafollicular cells

The development of a goiter indicates that ________.

  1. the anterior pituitary is abnormally enlarged
  2. there is hypertrophy of the thyroid’s follicle cells
  3. there is an excessive accumulation of colloid in the thyroid follicles
  4. the anterior pituitary is secreting excessive growth hormone

Iodide ions cross from the bloodstream into follicle cells via ________.

  1. simple diffusion
  2. facilitated diffusion
  3. active transport
  4. osmosis

When blood calcium levels are low, PTH stimulates ________.

  1. urinary excretion of calcium by the kidneys
  2. a reduction in calcium absorption from the intestines
  3. the activity of osteoblasts
  4. the activity of osteoclasts

Which of the following can result from hyperparathyroidism?

  1. increased bone deposition
  2. fractures
  3. convulsions
  4. all of the above

The adrenal glands are attached superiorly to which organ?

  1. thyroid
  2. liver
  3. kidneys
  4. hypothalamus

What secretory cell type is found in the adrenal medulla?

  1. chromaffin cells
  2. neuroglial cells
  3. follicle cells
  4. oxyphil cells

Cushing’s disease is a disorder caused by ________.

  1. abnormally low levels of cortisol
  2. abnormally high levels of cortisol
  3. abnormally low levels of aldosterone
  4. abnormally high levels of aldosterone

Which of the following responses s not part of the fight-or-flight response?

  1. pupil dilation
  2. increased oxygen supply to the lungs
  3. suppressed digestion
  4. reduced mental activity

What cells secrete melatonin?

  1. melanocytes
  2. pinealocytes
  3. suprachiasmatic nucleus cells
  4. retinal cells

The production of melatonin is inhibited by ________.

  1. declining levels of light
  2. exposure to bright light
  3. the secretion of serotonin
  4. the activity of pinealocytes

The gonads produce what class of hormones?

  1. amine hormones
  2. peptide hormones
  3. steroid hormones
  4. catecholamines

The production of FSH by the anterior pituitary is reduced by which hormone?

  1. estrogens
  2. progesterone
  3. relaxin
  4. inhibin

The function of the placental hormone human placental lactogen (hPL) is to ________.

  1. prepare the breasts for lactation
  2. nourish the placenta
  3. regulate the menstrual cycle
  4. all of the above

If an autoimmune disorder targets the alpha cells, production of which hormone would be directly affected?

  1. somatostatin
  2. pancreatic polypeptide
  3. insulin
  4. glucagon

Which of the following statements about insulin is true?

  1. Insulin acts as a transport protein, carrying glucose across the cell membrane.
  2. Insulin facilitates the movement of intracellular glucose transporters to the cell membrane.
  3. Insulin stimulates the breakdown of stored glycogen into glucose.
  4. Insulin stimulates the kidneys to reabsorb glucose into the bloodstream.

The walls of the atria produce which hormone?

  1. cholecystokinin
  2. atrial natriuretic peptide
  3. renin
  4. calcitriol

The end result of the RAAS is to ________.

  1. reduce blood volume
  2. increase blood glucose
  3. reduce blood pressure
  4. increase blood pressure

Athletes may take synthetic EPO to boost their ________.

  1. blood calcium levels
  2. secretion of growth hormone
  3. blood oxygen levels
  4. muscle mass

Hormones produced by the thymus play a role in the ________.

  1. development of T cells
  2. preparation of the body for childbirth
  3. regulation of appetite
  4. release of hydrochloric acid in the stomach

The anterior pituitary gland develops from which embryonic germ layer?

  1. oral ectoderm
  2. neural ectoderm
  3. mesoderm
  4. endoderm

In the elderly, decreased thyroid function causes ________.

  1. increased tolerance for cold
  2. decreased basal metabolic rate
  3. decreased body fat
  4. osteoporosis
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