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Anatomy and Physiology 2e

Critical Thinking Questions

Anatomy and Physiology 2eCritical Thinking Questions


Describe several main differences in the communication methods used by the endocrine system and the nervous system.


Compare and contrast endocrine and exocrine glands.


True or false: Neurotransmitters are a special class of paracrines. Explain your answer.


Compare and contrast the signaling events involved with the second messengers cAMP and IP3.


Describe the mechanism of hormone response resulting from the binding of a hormone with an intracellular receptor.


Compare and contrast the anatomical relationship of the anterior and posterior lobes of the pituitary gland to the hypothalamus.


Name the target tissues for prolactin.


Explain why maternal iodine deficiency might lead to neurological impairment in the fetus.


Define hyperthyroidism and explain why one of its symptoms is weight loss.


Describe the role of negative feedback in the function of the parathyroid gland.


Explain why someone with a parathyroid gland tumor might develop kidney stones.


What are the three regions of the adrenal cortex and what hormones do they produce?


If innervation to the adrenal medulla were disrupted, what would be the physiological outcome?


Compare and contrast the short-term and long-term stress response.


Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is a mood disorder characterized by, among other symptoms, increased appetite, sluggishness, and increased sleepiness. It occurs most commonly during the winter months, especially in regions with long winter nights. Propose a role for melatonin in SAD and a possible non-drug therapy.


Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a disease that causes deterioration of the retinas of the eyes. Describe the impact RP would have on melatonin levels.


Compare and contrast the role of estrogens and progesterone.


Describe the role of placental secretion of relaxin in preparation for childbirth.


What would be the physiological consequence of a disease that destroyed the beta cells of the pancreas?


Why is foot care extremely important for people with diabetes mellitus?


Summarize the role of GI tract hormones following a meal.


Compare and contrast the thymus gland in infancy and adulthood.


Distinguish between the effects of menopause and andropause on fertility.

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