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  1. Preface
  2. Students and the System
    1. 1 American Government and Civic Engagement
      1. Introduction
      2. 1.1 What is Government?
      3. 1.2 Who Governs? Elitism, Pluralism, and Tradeoffs
      4. 1.3 Engagement in a Democracy
      5. Key Terms
      6. Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Suggestions for Further Study
    2. 2 The Constitution and Its Origins
      1. Introduction
      2. 2.1 The Pre-Revolutionary Period and the Roots of the American Political Tradition
      3. 2.2 The Articles of Confederation
      4. 2.3 The Development of the Constitution
      5. 2.4 The Ratification of the Constitution
      6. 2.5 Constitutional Change
      7. Key Terms
      8. Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Suggestions for Further Study
    3. 3 American Federalism
      1. Introduction
      2. 3.1 The Division of Powers
      3. 3.2 The Evolution of American Federalism
      4. 3.3 Intergovernmental Relationships
      5. 3.4 Competitive Federalism Today
      6. 3.5 Advantages and Disadvantages of Federalism
      7. Key Terms
      8. Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Suggestions for Further Study
  3. Individual Agency and Action
    1. 4 Civil Liberties
      1. Introduction
      2. 4.1 What Are Civil Liberties?
      3. 4.2 Securing Basic Freedoms
      4. 4.3 The Rights of Suspects
      5. 4.4 Interpreting the Bill of Rights
      6. Key Terms
      7. Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Suggestions for Further Study
    2. 5 Civil Rights
      1. Introduction
      2. 5.1 What Are Civil Rights and How Do We Identify Them?
      3. 5.2 The African American Struggle for Equality
      4. 5.3 The Fight for Women’s Rights
      5. 5.4 Civil Rights for Indigenous Groups: Native Americans, Alaskans, and Hawaiians
      6. 5.5 Equal Protection for Other Groups
      7. Key Terms
      8. Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Suggestions for Further Study
    3. 6 The Politics of Public Opinion
      1. Introduction
      2. 6.1 The Nature of Public Opinion
      3. 6.2 How Is Public Opinion Measured?
      4. 6.3 What Does the Public Think?
      5. 6.4 The Effects of Public Opinion
      6. Key Terms
      7. Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Suggestions for Further Study
    4. 7 Voting and Elections
      1. Introduction
      2. 7.1 Voter Registration
      3. 7.2 Voter Turnout
      4. 7.3 Elections
      5. 7.4 Campaigns and Voting
      6. 7.5 Direct Democracy
      7. Key Terms
      8. Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Suggestions for Further Study
  4. Toward Collective Action: Mediating Institutions
    1. 8 The Media
      1. Introduction
      2. 8.1 What Is the Media?
      3. 8.2 The Evolution of the Media
      4. 8.3 Regulating the Media
      5. 8.4 The Impact of the Media
      6. Key Terms
      7. Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Suggestions for Further Study
    2. 9 Political Parties
      1. Introduction
      2. 9.1 What Are Parties and How Did They Form?
      3. 9.2 The Two-Party System
      4. 9.3 The Shape of Modern Political Parties
      5. 9.4 Divided Government and Partisan Polarization
      6. Key Terms
      7. Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Suggestions for Further Study
    3. 10 Interest Groups and Lobbying
      1. Introduction
      2. 10.1 Interest Groups Defined
      3. 10.2 Collective Action and Interest Group Formation
      4. 10.3 Interest Groups as Political Participation
      5. 10.4 Pathways of Interest Group Influence
      6. 10.5 Free Speech and the Regulation of Interest Groups
      7. Key Terms
      8. Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Suggestions for Further Study
  5. Delivering Collective Action: Formal Institutions
    1. 11 Congress
      1. Introduction
      2. 11.1 The Institutional Design of Congress
      3. 11.2 Congressional Elections
      4. 11.3 Congressional Representation
      5. 11.4 House and Senate Organizations
      6. 11.5 The Legislative Process
      7. Key Terms
      8. Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Suggestions for Further Study
    2. 12 The Presidency
      1. Introduction
      2. 12.1 The Design and Evolution of the Presidency
      3. 12.2 The Presidential Election Process
      4. 12.3 Organizing to Govern
      5. 12.4 The Public Presidency
      6. 12.5 Presidential Governance: Direct Presidential Action
      7. Key Terms
      8. Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Suggestions for Further Study
    3. 13 The Courts
      1. Introduction
      2. 13.1 Guardians of the Constitution and Individual Rights
      3. 13.2 The Dual Court System
      4. 13.3 The Federal Court System
      5. 13.4 The Supreme Court
      6. 13.5 Judicial Decision-Making and Implementation by the Supreme Court
      7. Key Terms
      8. Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Suggestions for Further Study
    4. 14 State and Local Government
      1. Introduction
      2. 14.1 State Power and Delegation
      3. 14.2 State Political Culture
      4. 14.3 Governors and State Legislatures
      5. 14.4 State Legislative Term Limits
      6. 14.5 County and City Government
      7. Key Terms
      8. Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Suggestions for Further Study
  6. The Outputs of Government
    1. 15 The Bureaucracy
      1. Introduction
      2. 15.1 Bureaucracy and the Evolution of Public Administration
      3. 15.2 Toward a Merit-Based Civil Service
      4. 15.3 Understanding Bureaucracies and their Types
      5. 15.4 Controlling the Bureaucracy
      6. Key Terms
      7. Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Suggestions for Further Study
    2. 16 Domestic Policy
      1. Introduction
      2. 16.1 What Is Public Policy?
      3. 16.2 Categorizing Public Policy
      4. 16.3 Policy Arenas
      5. 16.4 Policymakers
      6. 16.5 Budgeting and Tax Policy
      7. Key Terms
      8. Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Suggestions for Further Study
    3. 17 Foreign Policy
      1. Introduction
      2. 17.1 Defining Foreign Policy
      3. 17.2 Foreign Policy Instruments
      4. 17.3 Institutional Relations in Foreign Policy
      5. 17.4 Approaches to Foreign Policy
      6. Key Terms
      7. Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Suggestions for Further Study
  7. A | Declaration of Independence
  8. B | The Constitution of the United States
  9. C | Federalist Papers #10 and #51
  10. D | Electoral College Votes by State, 2012–2020
  11. E | Selected Supreme Court Cases
  12. Answer Key
    1. Chapter 1
    2. Chapter 2
    3. Chapter 3
    4. Chapter 4
    5. Chapter 5
    6. Chapter 6
    7. Chapter 7
    8. Chapter 8
    9. Chapter 9
    10. Chapter 10
    11. Chapter 11
    12. Chapter 12
    13. Chapter 13
    14. Chapter 14
    15. Chapter 15
    16. Chapter 16
    17. Chapter 17
  13. References
  14. Index

American Government and Civic Engagement

1. Paul A. Samuelson. 1954. “The Pure Theory of Public Expenditure,” Review of Economics and Statistics 36, No. 4: 387–389.
2. John L. Mikesell. 2014. Fiscal Administration: Analysis and Applications for the Public Sector, 9th ed. Boston: Wadsworth.
3. Juliet Elperin, “U.S. Tightens Fishing Policy, Setting 2012 Catch Limits for All Mandated Species,” Washington Post, 8 January 2012.
4. Michael Lipka. 5 November 2015. “7 Facts about Atheists,” http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2015/11/05/7-facts-about-atheists/.
5. Within this this realm of representative governments, there exists considerable variance in how democratic the systems actually are. The following website contains such information: https://www.eiu.com/topic/democracy-index.
6. C. Wright Mills. 1956. The Power Elite. New York: Oxford University Press.
7. Jack L. Walker. 1966. “A Critique of the Elitist Theory of Democracy,” The American Political Science Review 60, No. 2: 295.
8. The Ivy League is technically an athletic conference in the Northeast comprised of sports teams from eight institutions of higher education—Brown University, Columbia University, Cornell University, Dartmouth College, Harvard University, University of Pennsylvania, Princeton University, and Yale University—however, the term is also used to connote academic excellence or social elitism.
9. “Directory of Representatives.” U.S. House of Representatives. https://www.house.gov/representatives. “Senators of the 116th Congress.” United States Senate. https://www.senate.gov/general/contact_information/senators_cfm.cfm.
10. Kyla Calvert Mason. 22 April 2014. “Percentage of Americans with College Degrees Rises, Paying for Degrees Tops Financial Challenges,” http://www.pbs.org/newshour/rundown/percentage-americans-college-degrees-rises-paying-degrees-tops-financial-challenges/.
11. Jennifer E. Manning. 24 November 2014. “Membership of the 113th Congress: A Profile.” Congressional Research Service, p. 3 (Table 2).
12. Drew Desilver. 18 December 2018. “A Record Number of Women Will be Serving in the New Congress.” FactTank. http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2018/12/18/record-number-women-in-congress/.
13. Paul V. Fontelo and David Hawkings. February 2018. “Ranking the Net Worth of the 115th.” Roll Call. https://www.rollcall.com/wealth-of-congress. Randy Leonard and Paul V. Fontelo. 2 March 2018. “Every Member of Congress’ Wealth in One Chart.” Roll Call. https://www.rollcall.com/news/politics/every-member-congress-wealth-one-chart.
14. Lindsey Burke. 20 April 2009. “How Members of the 111th Congress Practice Private School Choice.” The Heritage Foundation. https://www.heritage.org/education/report/how-members-the-111th-congress-practice-private-school-choice.
15. “The Non-Governmental Order: Will NGOs Democratise, or Merely Disrupt, Global Governance?” The Economist, 9 December 1999.
16. Ronald J. Hrebenar. 1997. Interest Group Politics in America, 3rd ed. New York: Routledge, 14; Clive S. Thomas. 2004. Research Guide to U.S. and International Interest Groups. Westport, CT: Praeger, 106.
17. Dahl, Who Governs? 91–93.
18. McCullen v. Coakley, 573 U.S. __ (2014); Melissa Jeltsen, “The Reality of Abortion Clinics without Buffer Zones,” The Huffington Post, 13 July 2014.
19. Gail Bambrick. 11 December 2012. “Fracking: Pro and Con,” https://now.tufts.edu/articles/fracking-pro-and-con.
20. “Gun Show Background Checks State Laws,” http://www.governing.com/gov-data/safety-justice/gun-show-firearms-bankground-checks-state-laws-map.html (February 18, 2016).
21. Russel Berman. 22 March 2018. "Congress's 'Baby Steps' on Guns." The Atlantic. https://www.theatlantic.com/politics/archive/2018/03/congress-guns-fix-nics-baby-steps/556250/
22. Robert D. Putnam. 2001. Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community. New York: Simon & Schuster, 75.
23. ———. 1995. “Bowling Alone: America’s Declining Social Capital,” Journal of Democracy 6: 66–67, 69; “About Social Capital,” https://www.hks.harvard.edu/programs/saguaro/about-social-capital (May 2, 2016).
24. Everett Ladd. The Ladd Report. http://movies2.nytimes.com/books/first/l/ladd-report.html
25. April Clark. "Rethinking the Decline in Social Capital." American Politics Research. April 29, 2014. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/1532673X14531071
26. Emily Badger. "The Terrible Loneliness of Growing Up Poor in Robert Putnam's America." The Washington Post. March 6, 2015. https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/wonk/wp/2015/03/06/the-terrible-loneliness-of-growing-up-poor-in-robert-putnams-america/?noredirect=on&utm_term=.32998051b18a
27. Jared Keller. 4 May 2015. “Young Americans are Opting Out of Politics, but Not Because They’re Cynical,” http://www.psmag.com/politics-and-law/young-people-are-not-so-politically-inclined.
28. Winston Ross, “Ritchie Torres: Gay, Hispanic and Powerful,” Newsweek, 25 January 2015.
29. Pew Research Center. 26 April 2018. “Political Engagement, Knowledge, and the Midterms.” http://www.people-press.org/2018/04/26/10-political-engagement-knowledge-and-the-midterms/.
30. Harvard Kennedy School Institute of Politics. 17 October 2018. Survey of Young Americans’ Attitudes toward Politics and Public Service. https://iop.harvard.edu/sites/default/files/content/Harvard-IOP-Fall-2018-poll-toplines.pdf.
31. Center for Information and Research on Civic Learning and Engagement (CIRCLE). 7 November 2018. “Young People Dramatically Increase Their Turnout to 31%, Shape 2018 Midterm Elections.” CIRCLE. https://civicyouth.org/young-people-dramatically-increase-their-turnout-31-percent-shape-2018-midterm-elections/.
32. Marc Hetherington and Thomas Rudolph, “Why Don’t Americans Trust the Government?” The Washington Post, 30 January 2014.
33. Keller, “Young Americans are Opting Out.”
34. Tami Luhby and Jennifer Agiesta. 8 November 2016. “Exit Polls: Clinton Fails to Energize African-Americans, Latinos and the Young, http://www.cnn.com/2016/11/08/politics/first-exit-polls-2016/.
35. Harvard Institute of Politics, “No Front-Runner among Prospective Republican Candidates,” http://iop.harvard.edu/no-front-runner-among-prospective-republican-candidates-hillary-clinton-control-democratic-primary (May 2, 2016).
36. Jocelyn Kiley and Michael Dimock. 25 September 2014. “The GOP’s Millennial Problem Runs Deep,” http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2014/09/25/the-gops-millennial-problem-runs-deep/.
37. “Keeping Students from the Polls,” New York Times, 26 December 2011.
38. 18 October 2006. “Who Votes, Who Doesn’t, and Why,” http://www.people-press.org/2006/10/18/who-votes-who-doesnt-and-why/.
39. Jonathan M. Ladd. 11 September 2015. “Don’t Worry about Special Interests,” https://www.vox.com/mischiefs-of-faction/2015/9/11/9279615/economic-inequality-special-interests.

The Constitution and Its Origins

1. Nathaniel Philbrick. 2006. Mayflower: A Story of Courage, Community, and War. New York: Penguin, 41.
2. François Furstenberg. 2008. “The Significance of the Trans-Appalachian Frontier in Atlantic History,” The American Historical Review 113 (3): 654.
3. Bernhard Knollenberg. 1975. Growth of the American Revolution: 1766-1775. New York: Free Press, 95-96.
4. Stuart Bruchey. 1990. Enterprise: The Dynamic Economy of a Free People. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 223.
5. Joseph J. Ellis. 2015. The Quartet: Orchestrating the Second American Revolution, 1783-1789. New York: Knopf, 92.
6. David P. Szatmary. 1980. Shays' Rebellion: The Making of an Agrarian Insurrection. Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts Press, 84-86, 102-104.
7. U.S. Department of Commerce. Bureau of the Census. 1790. Statistical Abstract of the United States. Washington, DC: Department of Commerce.
8. U.S. Const. art. I, § 9.
9. U.S. Const. art. IV, § 2.
10. R. E. Neustadt. 1960. Presidential Power and the Politics of Leadership. New York: Wiley, 33.
11. Pauline Maier. 2010. Ratification: The People Debate the Constitution, 1787-1788. New York: Simon & Schuster, 464.
12. Maier, Ratification, 431.
13. Letter from Thomas Jefferson to James Madison, March 15, 1789, https://www.gwu.edu/~ffcp/exhibit/p7/p7_1text.html.
14. Isaac Krannick. 1999. “The Great National Discussion: The Discourse of Politics in 1787.” In What Did the Constitution Mean to Early Americans? ed. Edward Countryman. Boston: Bedford/St. Martins, 52.
15. Krannick, Great National Discussion, 42-43.
16. Krannick, Great National Discussion, 42.
17. Evelyn C. Fink and William H. Riker. 1989. “The Strategy of Ratification.” In The Federalist Papers and the New Institutionalism, eds. Bernard Grofman and Donald Wittman. New York: Agathon, 229.
18. Fink and Riker, Strategy of Ratification, 221.

American Federalism

1. See John Kincaid. 1975. “Federalism.” In Civitas: A Framework for Civil Education, eds. Charles Quigley and Charles Bahmueller. Calabasas, CA: Center for Civic Education, 391–392; William S. Riker. 1975. “Federalism.” In Handbook of Political Science, eds. Fred Greenstein and Nelson Polsby. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 93–172.
2. Garry Willis, ed. 1982. The Federalist Papers by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison and John Jay. New York: Bantam Books, 237.
3. Arizona v. United States, 567 U.S. __ (2012).
4. United States v. Wrightwood Dairy Co., 315 U.S. 110 (1942).
5. Ronald L. Watts. 1999. Comparing Federal Systems, 2nd ed. Kingston, Ontario: McGill-Queen’s University, 6–7; Daniel J. Elazar. 1992. Federal Systems of the World: A Handbook of Federal, Confederal and Autonomy Arrangements. Harlow, Essex: Longman Current Affairs.
6. Jack Rakove. 2007. James Madison and the Creation of the American Republic. New York: Pearson; Samuel H. Beer. 1998. To Make a Nation: The Rediscovery of American Federalism. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
7. Elton E. Richter. 1929. “Exclusive and Concurrent Powers in the Federal Constitution,” Notre Dame Law Review 4, No. 8: 513–542. http://scholarship.law.nd.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=4416&context=ndlr
8. Baehr v. Lewin. 1993. 74 Haw. 530.
9. United States v. Windsor, 570 U.S. __ (2013).
10. Adam Liptak, “Supreme Court Delivers Tacit Win to Gay Marriage,” New York Times, 6 October, 2014.
11. Obergefell v. Hodges, 576 U.S. ___ (2015).
12. Data reported by http://www.usgovernmentrevenue.com/federal_revenue. State and local government figures are estimated.
13. Pollock v. Farmers’ Loan & Trust Co., 158 U.S. 601 (1895).
14. See Robert Jay Dilger, “Federal Grants to State and Local Governments: A Historical Perspective on Contemporary Issues,” Congressional Research Service, Report 7-5700, 5 March 2015.
15. Jeffrey L. Barnett et al. 2014. 2012 Census of Governments: Finance-State and Local Government Summary Report, Appendix Table A-1. December 17. Washington, DC: United States Census Bureau, 2.
16. Dilger, “Federal Grants to State and Local Governments,” 4.
17. James Feyrer and Bruce Sacerdote. 2011. “Did the Stimulus Stimulate? Real Time Estimates of the Effects of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act” (Working Paper No. 16759), Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research. http://www.nber.org/papers/w16759.pdf
18. Data reported by the Center on Budget and Policy Priorities. 2015. “Policy Basics: Where Do Our Federal Tax Dollars Go?” March 11. http://www.cbpp.org/research/policy-basics-where-do-our-federal-tax-dollars-go
19. The Lehrman Institute. “The Founding Trio: Washington, Hamilton and Jefferson.” http://lehrmaninstitute.org/history/FoundingTrio.asp
20. McCulloch v. Maryland, 17 U.S. 316 (1819).
21. Gibbons v. Ogden, 22 U.S. 1 (1824).
22. Gibbons v. Ogden, 22 U.S. 1 (1824).
23. W. Kirk Wood. 2008. Nullification, A Constitutional History, 1776–1833. Lanham, MD: University Press of America.
24. Dred Scott v. Sandford, 60 U.S. 393 (1857).
25. Joseph R. Marbach, Troy E. Smith, and Ellis Katz. 2005. Federalism in America: An Encyclopedia. Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing.
26. Marc Allen Eisner. 2014. The American Political Economy: Institutional Evolution of Market and State. New York: Routledge.
27. Eisner, The American Political Economy; Stephen Skowronek. 1982. Building a New American State: The Expansion of National Administrative Capacities, 1877–1920. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.
28. United States v. E. C. Knight, 156 U.S. 1 (1895).
29. Lochner v. New York, 198 U.S. 45 (1905).
30. Hammer v. Dagenhart, 247 U.S. 251 (1918).
31. Nicholas Crafts and Peter Fearon. 2010. “Lessons from the 1930s Great Depression,” Oxford Review of Economic Policy 26: 286–287; Gene Smiley. “The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics: Great Depression.” http://www.econlib.org/library/Enc/GreatDepression.html
32. Marbach et al, Federalism in America: An Encyclopedia.
33. Jeff Shesol. 2010. Supreme Power: Franklin Roosevelt vs. The Supreme Court. New York: W. W. Norton.
34. National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) v. Jones & Laughlin Steel, 301 U.S. 1 (1937).
35. Lawrence R. Jacobs and Theda Skocpol. 2014. “Progressive Federalism and the Contested Implemented of Obama’s Health Reform,” In The Politics of Major Policy Reform in Postwar America, eds. Jeffrey A. Jenkins and Sidney M. Milkis. New York: Cambridge University Press.
36. R. Kent Weaver. 2000. Ending Welfare as We Know It. Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution.
37. Allen Schick. 2007. The Federal Budget, 3rd ed. Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution.
38. Dilger, “Federal Grants to State and Local Governments,” 30–31.
39. United States v. Lopez, 514 U.S. 549 (1995).
40. See Printz v. United States, 521 U.S. 898 (1997).
41. Morton Grodzins. 2004. “The Federal System.” In American Government Readings and Cases, ed. P. Woll. New York: Pearson Longman, 74–78.
42. Dilger, “Federal Grants to State and Local Governments.”
43. John Mikesell. 2014. Fiscal Administration, 9th ed. Boston: Wadsworth Publishing.
44. Dilger, “Federal Grants to State and Local Governments,” 5.
45. ——, “Federal Grants to State and Local Governments,” Table 4.
46. Schick, The Federal Budget.
47. Robert Jay Dilger and Eugene Boyd. 15 July 2014. “Block Grants: Perspectives and Controversies.” Congressional Research Service, Report R40486, 1–3. Isaac Shapiro, David Reich, Chloe Cho, and Richard Kogan. 28 March 2017. “Trump Budget Would Cut Block Grants Dramatically, Underscoring Danger of Granting Social Programs.” Center on Budgets and Policy Priorities. https://www.cbpp.org/research/federal-budget/trump-budget-would-cut-block-grants-dramatically-underscoring-danger-of.
48. Jonathan Weisman, “Ryan’s Budget Would Cut $5 trillion in Spending Over a Decade,” New York Times, 1 April 2014.
49. Kenneth Finegold, Laura Wherry, and Stephanie Schardin. 2014. “Block Grants: Historical Overview and Lessons Learned,” New Federalism: Issues and Options for States Series A, No A-63: 1–7.
50. Martha Derthick. 1987. “American Federalism: Madison’s Middle Ground in the 1980s,” Public Administration Review 47, No. 1: 66–74.
51. U.S. Congress. 2017–2018. H. R. 50 – Unfunded Mandates Information and Transparency Act of 2017. https://www.congress.gov/bill/115th-congress/house-bill/50.
52. National Governors Association, National Conference of State Legislatures, and American Association of Motor Vehicle Administrators. 2006. The Real ID Act: National Impact Analysis. http://www.ncsl.org/print/statefed/real_id_impact_report_final_sept19.pdf
53. Department of Homeland Security. 18 December 2018. “Real ID.” https://www.dhs.gov/real-id. Homeland Security. “REAL ID Enforcement in Brief.” http://www.dhs.gov/real-id-enforcement-brief# (June 12, 2015); National Conference of State Legislatures. “Countdown to REAL ID.” http://www.ncsl.org/research/transportation/count-down-to-real-id.aspx (June 12, 2015).
54. Robert Jay Dilger and Richard S. Beth, “Unfunded Mandates Reform Act: History, Impact, and Issues,” Congressional Research Service, Report 7-5700, 17 November 2014.
55. John Kincaid. 1990. “From Cooperative Federalism to Coercive Federalism,” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 509: 139–152.
56. Carol M. Swain and Virgina M. Yetter. (2014). “Federalism and the Politics of Immigration Reform.” In The Politics of Major Policy Reform in Postwar America, eds. Jeffery A. Jenkins and Sidney M. Milkis. New York: Cambridge University Press.
57. National Conference of State Legislatures. “State Laws Related to Immigration and Immigrants.” http://www.ncsl.org/research/immigration/state-laws-related-to-immigration-and-immigrants.aspx (June 23, 2015).
58. Michele Waslin. 2012. “Discrediting ‘Self Deportation’ as Immigration Policy,” February 6. http://www.immigrationpolicy.org/special-reports/discrediting-%E2%80%9Cself-deportation%E2%80%9D-immigration-policy
59. Daniel González. 2010. “SB 1070 Backlash Spurs Hispanics to Join Democrats,” June 8. http://archive.azcentral.com/arizonarepublic/news/articles/2010/06/08/20100608arizona-immigration-law-backlash.html
60. Arizona v. United States, 567 U.S. __ (2012).
61. Arizona v. United States, 567 U.S. __ (2012).
62. Julia Preston, “Arizona Ruling Only a Narrow Opening for Other States,” New York Times, 25 June 2012.
63. United States v. Windsor, 570 U.S. __ (2013).
64. James Esseks. 2014. “Op-ed: In the Wake of Windsor,” June 26. http://www.advocate.com/commentary/2014/06/26/op-ed-wake-windsor (June 24, 2015).
65. South Dakota v. Dole, 483 U.S. 203 (1987).
66. Frank Baumgartner and Bryan Jones. 1993. Agendas and Instability in American Politics. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
67. Roe v. Wade, 410 U.S. 113 (1973).
68. Elizabeth Nash et al. 2013. “Laws Affecting Reproductive Health and Rights: 2013 State Policy Review.” http://www.guttmacher.org/statecenter/updates/2013/statetrends42013.html (June 24, 2015).
69. New State Ice Co. v. Liebmann, 285 U.S. 262 (1932).
70. Christine Vestal and Michael Ollove, “Why some state-run health exchanges worked,” USA Today, 10 December 2013.
71. Jennifer Lawless. 2012. Becoming a Candidate. New York: Cambridge University Press.
72. Justin McCarthy. 2014. “Americans Still Trust Local Government More Than State,” September 22. http://www.gallup.com/poll/176846/americans-trust-local-government-state.aspx (June 24, 2015).
73. United States Census Bureau. 2017. “Median Household Income (in 2017 Inflation-Adjusted Dollars.” 2017 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates. https://factfinder.census.gov/faces/tableservices/jsf/pages/productview.xhtml?pid=ACS_17_1YR_R1901.US01PRF&prodType=table.
74. Governing the States and Localities. 1 June 2018. “Education Spending per Student by State.” http://www.governing.com/gov-data/education-data/state-education-spending-per-pupil-data.html.
75. The Commonwealth Fund. “Aiming Higher: Results from a Scorecard on State Health System Performance, 2014.” http://www.commonwealthfund.org/publications/fund-reports/2014/apr/2014-state-scorecard (June 24, 2015).
76. Alexander Hertel-Fernandez. 2012. “Why U.S. Unemployment Insurance is in Financial Trouble,” February. http://www.scholarsstrategynetwork.org/sites/default/files/ssn_basic_facts_hertel-fernandez_on_unemployment_insurance_financing.pdf
77. Matt Broaddus and January Angeles. 2012. “Federal Government Will Pick Up Nearly All Costs of Health Reform’s Medicaid Expansion,” March 28. http://www.cbpp.org/research/federal-government-will-pick-up-nearly-all-costs-of-health-reforms-medicaid-expansion. Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. 23 January 2019. “Status of State Action on the Medicaid Expansion Decision.” https://www.kff.org/health-reform/state-indicator/state-activity-around-expanding-medicaid-under-the-affordable-care-act/?currentTimeframe=0&sortModel=%7B%22colId%22:%22Location%22,%22sort%22:%22asc%22%7D#note-1.
78. National Federation of Independent Business v. Sebelius, 567 U.S. __ (2012).
79. Shelby County v. Holder, 570 U.S. __ (2013).

Civil Liberties

1. Green v. County School Board of New Kent County, 391 U.S. 430 (1968); Allen v. Wright, 468 U.S. 737 (1984).
2. Ex parte Milligan, 71 U.S. 2 (1866).
3. Ex parte Quirin, 317 U.S. 1 (1942); See William H. Rehnquist. 1998. All the Laws but One: Civil Liberties in Wartime. New York: William Morrow.
4. American History from Revolution to Reconstruction and Beyond, “Madison Speech Proposing the Bill of Rights June 8 1789,” http://www.let.rug.nl/usa/documents/1786-1800/madison-speech-proposing-the-bill-of-rights-june-8-1789.php (March 4, 2016).
5. Constitution Society, “To the Citizens of the State of New-York,” http://www.constitution.org/afp/brutus02.htm (March 4, 2016).
6. Barron v. Baltimore, 32 U.S. 243 (1833).
7. Saenz v. Roe, 526 U.S. 489 (1999).
8. McDonald v. Chicago, 561 U.S. 742 (2010).
9. Sherbert v. Verner, 374 U.S. 398 (1963).
10. Near v. Minnesota, 283 U.S. 697 (1931).
11. Lemon v. Kurtzman, 403 U.S. 602 (1971).
12. Engel v. Vitale, 370 U.S. 421 (1962).
13. See, in particular, Santa Fe Independent School District v. Doe, 530 U.S. 290 (2000), which found that the school district’s including a student-led prayer at high school football games was illegal.
14. Minersville School District v. Gobitis, 310 U.S. 586 (1940).
15. West Virginia State Board of Education v. Barnette, 319 U.S. 624 (1943); Watchtower Society v. Village of Stratton, 536 U.S. 150 (2002).
16. Gillette v. United States, 401 U.S. 437 (1971).
17. Sherbert v. Verner, 374 U.S. 398 (1963); Wisconsin v. Yoder, 406 U.S. 205 (1972).
18. Employment Division, Department of Human Resources of Oregon v. Smith, 494 U.S. 872 (1990).
19. Juliet Eilperin, “31 states have heightened religious freedom protections,” Washington Post, 1 March 2014. http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/the-fix/wp/2014/03/01/where-in-the-u-s-are-there-heightened-protections-for-religious-freedom/. Three more states passed state RFRAs in the past year.
20. Burwell v. Hobby Lobby Stores, Inc., 573 U.S. __ (2014).
21. Obergefell v. Hodges, 576 U.S. ___ (2015).
22. Schenck v. United States, 249 U.S. 47 (1919).
23. Brandenburg v. Ohio, 395 U.S. 444 (1969).
24. Texas v. Johnson, 491 U.S. 397 (1989).
25. United States v. Eichman, 496 U.S. 310 (1990).
26. Near v. Minnesota, 283 U.S. 697 (1931).
27. New York Times Co. v. United States, 403 U.S. 713 (1971).
28. New York Times v. Sullivan, 376 U.S. 254 (1964).
29. See, for example, Virginia v. Black, 538 U.S. 343 (2003).
30. Miller v. California, 413 U.S. 15 (1973).
31. Tinker v. Des Moines Independent Community School District, 393 U.S. 503 (1969).
32. Hazelwood School District et al. v. Kuhlmeier et al., 484 U.S. 260 (1988).
33. National Socialist Party of America v. Village of Skokie, 432 U.S. 43 (1977); Snyder v. Phelps, 562 U.S. 443 (2011).
34. United States v. Cruickshank, 92 U.S. 542 (1876).
35. United States v. Miller, 307 U.S. 174 (1939).
36. District of Columbia et al. v. Heller, 554 US 570 (2008), p. 3.
37. Richard Gonzales, “Supreme Court Rejects NRA Challenge to San Francisco Gun Rules,” National Public Radio, 8 June 2015. http://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2015/06/08/412917394/supreme-court-rejects-nra-challenge-to-s-f-gun-rules (March 4, 2016).
38. Serge F. Kovaleski and Richard A. Oppel, Jr. 28 September 2018. “A Man Stashed Gus in His Las Vegas Hotel Room. 3 Years Later, a Killer Did the Same.” New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2018/09/28/us/las-vegas-shooting-mgm-lawsuits.html. Michelle Cottle. 28 February 2018. “How Parkland Students Changed the Gun Debate.” The Atlantic. https://www.theatlantic.com/politics/archive/2018/02/parkland-students-power/554399/.
39. See, for example, Arizona v. Gant, 556 U.S. 332 (2009).
40. Mapp v. Ohio, 367 U.S. 643 (1961); Weeks v. United States, 232 U.S. 383 (1914).
41. Silverthorne Lumber Co. v. United States, 251 U.S. 385 (1920).
42. Miranda v. Arizona, 384 U.S. 436 (1966).
43. Kelo et al. v. City of New London et al., 545 U.S. 469 (2005).
44. John C. Moritz. 27 November 2018. "Catholic Diocese Fights to Keep Historic Site from Being Used in Trump's Border Wall." Corpus Christi Caller Times. https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/politics/2018/11/27/texas-la-lomita-mission-center-border-wall-eminent-domain-fight/2132582002/.
45. See, for example, Barker v. Wingo, 407 U.S. 514 (1972).
46. See, for example, Batson v. Kentucky, 476 U.S. 79 (1986); J. E. B. v. Alabama ex rel. T. B., 511 U.S. 127 (1994).
47. Gideon v. Wainwright, 372 U.S. 335 (1963).
48. Waters-Pierce Oil Co. v. Texas, 212 U.S. 86 (1909); United States v. Bajakajian, 524 U.S. 321 (1998).
49. See, for example, the discussion in Wilkerson v. Utah, 99 U.S. 130 (1879).
50. Perhaps the most notorious example, Harmelin v. Michigan, 501 U.S. 957 (1991), upheld a life sentence in a case where the defendant was convicted of possessing just over one pound of cocaine (and no other crime).
51. Atkins v. Virginia, 536 U.S. 304 (2002).
52. Roper v. Simmons, 543 U.S. 551 (2005).
53. Kennedy v. Louisiana, 554 U.S. 407 (2008).
54. Elizabeth Lopatto, “How Many Innocent People Are Sentenced To Death?,” Forbes, 29 April 2014. http://www.forbes.com/sites/elizabethlopatto/2014/04/29/how-many-innocent-people-are-sentenced-to-death/#6e9ae5175cc1 (March 1, 2016).
55. Dave Mann, “DNA Tests Undermine Evidence in Texas Execution: New Results Show Claude Jones was Put to Death on Flawed Evidence,” Texas Observer, 11 November 2010. http://www.texasobserver.org/texas-observer-exclusive-dna-tests-undermine-evidence-in-texas-execution/ (March 4, 2016).
56. See, for example, “States With and Without the Death Penalty,” Death Penalty Information Center, http://www.deathpenaltyinfo.org/states-and-without-death-penalty (March 4, 2016).
57. United States v. Darby Lumber, 312 U.S. 100 (1941).
58. Printz v. United States, 521 U.S. 898 (1997); National Federation of Independent Business v. Sebelius, 567 U.S. __ (2012).
59. See Douglas Shinkle, “State Constitutional Right to Hunt and Fish.” National Conference of State Legislatures, November 9, 2015. http://www.ncsl.org/research/environment-and-natural-resources/state-constitutional-right-to-hunt-and-fish.aspx (March 4, 2016).
60. Pruneyard Shopping Center v. Robins, 447 U.S. 74 (1980).
61. The Texas Politics Project, “Trying to Rewrite the Texas Constitution,” https://texaspolitics.utexas.edu/archive/html/cons/features/0602_01/slide1.html (March 1, 2016).
62. See Griswold v. Connecticut, 381 U.S. 479 (1965). This discussion parallels the debate among the members of the Supreme Court in the Griswold case.
63. Samuel Warren and Louis D. Brandeis. 1890. “The Right to Privacy,” Harvard Law Review 4, No. 193.
64. Griswold v. Connecticut, 381 U.S. 479 (1965)
65. Eisenstadt v. Baird, 405 U.S. 438 (1972).
66. See Rachel Benson Gold. March 2003. “Lessons from Before Roe: Will Past be Prologue?” The Guttmacher Report on Public Policy 6, No. 1. https://www.guttmacher.org/pubs/tgr/06/1/gr060108.html (March 4, 2016).
67. Roe v. Wade, 410 U.S. 113 (1973).
68. Planned Parenthood v. Casey, 505 U.S. 833 (1992).
69. Whole Woman’s Health v. Hellerstedt, 579 U.S. ___ (2016).
70. Bowers v. Hardwick, 478 U.S. 186 (1986).
71. Lawrence v. Texas, 539 U.S. 558 (2003).
72. Carpenter v. United States, No. 16-402, 585 U.S. ____ (2018). https://www.supremecourt.gov/opinions/17pdf/16-402_h315.pdf. Alfred Ng. 22 June 2018. "Supreme Court Says Warrant Necessary for Phone Location Data in Win for Privacy." cnet.com. https://www.cnet.com/news/supreme-court-says-warrant-necessary-for-phone-location-data/.

Civil Rights

1. Aaron Morrison, “Ground Zero Mosque 2015: Developer to Build Condos Instead of Islamic Center that Sparked Controversy Around 9/11 Attacks,” International Business Times, 29 September 2015.
2. Constitutional Rights Foundation. “Race and Voting in the Segregated South,” http://www.crf-usa.org/black-history-month/race-and-voting-in-the-segregated-south (April 10, 2016).
3. Bolling v. Sharpe, 347 U.S. 497 (1954).
4. Phyler v. Doe, 457 U.S. 202 (1982); F. S. Royster Guano v. Virginia, 253 U.S. 412 (1920).
5. Cornell University Law School: Legal Information Institute. “Rational Basis,” https://www.law.cornell.edu/wex/rational_basis (April 10, 2016); Nebbia v. New York, 291 U.S. 502 (1934).
6. United States v. Carolene Products Co., 304 U.S. 144 (1938).
7. Craig v. Boren, 429 U.S. 190 (1976); Clark v. Jeter, 486 U.S. 456 (1988).
8. Mississippi University for Women v. Hogan, 458 U.S. 718 (1982); United States v. Virginia, 518 U.S. 515 (1996).
9. Matthew Rosenberg and Dave Philipps, “All Combat Roles Open to Women, Defense Secretary Says,” New York Times, 3 December 2015; Rostker v. Goldberg, 453 U.S. 57 (1981).
10. Johnson v. California, 543 U.S. 499 (2005).
11. Korematsu v. United States, 323 U.S. 214 (1944).
12. “Mississippi Black Code,” https://chnm.gmu.edu/courses/122/recon/code.html (April 10, 2016); “Black Codes and Pig Laws,” http://www.pbs.org/tpt/slavery-by-another-name/themes/black-codes/ (April 10, 2016).
13. Catherine K. Harbour, and Pallab K. Maulik. 2010. “History of Intellectual Disability.” In International Encyclopedia of Rehabilitation, eds. J. H. Stone and M. Blouin. http://cirrie.buffalo.edu/encyclopedia/en/article/143/ (April 10, 2016).
14. Lucia Stanton. 2008. “Thomas Jefferson and Slavery,” https://www.monticello.org/site/plantation-and-slavery/thomas-jefferson-and-slavery#footnoteref3_srni04n.
15. “How Did Slavery Disappear in the North?” http://www.abolitionseminar.org/how-did-northern-states-gradually-abolish-slavery/ (April 10, 2016); Nicholas Boston and Jennifer Hallam, “The Slave Experience: Freedom and Emancipation,” http://www.pbs.org/wnet/slavery/experience/freedom/history.html (April 10, 2016).
16. Eric Foner. 1970. Free Soil, Free Labor, Free Men: The Ideology of the Republican Party Before the Civil War. New York: Oxford University Press, 28, 50, 54.
17. Dred Scott v. Sandford, 60 U.S. 393 (1857).
18. David M. Potter. 1977. The Impending Crisis, 1848–1861. New York: Harper & Row, 45.
19. David Herbert Donald. 1995. Lincoln. New York: Simon & Schuster, 407.
20. Erik Foner. 1988. Reconstruction: America’s Unfinished Revolution, 1863–1877. New York: Harper & Row, 524–527.
21. Ibid., 595; Alexander Keyssar. 2000. The Right to Vote: The Contested History of Democracy in the United States. New York: Basic Books, 105–106.
22. Keyssar, 114–115.
23. Keyssar, 111–112.
24. Kimberly Sambol-Tosco, “The Slave Experience: Education, Arts, and Culture,” http://www.pbs.org/wnet/slavery/experience/education/history2.html (April 10, 2016).
25. Keyssar, 112.
26. Alan Greenblat, “The Racial History of the ‘Grandfather Clause,” NPR Code Switch, 22 October 2013. http://www.npr.org/sections/codeswitch/2013/10/21/239081586/the-racial-history-of-the-grandfather-clause.
27. Keyssar, 111.
28. Keyssar, 247.
29. Plessy v. Ferguson, 163 U.S. 537 (1896).
30. “NAACP: 100 Years of History,” https://donate.naacp.org/pages/naacp-history (April 10, 2016).
31. Missouri ex rel. Gaines v. Canada, 305 U.S. 337 (1938).
32. Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, 347 U.S. 483 (1954).
33. “Prayer Pilgrimage for Freedom,” http://kingencyclopedia.stanford.edu/encyclopedia/encyclopedia/enc_prayer_pilgrimage_for_freedom_1957/ (April 10, 2016).
34. Jason Sokol. 2006. There Goes My Everything: White Southerners in the Age of Civil Rights. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 116–117.
35. Ibid., 118–120.
36. Ibid., 120, 171, 173.
37. Robert M. Fogelson. 2005. Bourgeois Nightmares: Suburbia, 1870–1930. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 102–103.
38. Shelley v. Kraemer, 334 U.S. 1 (1948).
39. Loving v. Virginia, 388 U.S. 1 (1967).
40. Harper v. Virginia Board of Elections, 383 U.S. 663 (1966).
41. “Gandhi, Mohandas Karamchand (1869–1948),” http://kingencyclopedia.stanford.edu/encyclopedia/encyclopedia/enc_gandhi_mohandas_karamchand_1869_1948/index.html (April 10, 2016); “Nixon, E. D. (1899–1987),” http://www.blackpast.org/aah/nixon-e-d-nixon-1899-1987(April 10, 2016).
42. Morgan v. Virginia, 328 U.S. 373 (1946).
43. See Lynne Olson. 2002. Freedom’s Daughters: The Unsung Heroines of the Civil Rights Movement from 1830–1970. New York: Scribner, 97; D. F. Gore et al. 2009. Want to Start a Revolution? Radical Women in the Black Freedom Struggle. New York: New York University Press; Raymond Arsenault. 2007. Freedom Riders: 1961 and the Struggle for Racial Justice. New York: Oxford University Press.
44. See Heart of Atlanta Motel, Inc. v. United States, 379 U.S. 241 (1964); Katzenbach v. McClung, 379 U.S. 294 (1964), which built on Wickard v. Filburn, 317 U.S. 111 (1942).
45. See David Garrow. 1978. Protest at Selma. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press; David J. Garrow.1988. Bearing the Cross: Martin Luther King Jr. and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference. London: Jonathan Cape.
46. Keyssar, 263–264.
47. Shelby County v. Holder, 570 U.S. ___ (2013).
48. Adam Liptak, “Supreme Court Invalidates Key Part of Voting Rights Act,” The New York Times, 25 June 2013. http://www.nytimes.com/2013/06/26/us/supreme-court-ruling.html; Wendy R. Weiser and Erik Opsal, “The State of Voting in 2014,” Brennan Center for Justice, 17 June 2014. http://www.brennancenter.org/analysis/state-voting-2014.
49. Louis E. Lomax. 1963. When the Word is Given: A Report on Elijah Muhammad, Malcolm X, and the Black Muslim World. Cleveland, OH: World Publishing, 173–174; David Farber. 1994. The Age of Great Dreams: America in the 1960s. New York: Hill and Wang, 207.
50. Dan Keating, “Why Whites Don’t Understand Black Segregation,” Washington Post, 21 November 2014. https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/wonk/wp/2014/11/21/why-whites-dont-understand-black-segregation/.
51. Alana Semuels, “White Flight Never Ended,” The Atlantic, 30 July 2015. http://www.theatlantic.com/business/archive/2015/07/white-flight-alive-and-well/399980/.
52. Lindsey Cook, “U.S. Education: Still Separate and Unequal,” U.S. News and World Report, 28 January 2015. http://www.usnews.com/news/blogs/data-mine/2015/01/28/us-education-still-separate-and-unequal.
53. Sokol, 175–177.
54. Jacqueline Jones. 1992. The Dispossessed: America’s Underclasses From the Civil War to the Present. New York: Basic Books, 274, 290–292.
55. James B. Comey. February 12, 2015. “Hard Truths: Law Enforcement and Race” (speech). https://www.fbi.gov/news/speeches/hard-truths-law-enforcement-and-race.
56. Julie Hirschfeld Davis and Binyamin Appelbaum. 8 July 2015. “Obama Unveils Stricter Rules against Segregation in Housing.” New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2015/07/09/us/hud-issuing-newrules-to-fight-segregation.html?_r=0. Tracy Jan. 24 December 2018. “Ben Carson’s HUD Dials Back Investigations into Housing Discrimination.” Washington Post. https://www.washingtonpost.com/business/economy/ben-carsons-hud-dials-back-investigations-into-housing-discrimination/2018/12/21/65510cea-f743-11e8-863c-9e2f864d47e7_story.html?utm_term=.1776fde23f6b. Diane Yentel. 23 August 2018. “Trump Administration Continues to Undermine Fair Housing Act.” The Hill. https://thehill.com/opinion/civil-rights/403115-trump-administration-continues-to-undermine-fair-housing-act.
57. Politico Magazine. 12 August 2018. "What Charlottesville Changed." Politico. https://www.politico.com/magazine/story/2018/08/12/charlottesville-anniversary-supremacists-protests-dc-virginia-219353
58. Bakke v. California, 438 U.S. 265 (1978).
59. Grutter v. Bollinger, 539 U.S. 306 (2003).
60. Fisher v. University of Texas, 570 U.S. ___ (2013); Fisher v. University of Texas, 579 U.S. ___ (2016).
61. Mary Beth Norton. 1980. Liberty’s Daughters: The Revolutionary Experience of American Women, 1750–1800. New York: Little, Brown, and Company, 46.
62. Ibid., 47.
63. Jan Ellen Lewis. 2011. “Rethinking Women’s Suffrage in New Jersey, 1776–1807,” Rutgers Law Review 63, No. 3, http://www.rutgerslawreview.com/wp-content/uploads/archive/vol63/Issue3/Lewis.pdf.
64. Keyssar, 174.
65. Elizabeth Cady Stanton. 1993. Eighty Years and More: Reminiscences, 1815–1897. Boston: Northeastern University Press, 148.
66. Elizabeth Cady Stanton et al. 1887. History of Woman Suffrage, vol. 1. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 73.
67. Jean H. Baker. 2005. Sisters: The Lives of America’s Suffragists. New York: Hill and Wang, 109.
68. Angelina Grimke. October 2, 1837. “Letter XII Human Rights Not Founded on Sex.” In Letters to Catherine E. Beecher: In Reply to an Essay on Slavery and Abolitionism. Boston: Knapp, 114–121.
69. Keyssar, 178.
70. Keyssar, 184.
71. Keyssar, 175, 186–187.
72. Keyssar, 214.
73. “Alice Paul,” https://www.nwhm.org/education-resources/biography/biographies/alice-paul/ (April 10, 2016).
74. Deborah Rhode. 2009. Justice and Gender: Sex Discrimination and the Law. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 66–67.
75. Mark Hugo Lopez and Ana Gonzalez-Barrera. 6 March 2014. “Women’s College Enrollment Gains Leave Men Behind,” http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2014/03/06/womens-college-enrollment-gains-leave-men-behind/; Allie Bidwell, “Women More Likely to Graduate College, but Still Earn Less Than Men,” U.S. News & World Report, 31 October 2014.
76. “A Current Glance at Women in the Law–July 2014,” American Bar Association, July 2014; “Medical School Applicants, Enrollment Reach All-Time Highs,” Association of American Medical Colleges, October 24, 2013.
77. Roe v. Wade, 410 U.S. 113 (1973).
78. “Pay Equity and Discrimination,” http://www.iwpr.org/initiatives/pay-equity-and-discrimination (April 10, 2016).
79. Gretchen Livingston. 2 July 2013. “The Rise of Single Fathers,” http://www.pewsocialtrends.org/2013/07/02/the-rise-of-single-fathers/.
80. “Poverty in the U.S.: A Snapshot,” National Center for Law and Economic Justice, http://www.nclej.org/poverty-in-the-us.php.
81. “Current Numbers,” http://www.cawp.rutgers.edu/current-numbers (January 10, 2019).
82. “Statistics,” http://www.ncadv.org/learn/statistics (April 10, 2016); “Statistics About Sexual Violence,” http://www.nsvrc.org/sites/default/files/publications_nsvrc_factsheet_media-packet_statistics-about-sexual-violence_0.pdf (April 10, 2016).
83. Heather D. Boonstra and Elizabeth Nash. 2014. “A Surge of State Abortion Restrictions Puts Providers–and the Women They Serve–in the Crosshairs,” Guttmacher Policy Review 17, No. 1, https://www.guttmacher.org/about/gpr/2014/03/surge-state-abortion-restrictions-puts-providers-and-women-they-serve-crosshairs.
84. Whole Woman’s Health v. Hellerstedt, 579 U.S. ___ (2016).
85. Heather D. Boonstra. 2013. “Insurance Coverage of Abortion: Beyond the Exceptions for Life Endangerment, Rape and Incest,” Guttmacher Policy Review 16, No. 3, https://www.guttmacher.org/about/gpr/2013/09/insurance-coverage-abortion-beyond-exceptions-life-endangerment-rape-and-incest.
86. “Garbage Man Salary (United States),” http://www.payscale.com/research/US/Job=Garbage_Man/Hourly_Rate (April 10, 2016).
87. “Child Care/Day Care Worker Salary (United States),” http://www.payscale.com/research/US/Job=Child_Care_%2F_Day_Care_Worker/Hourly_Rate (April 10, 2016).
88. Theodore Haas. 1957. “The Legal Aspects of Indian Affairs from 1887 to 1957,” American Academy of Political Science 311, 12–22.
89. Elk v. Wilkins, (1884)112 U.S. 94.
90. See Alan Gallay. 2009. Indian Slavery in Colonial America. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.
91. See James Wilson. 1998. The Earth Shall Weep: A History of Native America. New York: Grove Press.
92. Ibid; Gloria Jahoda. 1975. Trail of Tears: The Story of American Indian Removal, 1813–1855. New York: Henry Holt.
93. See Wilson. 1998. The Earth Shall Weep.
94. See John Ehle. 1988. Trail of Tears: The Rise and Fall of the Cherokee Nation. New York: Doubleday; Theda Perdue and Michael Green. 2007. The Cherokee Nation and the Trail of Tears. New York: Penguin Books.
95. Cherokee Nation v. Georgia, 30 U.S. 1 (1831).
96. Francis Paul Prucha. 1984. The Great Father: The United States Government and American Indians, vol. 1. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 212; Robert V. Remini. 2001. Andrew Jackson and His Indian Wars. New York: Viking, 257; Worcester v. Georgia, 31 U.S. 515 (1832).
97. Prucha, 241; Ehle, 390–392; Russell Thornton. 1991. “Demography of the Trail of Tears,” In Cherokee Removal: Before and After, ed. William L. Anderson. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 75–93.
98. “Indian Reservations,” http://ic.galegroup.com/ic/uhic/ReferenceDetailsPage/ReferenceDetailsWindow?zid=2a87fa28f20f1e66b5f663e76873fd8c&action=2&catId=&documentId=
GALE|CX3401802046&userGroupName=lnoca_hawken&jsid=f44511ddfece4faafab082109e34a539 (April 10, 2016).
99. Ibid.
100. “Curtis Act (1898),” http://www.okhistory.org/publications/enc/entry.php?entry=CU006 (April 10, 2016).
101. See Gae Whitney Canfield. 1988. Sarah Winnemucca of the Northern Paiutes. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press.
102. Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 (P.L. 73–383); “Indian Reservations,” http://ic.galegroup.com/ic/uhic/ReferenceDetailsPage/ReferenceDetailsWindow?zid=2a87fa28f20f1e66b5f663e76873fd8c&action=2&catId=&documentId=
GALE|CX3401802046&userGroupName=lnoca_hawken&jsid=f44511ddfece4faafab082109e34a539 (April 10, 2016).
103. Daniel McCool, Susan M. Olson, and Jennifer L. Robinson. 2007. Native Vote. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press, 9, 19.
104. “Indian Reservations,” http://ic.galegroup.com/ic/uhic/ReferenceDetailsPage/ReferenceDetailsWindow?zid=2a87fa28f20f1e66b5f663e76873fd8c&action=2&catId=&documentId=
GALE|CX3401802046&userGroupName=lnoca_hawken&jsid=f44511ddfece4faafab082109e34a539 (April 10, 2016).
105. See Troy R. Johnson. 1996. The Occupation of Alcatraz Island: Indian Self-Determination and the Rise of Indian Activism. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.
106. Emily Chertoff, “Occupy Wounded Knee: A 71-Day Siege and a Forgotten Civil Rights Movement,” The Atlantic, 23 October 2012. http://www.theatlantic.com/national/archive/2012/10/occupy-wounded-knee-a-71-day-siege-and-a-forgotten-civil-rights-movement/263998/.
107. Ibid.
108. Public Law 93–638: Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act, as Amended.
109. W. Dale Mason. 2000. Indian Gaming: Tribal Sovereignty and American Politics. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 60–64.
110. Public Law 95–341: American Indian Religious Freedom, Joint Resolution.
111. Winters v. United States, 207 U.S. 564 (1908).
112. Adam Liptak.27 November 2018. “Is Half of Oklahoma an Indian Reservation? The Supreme Court Sifts the Merits.” New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2018/11/27/us/politics/oklahoma-indian-territory-supreme-court.html.
113. U.S. Commission on Civil Rights, “Racism’s Frontier: The Untold Story of Discrimination and Division in Alaska,” http://www.usccr.gov/pubs/sac/ak0402/ch1.htm (April 10, 2016).
114. Ryan Mielke, “Hawaiians’ Years of Mistreatment,” Chicago Tribune, 4 September 1999. http://articles.chicagotribune.com/1999-09-04/news/9909040141_1_hawaiians-oha-land-trust.
115. Brittany Lyte, “Historic Election Could Return Sovereignty to Native Hawaiians,” Aljazeera America 30 Oct. 2015, http://america.aljazeera.com/articles/2015/10/30/historic-election-could-return-sovereignty-to-native-hawaiians.html.
116. Jason Daley. 28 September 2016. “Rule Allows Native Hawaiians to Form Their Own Government.” Smithosian.com. https://www.smithsonianmag.com/smart-news/rule-allows-native-hawaiians-form-their-own-government-180960598/. Brittany Lyte. 5 November 2017. “Native Hawaiians Again Seek Political Sovereignty with a New Constitution.” Washington Post. https://www.washingtonpost.com/national/native-hawaiians-again-seek-political-sovereignty-with-a-new-constitution/2017/11/05/833842d2-b905-11e7-be94-fabb0f1e9ffb_story.html?noredirect=on&utm_term=.b456552351c1.
117. Jens Manuel Krogstad. 13 June 2014. “One-in-Four Native Americans and Alaska Natives Are Living in Poverty,” http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2014/06/13/1-in-4-native-americans-and-alaska-natives-are-living-in-poverty/.
118. Karina L. Walters, Jane M. Simoni, and Teresa Evans-Campbell. 2002. “Substance Use Among American Indians and Alaska Natives: Incorporating Culture in an ‘Indigenist’ Stess-Coping Paradigm,” Public Health Reports 117: S105.
119. Kehaulani Lum, “Native Hawaiians’ Trail of Tears,” Chicago Tribune, 24 August 1999. http://articles.chicagotribune.com/1999-08-24/news/9908240280_1_native-hawaiians-hawaiian-people-aleuts.
120. “Hispanic v. Latino,” http://www.soaw.org/resources/anti-opp-resources/108-race/830-hispanic-vs-latino (April 10, 2016).
121. David G. Gutierrez. 1995. Walls and Mirrors: Mexican Americans, Mexican Immigrants, and the Politics of Ethnicity. Berkeley: University of California Press, chapter 1.
122. See Abraham Hoffman. 1974. Unwanted Americans in the Great Depression: Repatriation Pressures, 1929–1939. Tucson: University of Arizona Press.
123. See Michael Snodgrass. 2011. “The Bracero Program,1942–1964” In Beyond the Border: The History of Mexican–U.S. Migration, ed. Mark Overmyer-Velásquez. New York: Oxford University Press, 79–102.
124. See Benjamin Marquez. 1993. LULAC: The Evolution of a Mexican American Political Organization. Austin: University of Texas Press.
125. Mendez v. Westminister School District, 64 F. Supp. 544 (S.D. Cal. 1946).
126. See Avi Astor. 2009. “Unauthorized Immigration, Securitization, and the Making of Operation Wetback,” Latino Studies 7: 5–29.
127. See John R. Chavez. 1997. “The Chicano Image and the Myth of Aztlan Rediscovered.” In Myth America: A Historical Anthology (volume II), eds. Patrick Gerster and Nicholas Cords. New York: Brandywine Press; F. Arturo Rosales. 1996. Chicano! The History of the Mexican American Civil Rights Movement. Houston, Texas: Arte Público Press.
128. See Rosales, American Civil Rights Movement.
129. See Sal Castro. 2011. Blowout! Sal Castro and the Chicano Struggle for Educational Justice. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
130. See Randy Shaw. 2008. Beyond the Fields: Cesar Chavez, the UFW, and the Struggle for Justice in the 21st Century. Berkeley: University of California Press; Susan Ferriss, Ricardo Sandoval, and Diana Hembree. 1998. The Fight in the Fields: Cesar Chavez and the Farmworkers Movement. New York: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.
131. CNN. 19 March 1998. “Most of California’s Prop. 187 Ruled Unconstitutional,” http://www.cnn.com/ALLPOLITICS/1998/03/19/prop.187/; Patrick J. McDonnell, “Prop. 187 Found Unconstitutional by Federal Judge,” Los Angeles Times, 15 November 1997. http://articles.latimes.com/1997/nov/15/news/mn-54053.
132. Teresa Watanabe and Hector Becerra, “500,000 Pack Streets to Protest Immigration Bills,” Los Angeles Times, 26 March 2006.
133. Arizona v. United States, 567 U.S. _ (2012).
134. Arizona, 567 U.S.
135. Center for Public Affairs Research. 24 November 2015. “UNO Study: Fertility Rate Gap Between Races, Ethnicities is Shrinking,” http://www.unomaha.edu/news/2015/01/fertility.php.
136. Rakesh Kochhar and Richard Fry. 12 December 2014. “Wealth Inequality Has Widened Along Racial, Ethnic Lines Since End of Great Recession,” http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2014/12/12/racial-wealth-gaps-great-recession/; “State High School Graduation Rates By Race, Ethnicity,” http://www.governing.com/gov-data/education-data/state-high-school-graduation-rates-by-race-ethnicity.html (April 10, 2016); Mark Hugo Lopez and Richard Fry. 4 September 2013. “Among Recent High School Grads, Hispanic College Enrollment Rates Surpasses That of Whites,” http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2013/09/04/hispanic-college-enrollment-rate-surpasses-whites-for-the-first-time/.
137. Perry Bacon Jr. 6 December 2018. "Trump Has Made U.S. Policy Much More Resistant to Immigration — Without the Wall." https://fivethirtyeight.com/features/trump-hasnt-needed-the-wall-to-remake-u-s-immigration-policy/.
138. See Gabriel Chin and Hrishi Kathrikeyan. 2002. “Preserving Racial Identity: Population Patterns and the Application of Anti-Miscegenation Statutes to Asian Americans, 1910–1950,” Asian Law Journal 9.
139. See Greg Robinson. 2010. A Tragedy of Democracy: Japanese Confinement in North America. New York: Columbia University Press.
140. Korematsu v. United States, 323 U.S. 214 (1944).
141. Robinson, Tragedy of Democracy.
142. See William Wei. 1993. The Asian American Movement. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
143. Lau v. Nichols, 414 U.S. 563 (1974).
144. “The Rise of Asian Americans,” http://www.pewsocialtrends.org/asianamericans-graphics/ (April 10, 2016).
145. See Jonathan Ned Katz. 1995. Gay and American History: Lesbians and Gay Men in the United States. New York: Thomas Crowell.
146. See David K. Johnson. 2004. The Lavender Scare: The Cold War Persecution of Gays and Lesbians. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
147. See Vern L. Bullough. 2002. Before Stonewall: Activists for Gay and Lesbian Rights in Historical Context. New York: Harrington Park Press.
148. See David Carter. 2004. Stonewall: The Riots That Sparked the Gay Revolution. New York: St. Martin’s Press; Martin Duberman.1993. Stonewall. New York: Penguin Books.
149. Public Law 103–160: National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1994.
150. NBC News. 22 July 2011. “Obama Certifies End of Military’s Gay Ban,” http://www.nbcnews.com/id/43859711/ns/us_news-life/#.VrAzFlLxh-U.
151. Lawrence v. Texas, 539 U.S. 558 (2003).
152. Obergefell v. Hodges, 576 U.S. _ (2015).
153. City of Boerne v. Flores, 521 U.S. 507 (1997).
154. “Know Your Rights: Transgender People and the Law,” https://www.aclu.org/know-your-rights/transgender-people-and-law (April 10, 2016).
155. Lila Shapiro. 2 Apr. 2015. “Record Number of Reported LGBT Homicides in 2015,” http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2015/04/02/lgbt-homicides_n_6993484.html.
156. See Edward J. Larson. 1995. Sex, Race, and Science: Eugenics in The Deep South. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press; Rebecca M. Kluchin. 2009. Fit to Be Tied: Sterilization and Reproductive Rights in America 1950–1980. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
157. Buck v. Bell, 274 U.S. 200 (1927).
158. Kim Severson, “Thousands Sterilized, A State Weighs Restitution,” New York Times, 9 December 2011. http://www.nytimes.com/2011/12/10/us/redress-weighed-for-forced-sterilizations-in-north-carolina.html?_r=1&hp.
159. See Nancy Lusignan Schultz. 2000. Fire and Roses: The Burning of the Charlestown Convent. New York: Free Press.
160. See Richard L. Bushman. 2005. Joseph Smith: Rough Stone Rolling. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.
161. See Frederic Cople Jaher. 1994. A Scapegoat in the Wilderness: The Origins and Rise of Anti-Semitism in America. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
162. “Combatting Religious Discrimination and Protecting Religious Freedom,” http://www.justice.gov/crt/combating-religious-discrimination-and-protecting-religious-freedom-16 (April 10, 2016).
163. Eric Lichtblau, “Crimes Against Muslim Americans and Mosques Rise Sharply,” New York Times, 17 December 2015. http://www.nytimes.com/2015/12/18/us/politics/crimes-against-muslim-americans-and-mosques-rise-sharply.html?_r=0.
164. Burwell v. Hobby Lobby Stores, Inc., 573 U.S. _ (2014).

The Politics of Public Opinion

1. Erik Hayden, “Mitt Romney’s Transition Website: Where ‘President-Elect’ Romney Lives On,” Time, 8 November 2012. http://newsfeed.time.com/2012/11/08/mitt-romneys-transition-website-where-president-elect-romney (February 17, 2016).
2. John Sides, “The Romney Campaign’s Own Polls Showed It Would Lose,” Washington Post, 8 October 2013; Charlie Mahtesian, “Rasmussen Explains,” Politico, 1 November 2012. Jan Crawford, “Adviser: Romney ‘Shellshocked’ by Loss,” CBS News, 8 November 2012.
3. Crawford, “Adviser: Romney ‘Shellshocked’ by Loss.”
4. Gallup. 2015. “Gallup Daily: Obama Job Approval.” Gallup. June 6, 2015. http://www.gallup.com/poll/113980/Gallup-Daily-Obama-Job-Approval.aspx (February 17, 2016); Rasmussen Reports. 2015. “Daily Presidential Tracking Poll.” Rasmussen Reports June 6, 2015. http://www.rasmussenreports.com/public_content/politics/obama_administration/daily_presidential_tracking_poll (February 17, 2016); Roper Center. 2015. “Obama Presidential Approval.” Roper Center. June 6, 2015. http://www.ropercenter.uconn.edu/polls/presidential-approval/ (February 17, 2016).
5. V. O. Key, Jr. 1966. The Responsible Electorate. Harvard University: Belknap Press.
6. John Zaller. 1992. The Nature and Origins of Mass Opinion. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
7. Eitan Hersh. 2013. “Long-Term Effect of September 11 on the Political Behavior of Victims’ Families and Neighbors.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 110 (52): 20959–63.
8. M. Kent Jennings. 2002. “Generation Units and the Student Protest Movement in the United States: An Intra- and Intergenerational Analysis.” Political Psychology 23 (2): 303–324.
9. United States Senate. 2015. “Party Division in the Senate, 1789-Present,” United States Senate. June 5, 2015. http://www.senate.gov/pagelayout/history/one_item_and_teasers/partydiv.htm (February 17, 2016). History, Art & Archives. 2015. “Party Divisions of the House of Representatives: 1789–Present.” United States House of Representatives. June 5, 2015. http://history.house.gov/Institution/Party-Divisions/Party-Divisions/ (February 17, 2016).
10. V. O. Key Jr. 1955. “A Theory of Critical Elections.” Journal of Politics 17 (1): 3–18.
11. Pew Research Center. 2014. “Political Polarization in the American Public.” Pew Research Center. June 12, 2014. http://www.people-press.org/2014/06/12/political-polarization-in-the-american-public/ (February 17, 2016).
12. Pew Research Center. 2015. “American Values Survey.” Pew Research Center. http://www.people-press.org/values-questions/ (February 17, 2016).
13. Virginia Chanley. 2002. “Trust in Government in the Aftermath of 9/11: Determinants and Consequences.” Political Psychology 23 (3): 469–483.
14. Deborah Schildkraut. 2002. “The More Things Change... American Identity and Mass and Elite Responses to 9/11.” Political Psychology 23 (3): 532.
15. Joseph Bafumi and Robert Shapiro. 2009. “A New Partisan Voter.” The Journal of Politics 71 (1): 1–24.
16. Liz Marlantes, “After 9/11, the Body Politic Tilts to Conservatism,” Christian Science Monitor, 16 January 2002.
17. Liping Weng. 2010. “Shanghai Children’s Value Socialization and Its Change: A Comparative Analysis of Primary School Textbooks.” China Media Research 6 (3): 36–43.
18. David Easton. 1965. A Systems Analysis of Political Life. New York: John Wiley.
19. Angus Campbell, Philip Converse, Warren Miller, and Donald Stokes. 2008. The American Voter: Unabridged Edition. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Michael S. Lewis-Beck, William G. Jacoby, Helmut Norpoth, and Herbert F. Weisberg. 2008. American Vote Revisited. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
20. Russell Dalton. 1980. “Reassessing Parental Socialization: Indicator Unreliability versus Generational Transfer.” American Political Science Review 74 (2): 421–431.
21. Michael S. Lewis-Beck, William G. Jacoby, Helmut Norpoth, and Herbert F. Weisberg. 2008. American Vote Revisited. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
22. Michael Lipka. 2013. “What Surveys Say about Workshop Attendance—and Why Some Stay Home.” Pew Research Center. September 13, 2013. http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2013/09/13/what-surveys-say-about-worship-attendance-and-why-some-stay-home/ (February 17, 2016).
23. Arthur Lupia and Mathew D. McCubbins. 1998. The Democratic Dilemma: Can Citizens Learn What They Need to Know? New York: Cambridge University Press. John Barry Ryan. 2011. “Social Networks as a Shortcut to Correct Voting.” American Journal of Political Science 55 (4): 753–766.
24. Sarah Bowen. 2015. “A Framing Analysis of Media Coverage of the Rodney King Incident and Ferguson, Missouri, Conflicts.” Elon Journal of Undergraduate Research in Communications 6 (1): 114–124.
25. Frederick Engels. 1847. The Principles of Communism. Trans. Paul Sweezy. https://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1847/11/prin-com.htm (February 17, 2016).
26. Libertarian Party. 2014. “Libertarian Party Platform.” June. http://www.lp.org/platform (February 17, 2016).
27. Arthur Evans, “Predict Landon Electoral Vote to be 315 to 350,” Chicago Tribune, 18 October 1936.
28. United States Census Bureau. 2012. “Age and Sex Composition in the United States: 2012.” United States Census Bureau. http://www.census.gov/population/age/data/2012comp.html (February 17, 2016).
29. Rasmussen Reports. 2015. “Daily Presidential Tracking Poll.” Rasmussen Reports. September 27, 2015. http://www.rasmussenreports.com/public_content/politics/obama_administration/daily_presidential_tracking_poll (February 17, 2016); Pew Research Center. 2015. “Sampling.” Pew Research Center. http://www.pewresearch.org/methodology/u-s-survey-research/sampling/ (February 17, 2016).
30. American National Election Studies Data Center. 2016. http://electionstudies.org/studypages/download/datacenter_all_NoData.php (February 17, 2016).
31. Michael W. Link and Robert W. Oldendick. 1997. “Good” Polls / “Bad” Polls—How Can You Tell? Ten Tips for Consumers of Survey Research.” South Carolina Policy Forum. http://www.ipspr.sc.edu/publication/Link.htm (February 17, 2016); Pew Research Center. 2015. “Sampling.” Pew Research Center. http://www.pewresearch.org/methodology/u-s-survey-research/sampling/ (February 17, 2016).
32. “Roper Center. 2015. “Polling Fundamentals – Sampling.” Roper. http://www.ropercenter.uconn.edu/support/polling-fundamentals-sampling/ (February 17, 2016).
33. Gallup. 2015. “How Does the Gallup World Poll Work?” Gallup. http://www.gallup.com/178667/gallup-world-poll-work.aspx (February 17, 2016).
34. Gallup. 2015. “Does Gallup Call Cellphones?” Gallup. http://www.gallup.com/poll/110383/does-gallup-call-cell-phones.aspx (February 17, 2016).
35. Mark Blumenthal, “The Case for Robo-Pollsters: Automated Interviewers Have Their Drawbacks, But Fewer Than Their Critics Suggest,” National Journal, 14 September 2009.
36. Mark Blumenthal, “Is Polling As We Know It Doomed?” National Journal, 10 August 2009.
37. Frank Luntz. 2007. Words That Work: It’s Not What You Say, It’s What People Hear. New York: Hyperion.
38. Aaron Blake, “This terrible polls shows Elizabeth Warren beating Hillary Clinton,” Washington Post, 11 February 2015.
39. Nate Silver. 2010. “The Broadus Effect? Social Desirability Bias and California Proposition 19.” FiveThirtyEightPolitics. July 27, 2010. http://fivethirtyeight.com/features/broadus-effect-social-desirability-bias/ (February 18, 2016).
40. Nate Silver. 2010. “The Broadus Effect? Social Desirability Bias and California Proposition 19.” FiveThirtyEightPolitics. July 27, 2010. http://fivethirtyeight.com/features/broadus-effect-social-desirability-bias/ (February 18, 2016).
41. D. Davis. 1997. “The Direction of Race of Interviewer Effects among African-Americans: Donning the Black Mask.” American Journal of Political Science 41 (1): 309–322.
42. Kate Sheppard, “Top Texas Regulator: Could Russia be Behind City’s Proposed Fracking Ban?” Huffington Post, 16 July 2014. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2014/07/16/fracking-ban-denton-russia_n_5592661.html (February 18, 2016).
43. Michael S. Lewis-Beck, William G. Jacoby, Helmut Norpoth, and Herbert F. Weisberg. 2008. American Vote Revisited. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
44. Samuel Popkin. 2008. The Reasoning Voter: Communication and Persuasion in Presidential Campaigns. Chicago: University Of Chicago Press. Michael S. Lewis-Beck, William G. Jacoby, Helmut Norpoth, and Herbert F. Weisberg. 2008. American Vote Revisited. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
45. Scott Ashworth, and Ethan Bueno De Mesquita. 2014. “Is Voter Competence Good for Voters? Information, Rationality, and Democratic Performance.” American Political Science Review 108 (3): 565–587.
46. Gallup. 2015. “U.S. Presidential Election Center.” Gallup. June 6, 2015. http://www.gallup.com/poll/154559/US-Presidential-Election-Center.aspx (February 18, 2016).
47. "How Groups Voted 2016." 10 January 2019. Roper Center for Public Opinion Research at Cornell University. https://ropercenter.cornell.edu/polls/us-elections/how-groups-voted/groups-voted-2016/.
48. Josh Richman, “Field Poll: California Voters Favor Gun Controls Over Protecting Second Amendment Rights,” San Jose Mercury News, 26 February 2013.
49. UT Austin. 2015. “Agreement with Concealed Carry Laws.” UT Austin Texas Politics Project. February 2015. http://texaspolitics.utexas.edu/set/agreement-concealed-carry-laws-february-2015#party-id (February 18, 2016).
50. Stephen Battaglio, “Brian Williams Will Leave ‘NBC Nightly News’ and Join MSNBC,” LA Times, 18 June 2015.
51. Pew Research Center. 2015. “Party Identification Trends, 1992–2014.” Pew Research Center. April 7, 2015. http://www.people-press.org/2015/04/07/party-identification-trends-1992-2014/ (February 18, 2016).
52. Jeffrey Jones. 2014. “Americans Continue to Say a Third Political Party is Needed.” Gallup. September 24, 2014. http://www.gallup.com/poll/177284/americans-continue-say-third-political-party-needed.aspx (February 18, 2016).
53. Pew Research Center. 2015. “A Different Look at Generations and Partisanship.” Pew Research Center. April 30, 2015. http://www.people-press.org/2015/04/30/a-different-look-at-generations-and-partisanship/ (February 18, 2016).
54. Pew Research Center. 2015. “Multiracial in America.” Pew Research Center. June 11, 2015. http://www.pewsocialtrends.org/2015/06/11/multiracial-in-america/ (February 18, 2016).
55. Pew Research Center. 2015. “Economic Conditions.” Pew Research Center. February 22, 2015. http://www.pewresearch.org/data-trend/national-conditions/economic-conditions/ (February 18, 2016).
56. Pew Research Center. 2015. “Personal Finances.” Pew Research Center. January 11, 2015. http://www.pewresearch.org/data-trend/national-conditions/personal-finances/ (February 18, 2016).
57. Frank Newport. 2011. “Americans Blame Wasteful Government Spending for Deficit.” Gallup. April 29, 2011. http://www.gallup.com/poll/147338/Americans-Blame-Wasteful-Government-Spending-Deficit.aspx (February 18, 2016).
58. Harris Poll Online. 2012. “Cutting Government Spending May be Popular But Majorities of the Public Oppose Cuts in Many Big Ticket Items in the Budget.” Harris Poll Online. March 1, 2012. http://www.harrisinteractive.com/NewsRoom/HarrisPolls/tabid/447/mid/1508/articleId/972/ctl/ReadCustom percent20Default/Default.aspx (February 18, 2016); Frank Newport, and Lydia Saad, 2011. “Americans Oppose Cuts in Education, Social Security, Defense.” Gallup. January 2, 2011. http://www.gallup.com/poll/145790/Americans-Oppose-Cuts-Education-Social-Security-Defense.aspx (February 18, 2016).
59. Pew Research Center. 2011. “Domestic Issues and Social Policy.” Pew Research Center. May 4, 2011. http://www.people-press.org/2011/05/04/section-8-domestic-issues-and-social-policy/ (February 18, 2016).
60. Pew Research Center. 2015. “Views of Health Care Law, 2010-2015.” Pew Research Center. March 3, 2015. http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2015/03/04/opinions-on-obamacare-remain-divided-along-party-lines-as-supreme-court-hears-new-challenge/ft_acaapprove (February 18, 2016).
61. Pew Research Center. 2014. “Gun Control.” Pew Research Center. December 7, 2014. http://www.pewresearch.org/data-trend/domestic-issues/gun-control (February 18, 2016).
62. Obergefell v. Hodges, 576 U.S. ___ (2015).
63. National Conference of State Legislatures. 2015. “Same Sex Marriage Laws.” National Conference of State Legislatures. June 26, 2015. http://www.ncsl.org/research/human-services/same-sex-marriage-laws.aspx (February 18, 2016).
64. Pew Research Center. 2014. “Gun Control.” Pew Research Center. December 7, 2014. http://www.pewresearch.org/data-trend/domestic-issues/gun-control (February 18, 2016).
65. Pew Research Center. 2011. “Domestic Issues and Social Policy.” May 4, 2011. Pew Research Center. http://www.people-press.org/2011/05/04/section-8-domestic-issues-and-social-policy (February 18, 2016).
66. Gallup interactive Presidential Job Approval Center. https://news.gallup.com/interactives/185273/r.aspx?g_source=WWWV7HP&g_medium=topic&g_campaign=tiles.
67. Gallup. 2015. “Presidential Approval Ratings – George W. Bush.” Gallup. June 20, 2015. http://www.gallup.com/poll/116500/Presidential-Approval-Ratings-George-Bush.aspx (February 18, 2016).
68. 115 STAT. 2001. “224. Public Law 107-40. Joint Resolution.” 107th Congress. http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/PLAW-107publ40/pdf/PLAW-107publ40.pdf (February 18, 2016).
69. Pew Research Center. 2008. “Public Attitudes Towards the War in Iraq: 2003-2008.” Pew Research Center. March 19, 2008. http://www.pewresearch.org/2008/03/19/public-attitudes-toward-the-war-in-iraq-20032008/ (February 18, 2016); Pew Research Center. 2014. “More Now See Failure than Success in Iraq, Afghanistan.” Pew Research Center. January 30, 2014. http://www.people-press.org/2014/01/30/more-now-see-failure-than-success-in-iraq-afghanistan/ (February 18, 2016).
70. Gallup. 2015. “Presidential Job Approval Center.” Gallup. June 20, 2015. http://www.gallup.com/poll/124922/Presidential-Job-Approval-Center.aspx?utm_source=PRESIDENTIAL_JOB_APPROVAL&utm_medium=topic&utm_campaign=tiles (February 18, 2016).
71. Gallup. 2015. “Congress and the Public.” Gallup. June 21, 2015. http://www.gallup.com/poll/1600/Congress-Public.aspx (February 18, 2016).
72. Neil Irwin, “The 1995 Shutdown, from a Budget Official’s Perspective,” Washington Post, 27 September 2013.
73. Gallup. 2015. “Congress and the Public.” Gallup. June 21, 2015. http://www.gallup.com/poll/1600/Congress-Public.aspx (February 18, 2016); Jeffrey Jones. 2007. “Congress Approval Rating Matches Historical Low.” Gallup. August 21, 2007. http://www.gallup.com/poll/28456/congress-approval-rating-matches-historical-low.aspx (February 18, 2016).
74. Dan Merica. 2013. “1995 and 2013: Three Differences Between the Two Shutdowns.” CNN. October 4, 2013. http://www.cnn.com/2013/10/01/politics/different-government-shutdowns/ (February 18, 2016).
75. Paul Lewis, “US Shutdown Drags Into Second Day as Republicans Eye Fresh Debt Ceiling Crisis,” Guardian, 2 October 2013.
76. Gallup. 2015. “Congress and the Public.” Gallup. June 21, 2015. http://www.gallup.com/poll/1600/Congress-Public.aspx (February 18, 2016).
77. Andrew Dugan. 2014. “Americans’ Approval of Supreme Court New All-Time Low.” Gallup. July 19, 2014. http://www.gallup.com/poll/163586/americans-approval-supreme-court-near-time-low.aspx (February 18, 2016).
78. James L. Gibson, and Gregory A. Caldeira. 2009. “Knowing the Supreme Court? A Reconsideration of Public Ignorance of the High Court.” Journal of Politics 71 (2): 429–441.
79. Bush v. Gore, 531 U.S. 98 (2000).
80. National Federation of Independent Business v. Sebelius, 567 U.S. ___ (2012); Andrew Dugan. 2014. “Americans’ Approval of Supreme Court New All-Time Low.” Gallup. July 19, 2014. http://www.gallup.com/poll/163586/americans-approval-supreme-court-near-time-low.aspx (February 18, 2016).
81. King v. Burwell, 576 U.S. ___ (2015); Gallup Polling. 2015. “Supreme Court.” Gallup Polling. http://www.gallup.com/poll/4732/supreme-court.aspx (February 18, 2016).
82. Donald Mccrone, and James Kuklinski. 1979. “The Delegate Theory of Representation.” American Journal of Political Science 23 (2): 278–300.
83. Norman Ornstein, and Thomas Mann, eds. 2000. The Permanent Campaign and Its Future. Washington: American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research and the Brookings Institution.
84. Paul Hitlin. 2013. “The 2016 Presidential Media Primary Is Off to a Fast Start.” Pew Research Center. October 3, 2013. http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2013/10/03/the-2016-presidential-media-primary-is-off-to-a-fast-start/ (February 18, 2016).
85. Pew Research Center, 2015. “Hillary Clinton’s Favorability Ratings over Her Career.” Pew Research Center. June 6, 2015. http://www.pewresearch.org/wp-content/themes/pewresearch/static/hillary-clintons-favorability-ratings-over-her-career/ (February 18, 2016).
86. Pew Research Center. 2012. “Winning the Media Campaign.” Pew Research Center. November 2, 2012. http://www.journalism.org/2012/11/02/winning-media-campaign-2012/ (February 18, 2016).
87. Pew Research Center. 2012. “Fewer Horserace Stories-and Fewer Positive Obama Stories-Than in 2008.” Pew Research Center. November 2, 2012. http://www.journalism.org/2012/11/01/press-release-6/ (February 18, 2016).
88. Zack Nauth, “Networks Won’t Use Exit Polls in State Forecasts,” Los Angeles Times, 18 January 1985.
89. Seymour Sudman. 1986. “Do Exit Polls Influence Voting Behavior? The Public Opinion Quarterly 50 (3): 331–339.
90. Patrick O’Connor. 2015. “WSJ/NBC Poll Finds Hillary Clinton in a Strong Position.” Wall Street Journal. June 23, 2015. http://www.wsj.com/articles/new-poll-finds-hillary-clinton-tops-gop-presidential-rivals-1435012049.
91. Federal Elections Commission. 2015. “Presidential Receipts.” http://www.fec.gov/press/summaries/2016/tables/presidential/presreceipts_2015_q2.pdf (February 18, 2016).
92. Susan Page and Paulina Firozi, “Poll: Hillary Clinton Still Leads Sanders and Biden But By Less,” USA Today, 1 October 2015.
93. Dan Merica, and Jeff Zeleny. 2015. “Bernie Sanders Nearly Outraises Clinton, Each Post More Than $20 Million.” CNN. October 1, 2015. http://www.cnn.com/2015/09/30/politics/bernie-sanders-hillary-clinton-fundraising/index.html?eref=rss_politics (February 18, 2016).
94. Robert S. Erikson, Michael B. MacKuen, and James A. Stimson. 2000. “Bankers or Peasants Revisited: Economic Expectations and Presidential Approval.” Electoral Studies 19: 295–312.
95. Erikson et al, “Bankers or Peasants Revisited: Economic Expectations and Presidential Approval.
96. Michael B. MacKuen, Robert S. Erikson, and James A. Stimson. 1989. “Macropartisanship.” American Political Science Review 83 (4): 1125–1142.
97. James A. Stimson, Michael B. Mackuen, and Robert S. Erikson. 1995. “Dynamic Representation.” American Political Science Review 89 (3): 543–565.
98. Stimson et al, “Dynamic Representation.”
99. Stimson et al, “Dynamic Representation.”
100. Dan Wood. 2009. Myth of Presidential Representation. New York: Cambridge University Press, 96-97.
101. Wood, Myth of Presidential Representation.
102. U.S. Election Atlas. 2015. “United States Presidential Election Results.” U.S. Election Atlas. June 22, 2015. http://uselectionatlas.org/RESULTS/ (February 18, 2016).
103. Richard Fleisher, and Jon R. Bond. 1996. “The President in a More Partisan Legislative Arena.” Political Research Quarterly 49 no. 4 (1996): 729–748.
104. George C. Edwards III, and B. Dan Wood. 1999. “Who Influences Whom? The President, Congress, and the Media.” American Political Science Review 93 (2): 327–344.
105. Pew Research Center. 2013. “Public Opinion Runs Against Syrian Airstrikes.” Pew Research Center. September 4, 2013. http://www.people-press.org/2013/09/03/public-opinion-runs-against-syrian-airstrikes/ (February 18, 2016).
106. Paul Bedard. 2013. “Poll-Crazed Clinton Even Polled on His Dog’s Name.” Washington Examiner. April 30, 2013. http://www.washingtonexaminer.com/poll-crazed-bill-clinton-even-polled-on-his-dogs-name/article/2528486.
107. Stimson et al, “Dynamic Representation.”
108. Suzanna De Boef, and James A. Stimson. 1995. “The Dynamic Structure of Congressional Elections.” Journal of Politics 57 (3): 630–648.
109. Stimson et al, “Dynamic Representation.”
110. Stimson et al, “Dynamic Representation.”
111. Benjamin Cardozo. 1921. The Nature of the Judicial Process. New Haven: Yale University Press.
112. Jack Knight, and Lee Epstein. 1998. The Choices Justices Make. Washington DC: CQ Press.
113. Kevin T. Mcguire, Georg Vanberg, Charles E Smith, and Gregory A. Caldeira. 2009. “Measuring Policy Content on the U.S. Supreme Court.” Journal of Politics 71 (4): 1305–1321.
114. Kevin T. McGuire, and James A. Stimson. 2004. “The Least Dangerous Branch Revisited: New Evidence on Supreme Court Responsiveness to Public Preferences.” Journal of Politics 66 (4): 1018–1035.
115. Thomas Marshall. 1989. Public Opinion and the Supreme Court. Boston: Unwin Hyman.
116. Christopher J. Casillas, Peter K. Enns, and Patrick C. Wohlfarth. 2011. “How Public Opinion Constrains the U.S. Supreme Court.” American Journal of Political Science 55 (1): 74–88.
117. Town of Greece v. Galloway 572 U.S. ___ (2014).
118. Gallup. 2015. “Religion.” Gallup. June 18, 2015. http://www.gallup.com/poll/1690/Religion.aspx (February 18, 2016).
119. Rebecca Riffkin. 2015. “In U.S., Support for Daily Prayer in Schools Dips Slightly.” Gallup. September 25, 2015. http://www.gallup.com/poll/177401/support-daily-prayer-schools-dips-slightly.aspx.
120. Gallup. 2015. “Supreme Court.” Gallup. http://www.gallup.com/poll/4732/supreme-court.aspx (February 18, 2016).
121. Stimson et al, “Dynamic Representation.”

Voting and Elections

1. Margaret Carlson, “In Iowa, Ted Cruz Shoots Ducks in a Barrel,” Bloomberg View, 29 October 2013; Steve Peoples, “Sen. Ted Cruz of Texas Heading to New Hampshire,” San Jose Mercury News, 13 July 2013.
2. “Cruz Filibusters with ‘Green Eggs and Ham,’ ‘Redneck Rules,’” 30 July 2015, http://abcnews.go.com/GMA/video/tea-party-senator-ted-cruz-filibusters-attack-obamacare-20366644.
3. Brandie Peterson, “Election 2016: Why Ted Cruz Picked Liberty University,” CNN, 23 March 2015.
4. “Transcript: Ted Cruz’s Speech at Liberty University,” Washington Post, 23 March 2015.
5. Stephen Medvic. 2014. Campaigns and Elections: Players and Processes, 2nd ed. New York: Routledge.
6. Guinn v. United States, 238 U.S. 347 (1915).
7. Medvic, Campaigns and Elections.
8. Shelby County v. Holder, 570 U.S. ___ (2013).
9. Bernard Grofman, Lisa Handley, and Richard G. Niemi. 1992. Minority Representation and the Quest for Voting Equality. New York: Cambridge University Press, 25.
10. “The Canvass,” April 2014, Issue 48, http://www.ncsl.org/research/elections-and-campaigns/states-and-election-reform-the-canvass-april-2014.aspx.
11. Tova Wang and Maria Peralta. 22 September 2015. “New Report Released by National Commission on Voting Rights: More Work Needed to Improve Registration and Voting in the U.S.” http://votingrightstoday.org/ncvr/resources/electionadmin.
12. Ibid.
13. Royce Crocker, “The National Voter Registration Act of 1993: History, Implementation, and Effects,” Congressional Research Service, CRS Report R40609, September 18, 2013, https://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/R40609.pdf.
14. “National General Election VEP Turnout Rates, 1789–Present,” http://www.electproject.org/national-1789-present (November 4, 2015).
15. John B. Holbein, D. Sunshine Hillygus. 2015. “Making Young Voters: The Impact of Preregistration on Youth Turnout.” American Journal of Political Science (March). doi:10.1111/ajps.12177.
16. Russell Berman, “Should Voter Registration Be Automatic?” Atlantic, 20 March 2015; Maria L. La Ganga, “Under New Oregon Law, All Eligible Voters are Registered Unless They Opt Out,” Los Angeles Times, 17 March 2015.
17. “’Unusable’ Voter Rolls,” Wall Street Journal, 7 November 2000.
18. “One Hundred Seventh Congress of the United States of America at the Second Session,” 23 January 2002. http://www.eac.gov/assets/1/workflow_staging/Page/41.PDF.
19. “Voter List Accuracy,”11 February 2014. http://www.ncsl.org/research/elections-and-campaigns/voter-list-accuracy.aspx
20. Brad Bryant and Kay Curtis, eds. December 2013. “Interstate Crosscheck Program Grows,” http://www.kssos.org/forms/communication/canvassing_kansas/dec13.pdf.
21. Troy Kinsey, “Proposed Bills Put Greater Scrutiny on Florida’s Voter Purges,” Bay News, 9 November 2015.
22. Pam Fessler, “Study: 1.8 Million Dead People Still Registered to Vote,” National Public Radio, 14 February 2013; “Report: Inaccurate, Costly, an Inefficient,” The Pew Charitable Trusts, February 14, 2012.
23. Fessler, “Study: 1.8 Million Dead People Still Registered to Vote.”
24. “Felon Voting Rights,” 15 July 2014. http://www.ncsl.org/research/elections-and-campaigns/felon-voting-rights.aspx.
25. Wilson Ring, “Vermont, Maine Only States to Let Inmates Vote,” Associated Press, 22 October 2008.
26. “Voter’s Qualifications and Oath,” https://votesmart.org/elections/ballot-measure/1583/voters-qualifications-and-oath#.VjQOJH6rS00 (November 12, 2015).
27. Richard Niemi and Michael Hanmer. 2010. “Voter Turnout Among College Students: New Data and a Rethinking of Traditional Theories,” Social Science Quarterly 91, No. 2: 301–323.
28. Michael P. McDonald and Samuel Popkin. 2001. “Myth of the Vanishing Voter,” American Political Science Review 95, No. 4: 963–974; See also, “What is the Voting-Age Population (VAP) and the Voting-Eligible Population (VEP)?” http://www.electproject.org/home/voter-turnout/faq/denominator (November 12, 2015).
29. McDonald and Popkin, “Myth of the Vanishing Voter,” 963–974.
30. Michael B. Farrell. September 16, 2009. “What is the ACORN Controversy About?” Christian Science Monitor, http://www.csmonitor.com/USA/Politics/2009/0916/what-is-the-acorn-controversy-about.
31. Jennifer Steinhauer, “Opponents of California Ballot Initiative Seek Inquiry,” New York Times, 21 November 2007.
32. Lori A. Demeter. 2010. “The Reluctant Voter: Is Same Day Registration the Skeleton Key?” International Journal of Business and Social Science 1, No. 1: 191–193.
33. Jane Eisner. 2004. Taking Back the Vote: Getting American Youth Involved in Our Democracy. Boston: Beacon Press.
34. “Table 2. Reported Voting and Registration, by Race, Hispanic Origin, Sex, and Age, for the United States: November 2012,” https://www.census.gov/hhes/www/socdemo/voting/publications/p20/2012/tables.html (November 6, 2015).
35. Jose Antonio Vargas, “Vote or Die? Well, They Did Vote,” Washington Post, 9 November 2004; Melissa Dahl. 5 November 2008. “Youth Vote May Have Been Key in Obama’s Win,” http://www.nbcnews.com/id/27525497/ns/politics-decision_08/t/youth-vote-may-have-been-key-obamas-win/.
36. Thom File, “Young-Adult Voting: An Analysis of Presidential Elections 1964-2012,” United States Census Bureau, P20-573, April 2014, https://www.census.gov/prod/2014pubs/p20-573.pdf.
37. “Table 5. Reported Voting and Registration, by Age, Sex, and Educational Attainment: November 2012,” https://www.census.gov/hhes/www/socdemo/voting/publications/p20/2012/tables.html (November 6, 2015).
38. “Table 7. Reported Voting and Registration of Family Members, by Age and Family Income: November 2012,” https://www.census.gov/hhes/www/socdemo/voting/publications/p20/2012/tables.html (November 5, 2015).
39. “Table 4b. Reported Voting and Registration, by Sex, Race and Hispanic Origin, for States: November 2012,” https://www.census.gov/hhes/www/socdemo/voting/publications/p20/2012/tables.html (November 2, 2015).
40. J. M. Krogstad and M. H. Lopez. 29 November 2016. "Hillary Clinton won Latino vote but fell below 2012 support for Obama," http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2016/11/29/hillary-clinton-wins-latino-vote-but-falls-below-2012-support-for-obama/ (February 28, 2018).
41. “Table 1. Reported Voting and Registration, by Sex and Single Years of Age: November 2012,” https://www.census.gov/hhes/www/socdemo/voting/publications/p20/2012/tables.html (November 2, 2015).
42. Frank Newport. 12 June 2009. “Women More Likely to Be Democrats, Regardless of Age,” http://www.gallup.com/poll/120839/women-likely-democrats-regardless-age.aspx.
43. "Figure 1. Proportion of Eligible Adult Population Who Reported Voting," http://www.cawp.rutgers.edu/sites/default/files/resources/genderdiff.pdf (February 28, 2018).
44. “Table 10. Reported Voting and Registration, by Sex and Single Years of Age: November 2012,” https://www.census.gov/hhes/www/socdemo/voting/publications/p20/2012/tables.html (November 2, 2015).
45. Table 1. Reported Voting and Registration, by Sex and Single Years of Age: November 2012. Calculated using total number of people voted divided by total population.
46. Drew Desilver. 6 May 2015. “U.S. Voter Turnout trails Most Developed Countries,” http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2015/05/06/u-s-voter-turnout-trails-most-developed-countries.
47. “Photo ID Law,” http://www.in.gov/sos/elections/2401.htm (November 1, 2015).
48. “Obtaining a Photo ID,” http://www.in.gov/sos/elections/2625.htm (November 1, 2015).
49. “Media Information Guide for Indiana 2014 General Election,” http://www.state.in.us/sos/elections/files/2014_General_Election_Media_Guide_with_Attachments_11.03.2014.pdf (November 13, 2015).
50. David Stout, “Supreme Court Upholds Voter Identification Law in Indiana,” New York Times, 29 April 2008; Crawford v. Marion County Election Board, 553 U.S. 181 (2008).
51. “Jurisdictions Previously Covered by Section 5,” http://www.justice.gov/crt/jurisdictions-previously-covered-section-5 (November 1, 2015).
52. Shelby County v. Holder, 570 U.S. ___ (2013).
53. Veasey v. Perry, 574 U. S. ___ (2014).
54. Patricia Zengerle. 26 September 2012. “Young, Hispanics, Poor Hit Most by US Voter ID Laws: Study,” http://www.reuters.com/article/2012/09/26/us-usa-campaign-voterid-idUSBRE88P1CW20120926#FzpCFPvhKPXu4fVA.97.
55. BBC News. 1 November 2018. "US Mid-Terms: What Are the Claims of Voter Suppression?" https://www.bbc.com/news/world-us-canada-45986329..
56. Stefan D. Haag, “Early Voting in Texas: What are the Effects?” Austin Community College CPPPS Report, http://www.austincc.edu/cppps/earlyvotingfull/report5.pdf (November 1, 2015).
57. Rich Morin. 23 September 2013. “Early Voting Associated with Lower Turnout,” http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2013/09/23/study-early-voting-associated-with-lower-turnout.
58. The Denver Post Editorial Board, “A Vote of Confidence for Mail Elections in Colorado,” Denver Post, 10 November 2014.
59. Brian Knowlton, “Disclosure of His 1976 Arrest for Drunken Driving Shakes Campaign, but Voter Reaction Is Uncertain: A November Surprise for Bush,” New York Times, 4 November 2000.
60. "https://www.nytimes.com/2017/05/17/us/politics/robert-mueller-special-counsel-russia-investigation.html" Rebecca R. Ruiz and Mark Landler. 17 May 2017. “Robert Mueller, Former F.B.I. Director, Is Named Special Counsel for Russia Investigation.” New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2017/05/17/us/politics/robert-mueller-special-counsel-russia-investigation.html.
61. "https://www.nytimes.com/2019/01/25/us/politics/roger-stone-trump-mueller.html" Mark Mazzetti, Eileen Sullivan, and Maggie Haberman. 25 January 2019. “Indicting Roger Stone, Mueller Shows Link between Trump Campaign and WikiLeaks.” New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2019/01/25/us/politics/roger-stone-trump-mueller.html.
62. Harvard IOP, “Trump, Carson Lead Republican Primary; Sanders Edging Clinton Among Democrats, Harvard IOP Poll Finds,” news release, December 10, 2015, http://www.iop.harvard.edu/harvard-iop-fall-2015-poll.
63. C. Rallings, M. Thrasher, and G. Borisyuk. 2003. “Seasonal Factors, Voter Fatigue and the Costs of Voting,” Electoral Studies 22, No. 1: 65–79.
64. Jennifer L. Lawless. 2012. Becoming a Candidate: Political Ambition and the Decision to Run for Office. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
65. “Partisan Composition of State Houses,” http://ballotpedia.org/Partisan_composition_of_state_houses (November 4, 2015); Zach Holden. 20 November 2014. “No Contest: 36 Percent of 2014 State Legislative Races Offered No Choice,” https://www.followthemoney.org/research/blog/no-contest-36-percent-of-2014-state-legislative-races-offer-no-choice-blog/.
66. “Legislators’ Occupations in All States,” http://www.ncsl.org/research/about-state-legislatures/legislator-occupations-national-data.aspx (November 3, 2015).
67. Jennifer L. Lawless and Richard L. Fox. 2010. It Still Takes a Candidate: Why Women Don’t Run for Office. Revised Edition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
68. “Women in State Legislatures for 2015,” 4 September 2015. http://www.ncsl.org/legislators-staff/legislators/womens-legislative-network/women-in-state-legislatures-for-2015.aspx.
69. Drew Desilver. 18 December 2018. “A Record Number of Women Will Be Serving in the New Congress.” Pew Research Center. http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2018/12/18/record-number-women-in-congress/. Seth Millstein. November 2018. “The Average Age of Congress Will Drop Dramatically Thanks to Newly-Elected Millennials.” Bustle. https://www.bustle.com/p/the-average-age-of-congress-in-2019-will-drop-dramatically-thanks-to-newly-elected-millennials-13124359.
70. “Reelection Rates Over the Years,”https://www.opensecrets.org/bigpicture/reelect.php (November 12, 2015).
71. “2012 Presidential Campaign Finance,” http://www.fec.gov/disclosurep/pnational.do;jsessionid=293EB5D0106C1C18892DC99478B01A46.worker3 (November 10, 2015).
72. “2014 House and Senate Campaign Finance,” http://www.fec.gov/disclosurehs/hsnational.do;jsessionid=E14EDC00736EF23F31DC86C1C0320049.worker4 (November 12, 2015).
73. “Political Action Committees,” http://www.opensecrets.org/pacs/ (November 12, 2015).
74. Greg Scott and Gary Mullen, “Thirty Year Report,” Federal Election Commission, September 2005, http://www.fec.gov/info/publications/30year.pdf.
75. Jonathan Bernstein, “They Spent What on Presidential Campaigns?,” Washington Post, 20 February, 2012.
76. Jaime Fuller, “From George Washington to Shaun McCutcheon: A Brief-ish History of Campaign Finance Reform,” Washington Post, 3 April 2014.
77. Federal Corrupt Practices Act of 1925; Hatch Act of 1939; Taft-Hartley Act of 1947
78. Scott and Mullen, “Thirty Year Report.”
79. Buckley v. Valeo, 424 U.S. 1 (1976).
80. “Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act of 2002,” http://www.fec.gov/pages/bcra/bcra_update.shtml (November 11, 2015); Scott and Mullen, “Thirty Year Report.”
81. “Court Case Abstracts,” http://www.fec.gov/law/litigation_CCA_W.shtml (November 12, 2015); Davis v. Federal Election Commission, 554 U.S. 724 (2008).
82. Citizens United v. FEC, 558 U.S. 310 (2010).
83. “Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission,” http://www.opensecrets.org/news/reports/citizens_united.php (November 11, 2015); “Independent Expenditure-Only Committees,” http://www.fec.gov/press/press2011/ieoc_alpha.shtml (November 11, 2015).
84. “Super PACs,” https://www.opensecrets.org/pacs/superpacs.php?cycle=2014 (November 11, 2015).
85. “Contribution Limits for the 2015–2016 Federal Elections,” http://www.fec.gov/info/contriblimitschart1516.pdf. (November 11, 2015).
86. Harold Meyerson, “Op-Ed: California’s Jungle Primary: Tried it. Dump It,” Los Angeles Times, 21 June 2014.
87. California Democratic Party v. Jones, 530 U.S. 567 (2000).
88. “Voter Turnout,” http://www.electproject.org/home/voter-turnout/voter-turnout-data. (November 3, 2015).
89. Josh Putnam, “Presidential Primaries and Caucuses by Month (1976),” Frontloading HQ (blog), February 3, 2009, http://frontloading.blogspot.com/2009/02/1976-presidential-primary-calendar.html.
90. William G. Mayer and Andrew Busch. 2004. The Front-loading Problem in Presidential Nominations. Washington D.C.: Brookings Institution.
91. Joanna Klonsky, “The Role of Delegates in the U.S. Presidential Nominating Process,” Washington Post, 6 February 2008.
92. “Party Affiliation and Election Polls,” Pew Research Center, August 3, 2012.
93. Shanto Iyengar. 2016. Media Politics: A Citizen’s Guide, 3rd ed. New York: W.W. Norton.
94. Paul Begala. 1 October 2008. “Commentary: 10 Rules for Winning a Debate,” http://www.cnn.com/2008/POLITICS/10/01/begala.debate/index.html?iref=24hours.
95. 2nd Congress, Session I, “An Act relative to the Election of a President and Vice President of the United States, and Declaring the Office Who Shall Act as President in Case of Vacancies in the Offices both of President and Vice President,” Chapter 8, section 1, image 239. http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/index.html (November 1, 2015).
96. 28th Congress, Session II. 23 January 1845. “An Act to Establish a Uniform Time for Holding Elections for Electors of President and Vice President in all the States of the Union,” Statute II, chapter 1, image 721. http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/index.html; 42nd Congress, Session II, “An Act for the Apportionment of Representatives to Congress among the Several Sates According to the Ninth Census.” Chapter 11, section 3, http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/index.html (November 1, 2015).
97. Donald Ratcliffe. 2013. “The Right to Vote and the Rise of Democracy, 1787–1828,” Journal of the Early Republic 33: 219–254; Stanley Lebergott. 1966. “Labor Force and Employment, 1800–1960,” In Output, Employment, and Productivity in the United States after 1800, ed. Dorothy S. Brady. Ann Arbor, Michigan: National Bureau of Economic Research, http://www.nber.org/books/brad66-1.
98. “Presidential Popular Vote Summary for All Candidates Listed on at Least One State Ballot,” http://www.fec.gov/pubrec/fe2008/tables2008.pdf (November 7, 2015).
99. Drew Babb, “LBJ’s 1964 Attack Ad ‘Daisy’ Leaves a Legacy for Modern Campaigns,” Washington Post, 5 September 2014; “1964 Johnson vs. Goldwater,” http://www.livingroomcandidate.org/commercials/1964 (November 9, 2015).
100. Stephen Ansolabehere, Shanto Iyengar, Adam Simon, and Nicholas Valentino. 1994. “Does Attack Advertising Demobilize the Electorate?” The American Political Science Review 88, No. 4: 829–838.
101. “Super PACs,” https://www.opensecrets.org/pacs/superpacs.php?cycle=2014 (November 11, 2015).
102. …So Goes the Nation. 2006. Directed by Adam Del Deo and James D. Stern. Beverly Hills: Endgame Entertainment.
103. “Public Knowledge of Current Affairs Little Changed by News and Information Revolutions,” Pew Research Center, April 15, 2007.
104. “Presidential Electors,” http://www.sos.state.co.us/pubs/elections/Results/Abstract/2012/general/president.html (July 15, 2015); “Judicial Retention–Supreme Court,” http://www.sos.state.co.us/pubs/elections/Results/Abstract/2012/general/retention/supremeCourt.html (July 15, 2015).
105. Lasse Laustsen. 2014. “Decomposing the Relationship Between Candidates’ Facial Appearance and Electoral Success,” Political Behavior 36, No. 4: 777–791.
106. Alan Silverleib. 15 June 2008. “Analysis: Age an Issue in the 2008 Campaign?” http://www.cnn.com/2008/POLITICS/06/15/mccain.age/index.html?iref=newssearch.
107. Laustsen. “Decomposing the Relationship,” 777–791.
108. R. Michael Alvarez and Jonathan Nagler. 2000. “A New Approach for Modelling Strategic Voting in Multiparty Elections,” British Journal of Political Science 30, No. 1: 57–75.
109. Nathan Thomburgh, “Could Third-Party Candidates Be Spoilers?” Time, 3 November 2008.
110. Matthew E. Glassman, “Congressional Franking Privilege: Background and Current Legislation,” Congressional Research Service, CRS Report RS22771, December 11, 2007, http://fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/RS22771.pdf.
111. League of United Latin American Citizens v. Perry, 548 U.S. 399 (2006).
112. “Reelection Rates of the Years,” https://www.opensecrets.org/bigpicture/reelect.php (November 2, 2015).
113. “Citizen’s Guide to Town Meetings,” http://www.sec.state.ma.us/cis/cispdf/Guide_to_Town_Meetings.pdf (November 7, 2015).
114. “How to Qualify an Initiative,” http://www.sos.ca.gov/elections/ballot-measures/how-qualify-initiative/ (November 13, 2015).
115. David A. Fahrenthold and Rachel Weiner, “Gov. Walker Survives Recall in Wisconsin,” Washington Post, 5 June 2012.
116. James M. Cole, “Memorandum for All United States Attorneys,” U.S. Department of Justice, August 29, 2013, http://www.justice.gov/iso/opa/resources/3052013829132756857467.pdf.
117. “State Medical Marijuana Laws,” http://www.ncsl.org/research/health/state-medical-marijuana-laws.aspx#2 (July 20, 2015).
118. Jessica Garrison, “Prop. 8 Leaves Some Voters Puzzled,” Los Angeles Times, 31 October 2008.
119. Mark Barabak, “10 memorable moments from the recall of Gov. Gray Davis, 10 years later,” Los Angeles Times, http://www.latimes.com/nation/la-me-recall-pictures-20131001-photogallery.html (August 1, 2015).

The Media

1. Dan Merica, “Black Lives Matter Protesters Shut Down Sanders Event in Seattle,” CNN, 10 August 2015.
2. http://blacklivesmatter.com/about/ (August 29, 2015).
3. Conor Friedersdorf, “A Conversation about Black Lives Matter and Bernie Sanders,” The Atlantic, 21 August 2015.
4. Anthony R. Fellow. 2013. American Media History. Boston: Cengage, page 67.
5. Jeremy Lipschultz and Michael Hilt. 2003. “Race and Local Television News Crime Coverage,” Studies in Media & Information Literacy Education 3, No. 4: 1–10.
6. Lucas Shaw, “TV Networks Offering More On Demand to Reduce Ad-Skipping,” Bloomberg Technology, 24 September 2014.
7. Daniel Marans, “Did the Oregon Shooter Warn of His Plans on 4chan?” Huffington Post, 1 October 2015.
8. Vanna Le, “Global 2000: The World’s Largest Media Companies of 2014,” Forbes, 7 May 2014.
9. Stephanie Hayes, “Clear Channel Rejects St. Pete Pride Billboards, Organizers Say,” Tampa Bay Times, 11 June 2010.
10. Meg James, “DOJ Clears Gannett-Belo Deal but Demands Sale of St. Louis TV Station,” Los Angeles Times, 16 December 2013.
11. John Zaller. 2003. “A New Standard of News Quality: Burglar Alarms for the Monitorial Citizen,” Political Communication 20, No. 2: 109–130.
12. Suzanne Ranks, “Ethiopian Famine: How Landmark BBC Report Influenced Modern Coverage,” Guardian, 22 October 2014.
13. Hisham Aidi, “Haitians in the Dominican Republic in Legal Limbo,” Al Jazeera, 10 April 2015.
14. “Pressure the Government of the Dominican Republic to Stop its Planned ‘Cleaning’ of 250,000 Black Dominicans,” https://petitions.whitehouse.gov/petition/pressure-government-dominican-republic-stop-its-planned-cleaning-250000-black-dominicans (November 26, 2015); Led Black, “Prevent Humanitarian Tragedy in Dominican Republic,” CNN, 23 June 2015.
15. “Oprah Talks to Christiane Amanpour,” O, Oprah Magazine, September 2005. Unless otherwise noted, all quotations in this feature box are from this article.
16. “How Christiane Amanpour Stumbled Into a Career in TV News,” TVNewser, 10 February 2016.
17. Erik Ortiz, “George Holliday, Who Taped Rodney King Beating, Urges Others to Share Videos,” NBC, 9 June 2015.
18. “Walter Cronkite’s ‘We Are Mired in Stalemate’ Broadcast, February 27, 1968” Digital History, http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/active_learning/explorations/vietnam/cronkite.cfm (November 29, 2015).
19. Joel Achenbach, “Cronkite and Vietnam,” Washington Post, 18 May 2012.
20. Larry Sabato, “Our Leaders, Surprise, Have Strong Views,” New York Times, 23 February 2009.
21. Fellow. American Media History.
22. “Population in the Colonial and Continental Periods,” http://www2.census.gov/prod2/decennial/documents/00165897ch01.pdf (November 18, 2015); Fellow. American Media History.
23. Fellow. American Media History.
24. Lars Willnat and David H. Weaver. 2014. The American Journalist in the Digital Age: Key Findings. Bloomington, IN: School of Journalism, Indiana University.
25. Michael Barthel. 29 April 2015. “Newspapers: Factsheet,” http://www.journalism.org/2015/04/29/newspapers-fact-sheet/.
26. “Facebook and Twitter—New but Limited Parts of the Local News System,” Pew Research Center, 5 March 2015.
27. “1940 Census,” http://www.census.gov/1940census (September 6, 2015).
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31. “The Fireside Chats,” https://www.history.com/topics/fireside-chats (November 20, 2015); Fellow. American Media History, 256.
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34. Fellow. American Media History.
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44. “William Jefferson Clinton: Oklahoma Bombing Memorial Prayer Service Address,” 23 April 1995, http://www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/wjcoklahomabombingspeech.htm.
45. Ian Christopher McCaleb, “Bush tours ground zero in lower Manhattan,” CNN, 14 September 2001.
46. “Presidential Job Approval Center,” http://www.gallup.com/poll/124922/presidential-job-approval-center.aspx (August 28, 2015).
47. Alison Dagnes. 2010. Politics on Demand: The Effects of 24-hour News on American Politics. Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger.
48. “Number of Viewers of the State of the Union Addresses from 1993 to 2015 (in millions),” http://www.statista.com/statistics/252425/state-of-the-union-address-viewer-numbers (August 28, 2015).
49. Baum and Kernell, “Has Cable Ended the Golden Age of Presidential Television?”
50. Shanto Iyengar. 2011. “The Media Game: New Moves, Old Strategies,” The Forum: Press Politics and Political Science 9, No. 1, http://pcl.stanford.edu/research/2011/iyengar-mediagame.pdf.
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52. Matthew Fraser and Soumitra Dutta, “Obama’s win means future elections must be fought online,” Guardian, 7 November 2008.
53. Iyengar, “The Media Game.”
54. David Corn. 29 July 2013. “Mitt Romeny’s Incredible 47-Percent Denial,” http://www.motherjones.com/mojo/2013/07/mitt-romney-47-percent-denial.
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56. Amy Mitchell, “State of the News Media 2015,” Pew Research Center, 29 April 2015.
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58. John Zaller. 2003. “A New Standard of News Quality: Burglar Alarms for the Monitorial Citizen,” Political Communication 20, No. 2: 109–130.
59. Matthew A. Baum. 2002. “Sex, Lies and War: How Soft News Brings Foreign Policy to the Inattentive Public,” American Political Science Review 96, no. 1: 91–109.
60. Matthew Baum. 2003. “Soft News and Political Knowledge: Evidence of Absence or Absence of Evidence?” Political Communication 20, No. 2: 173–190.
61. “Public Knowledge of Current Affairs Little Changed by News and Information Revolutions,” Pew Research Center, 15 April 2007; “What You Know Depends on What You Watch: Current Events Knowledge across Popular News Sources,” Fairleigh Dickinson University, 3 May 2012, http://publicmind.fdu.edu/2012/confirmed/.
62. Markus Prior. 2003. “Any Good News in Soft News? The Impact of Soft News Preference on Political Knowledge,” Political Communication 20, No. 2: 149–171.
63. Fellow. American Media History.
64. New York Times Co. v. Sullivan, 376 U.S. 254 (1964).
65. Jill Serjeant, “Katie Holmes Settles Libel Suit on Drugs Claim,” Reuters, 28 April 2011, http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/04/28/us-katieholmes-idUSTRE73Q7K620110428.
66. Christ Plante, “Military Kicks Geraldo Out of Iraq,” CNN, 31 March 2003.
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68. “Statutes and Rules on Candidate Appearances & Advertising,” https://transition.fcc.gov/mb/policy/political/candrule.htm. Section 73.1942 [47 CFR §73.1942] Candidate rates. (November 21, 2015).
69. “Statutes and Rules,” Section 73.1941 [47 CFR §73.1941] Equal Opportunities.
70. Eric Deggans, “It’s Not Hosting SNL, But NBC Will Give ‘Equal Time’ To 4 GOP Candidates,” National Public Radio, 24 November 2015.
71. “47 U.S. Code § 315 - Candidates for public office,” Legal Information Institute, https://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/text/47/315.
72. Joel Roberts, “Arnold’s Movies Face TV Blackout,” CBS News, 13 August 2003; Gary Susman, “Arnold’s Movies Go off the Air until Election,” Entertainment Weekly, 13 August 2003.
73. David Schultz and John R. Vile. 2015. The Encyclopedia of Civil Liberties in America.
74. Sue Wilson, “FCC: No More Equal Time Requirements for Political Campaign Supporters over Our Public Airwaves,” Huffington Post, 15 May 2014.
75. William Lake, Letter from the FCC Regarding Capstar Texas LLX, 8 May 2014, http://bradblog.com/Docs/FCC_ZappleDoctrineRuling_050814.pdf.
76. Syracuse Peace Council vs. FCC, 867 F.2d 654 (1989); Katy Steinmetz, “The Death of the Fairness Doctrine,” Time, 23 August 2011.
77. “Obscenity, Indecency, and Profanity,” FCC, https://www.fcc.gov/encyclopedia/obscenity-indecency-and-profanity (September 10, 2015).
78. Miller v. California, 413 U.S. 15 (1973).
79. “Obscenity,” Legal Information Institute at Cornell University, https://www.law.cornell.edu/wex/obscenity (November 29, 2015).
80. “Consumer Help Center: Obscene, Indecent, and Profane Broadcasts,” FCC, https://consumercomplaints.fcc.gov/hc/en-us/articles/202731600-Obscene-Indecent-and-Profane-Broadcasts (September 10, 2015).
81. FCC vs. Pacifica Foundation, 438 U.S. 726 (1978).
82. “Obscenity, Indecency and Profanity,” Federal Communications Commission, https://consumercomplaints.fcc.gov/hc/en-us/articles/204009760-Consumer-Complaint-Charts-and-Data-Overview.
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87. Mary Bruce, “Hillary Clinton Took 6 Months to ‘Get Over’ Concussion, Bill Says of Timeline,” ABC News, 14 May 2014.
88. Dan Merica, “Clinton Campaign, Republicans Clash Over Benghazi Testimony,” CNN, 25 July 2015.
89. Alex Seitz-Wald, “Kevin McCarthy Credits Benghazi Committee for Clinton Damage,” MSNBC, 30 September 2015.
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91. Ibid.
92. Fellow. American Media History.
93. “What is FOIA?” The Department of Justice, http://www.foia.gov/index.html (September 8, 2015).
94. Fellow. American Media History.
95. Ibid.
96. Ibid.
97. Christopher Beam, “The TMI President,” Slate, 12 November 2008.
98. Fellow. American Media History, 388.
99. Bob Woodward, “How Mark Felt Became ‘Deep Throat,’” The Washington Post, 20 June 2005.
100. Don Van Natta Jr., Adam Liptak, and Clifford J. Levy, “The Miller Case: A Notebook, a Cause, a Jail Cell and a Deal,” The New York Times, 16 October 2005.
101. Branzburg v. Hayes, 408 U.S. 665 (1972).
102. Adam Liptak, “A Justice’s Scribbles on Journalists Rights,” New York Times, 7 October 2007.
103. Matt Apuzzo, “Times Reporter Will Not Be Called to Testify in Leak,” New York Times, 12 January 2015.
104. Walter Lippmann. 1922. Public Opinion. http://xroads.virginia.edu/~hyper/Lippman/contents.html (August 29, 2015).
105. Bernard Berelson, Paul Lazarsfeld, and William McPhee. 1954. Voting. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
106. George Gerbner, Larry Gross, Michael Morgan, Nancy Signorielli, and Marilyn Jackson-Beeck. 1979. “The Demonstration of Power: Violence Profile,” Journal of Communication 29, No.10: 177–196.
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108. Stephen Farnsworth and S. Robert Lichter. 2012. “Authors’ Response: Improving News Coverage in the 2012 Presidential Campaign and Beyond,” Politics & Policy 40, No. 4: 547–556.
109. “Early Media Coverage Focuses on Horse Race,” PBS News Hour, 12 June 2007.
110. Stephen Ansolabehere, Roy Behr, and Shanto Iyengar. 1992. The Media Game: American Politics in the Television Age. New York: Macmillan.
111. “Frames of Campaign Coverage,” Pew Research Center, 23 April 2012, http://www.journalism.org/2012/04/23/frames-campaign-coverage.
112. Kiku Adatto. May 28, 1990. “The Incredible Shrinking Sound Bite,” New Republic 202, No. 22: 20–23.
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114. Craig Fehrman, “The Incredible Shrinking Sound Bite,” Boston Globe, 2 January 2011, http://www.boston.com/bostonglobe/ideas/articles/2011/01/02/the_incredible_shrinking_sound_bite/.
115. “Crossfire: Jon Stewart’s America,” CNN, 15 October 2004, http://www.cnn.com/TRANSCRIPTS/0410/15/cf.01.html.
116. Paul Begala, “Begala: The day Jon Stewart blew up my show,” CNN, 12 February 2015.
117. Pew Research Center: Journalism & Media Staff, “Coverage of the Candidates by Media Sector and Cable Outlet,” 1 November 2012.
118. “Winning the Media Campaign 2012,” Pew Research Center, 2 November 2012.
119. Fred Greenstein. 2009. The Presidential Difference. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
120. “Dan Rather versus Richard Nixon, 1974,” YouTube video, :46, from the National Association of Broadcasters annual convention in Houston on March 19,1974, posted by “thecelebratedmisterk,” https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZGBLAKq8xwc (November 30, 2015); “‘A Conversation With the President,’ Interview With Dan Rather of the Columbia Broadcasting System,” The American Presidency Project, 2 January 1972, http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/?pid=3351.
121. Wolf Blitzer, “Dan Rather’s Stand,” CNN, 10 September 2004.
122. Michael M. Grynbaum. 13 November 2018. “CNN Sues Trump Administration for Barring Jim Acosta from White House.” New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2018/11/13/business/media/cnn-jim-acosta-trump-lawsuit.html. Paul Farhi. 24 February 2017. “The Washington Post’s New Slogan Turns Out to Be an Old Saying.” https://www.washingtonpost.com/lifestyle/style/the-washington-posts-new-slogan-turns-out-to-be-an-old-saying/2017/02/23/cb199cda-fa02-11e6-be05-1a3817ac21a5_story.html?noredirect=on&utm_term=.f8a0e1c5ef97.
123. Matthew Eshbaugh-Soha and Jeffrey Peake. 2011. Breaking Through the Noise: Presidential Leadership, Public Opinion, and the News Media. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
124. Ibid.
125. Gary Lee Malecha and Daniel J. Reagan. 2011. The Public Congress: Congressional Deliberation in a New Media Age. New York: Routledge.
126. Frank R. Baumgartner, Bryan D. Jones, and Beth L. Leech. 1997. “Media Attention and Congressional Agendas,” In Do The Media Govern? Politicians, Voters, and Reporters in America, eds. Shanto Iyengar and Richard Reeves. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
127. George Edwards and Dan Wood. 1999. “Who Influences Whom? The President, Congress, and the Media,” American Political Science Review 93, No 2: 327–344; Yue Tan and David Weaver. 2007. “Agenda-Setting Effects Among the Media, the Public, and Congress, 1946–2004,” Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly 84, No. 4: 729–745.
128. Ally Fogg, “Crime Is Falling. Now Let’s Reduce Fear of Crime,” Guardian, 24 April 24 2013.
129. Travis L. Dixon. 2008. “Crime News and Racialized Beliefs: Understanding the Relationship between Local News Viewing and Perceptions of African Americans and Crime,” Journal of Communication 58, No. 1: 106–125.
130. Travis Dixon. 2015. “Good Guys Are Still Always in White? Positive Change and Continued Misrepresentation of Race and Crime on Local Television News,” Communication Research, doi:10.1177/0093650215579223.
131. Travis L. Dixon. 2008. “Network News and Racial Beliefs: Exploring the Connection between National Television News Exposure and Stereotypical Perceptions of African Americans,” Journal of Communication 58, No. 2: 321–337.
132. Martin Gilens. 1996. “Race and Poverty in America: Public Misperceptions and the American News Media,” Public Opinion Quarterly 60, No. 4: 515–541.
133. Dixon. “Crime News and Racialized Beliefs.”
134. Gilens. “Race and Poverty in America.”
135. Shanto Iyengar and Donald R. Kinder. 1987. News That Matters. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
136. Daniel C. Hallin. 2015. “The Dynamics of Immigration Coverage in Comparative Perspective,” American Behavioral Scientist 59, No. 7: 876–885.
137. Kay Mills. 1996. “What Difference Do Women Journalists Make?” In Women, the Media and Politics, ed. Pippa Norris. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 43.
138. Kim Fridkin Kahn and Edie N. Goldenberg. 1997. “The Media: Obstacle or Ally of Feminists?” In Do the Media Govern? eds. Shanto Iyengar and Richard Reeves. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
139. Barbara Walters, “Ms. Walters Reflects,” Vanity Fair, 31 May 2008,
140. Mills. “What Difference Do Women Journalists Make?”
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142. Kahn and Goldenberg, “The Media: Obstacle or Ally of Feminists?”
143. Kim Fridkin Kahn. 1994. “Does Gender Make a Difference? An Experimental Examination of Sex Stereotypes and Press Patterns in Statewide Campaigns,” American Journal of Political Science 38, No. 1: 162–195.
144. John David Rausch, Mark Rozell, and Harry L. Wilson. 1999. “When Women Lose: A Study of Media Coverage of Two Gubernatorial Campaigns,” Women & Politics 20, No. 4: 1–22.
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146. Jennifer Lawless and Richard Logan Fox. 2005. It Takes a Candidate: Why Women Don’t Run for Office. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
147. Brittany L. Stalsburg, “Running with Strollers: The Impact of Family Life on Political Ambition,” Eagleton Institute of Politics, Spring 2012, Unpublished Paper, http://www.eagleton.rutgers.edu/research/documents/Stalsburg-FamilyLife-Political-Ambition.pdf (August 28, 2015).
148. Christina Walker, “Is Sarah Palin Being Held to an Unfair Standard?” CNN, 8 September 2008.
149. Dana Bash, “Palin’s Teen Daughter is Pregnant,” CNN, 1 September 2008.
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62. Drew Desilver, “In Late Spurt of Activity, Congress Avoids ‘Least Productive’ Title,” 29 December 2014, http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2014/12/29/in-late-spurt-of-activity-congress-avoids-least-productive-title/ (March 16, 2016).
63. “Congressional Performance,” http://www.rasmussenreports.com/public_content/politics/mood_of_america/congressional_performance (March 16, 2016).
64. “Presidential Approval Ratings – Barack Obama,” http://www.gallup.com/poll/116479/barack-obama-presidential-job-approval.aspx (March 16, 2016).
65. Morris Fiorina, “Americans Have Not Become More Politically Polarized,” The Washington Post, 23 June 2014.
66. Ian Haney-Lopez, “How the GOP Became the ‘White Man’s Party,’” 22 December 2013, https://www.salon.com/2013/12/22/how_the_gop_became_the_white_mans_party/ (March 16, 2016).
67. Reynolds v. Simms, 379 U.S. 870 (1964).
68. Sean Theriault. 2013. The Gingrich Senators: The Roots of Partisan Warfare in Congress. New York: Oxford University Press.
69. Nolan McCarty, “Hate Our Polarized Politics? Why You Can’t Blame Gerrymandering,” The Washington Post, 26 October 2012.
70. Jamie L. Carson et al., “Redistricting and Party Polarization in the U.S. House of Representatives,” American Politics Research 35, no. 6 (2007): 878–904.
71. Arizona State Legislature v. Arizona Independent Redistricting Commission, 135 S. Ct. 2652 (2015).
72. “Editorial: Republicans Should Accept Redistricting Defeat and Drop Talk of Appeals,” 10 January 2016, http://www.fairdistrictsnow.org/news/661/ (March 16, 2016).

Interest Groups and Lobbying

1. Lawrence R. Jacobs and Theda Skocpol 2010. Health Care Reform and American Politics: What Everyone Needs to Know Oxford: Oxford University Press.
2. Anthony J. Nownes. 2013. Interest Groups in American Politics. Routledge: New York.
3. Nownes, Interest Groups in American Politics.
4. Nownes, Interest Groups in American Politics.
5. Jennifer Wolak, Adam J. Newmark, Todd McNoldy, David Lowery, and Virginia Gray, “Much of Politics is Still Local: Multistate Representation in State Interest Communities,” Legislative Studies Quarterly 27 (2002): 527–555.
6. Anthony J. Nownes and Adam J. Newmark. 2013. “Interest Groups in the States.” In Politics in the American States. Washington, DC: CQ Press, 105–131.
7. The Brady Campaign to Prevent Gun Violence was founded by James and Sarah Brady, after James Brady was permanently disabled by a gunshot following an assassination attempt on then-president Ronald Reagan. At the time of the shooting, Brady was Reagan’s press secretary. http://www.bradycampaign.org/jim-and-sarah-brady (March 1, 2016).
8. Michael Mitchell and Michael Leachman, “Years of Cuts Threaten to Put College Out of Reach for More Students,” Center on Budget and Policy Priorities, 13 May 2015, http://www.cbpp.org/research/state-budget-and-tax/years-of-cuts-threaten-to-put-college-out-of-reach-for-more-students.
9. Robert Davidson, “Higher Ed Lobbies for More Funds,” http://www.wcbi.com/local-news/higher-ed-lobbies-for-more-funds/ (November 3, 2015).
10. http://www.ameribev.org/ (March 1, 2016).
11. Nownes and Newmark, “Interest Groups in the States.”
12. Ken Kollman. 1998. Outside Lobbying: Public Opinion and Interest Groups Strategies. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
13. “Milking Taxpayers,” The Economist, 14 February 2015, http://www.economist.com/news/united-states/21643191-crop-prices-fall-farmers-grow-subsidies-instead-milking-taxpayers.
14. http://www.ncsl.org/research/elections-and-campaigns/voter-id.aspx (November 78, 2015).
15. http://www.aarp.org/about-aarp/ (October 3, 2015).
16. Jeffrey M. Berry and Clyde Wilcox. 2009. The Interest Group Society. New York: Pearson.
17. Mancur Olson, Jr. 1965. The Logic of Collective Action. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press; Frank R. Baumgartner and Beth L. Leech. Basic Interests: The Importance of Groups in Political Science. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
18. Olson, Jr., The Logic of Collective Action.
19. Jack Walker, “The Origin and Maintenance of Interest Groups in America,” American Political Science Review 77 (1983): 390–406.
20. Robert Salisbury, “An Exchange Theory of Interest Groups,” Midwest Journal of Political Science 13 (1969): 1–32; Peter B. Clark and James Q. Wilson, “Incentive Systems: A Theory of Organizations,” Administration Science Quarterly 6 (1961): 129–166.
21. https://www.naacp.org/ (March 1, 2016).
22. https://www.aclu.org/ (March 1, 2016).
23. David Truman. 1951. The Governmental Process. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.
24. Rachel Caron. 1962. A Silent Spring. New York: Mariner Books.
25. “Hundreds of Ferguson Protesters March in Downtown D.C.,” http://www.nbcwashington.com/news/local/Ferguson-Protests-Planned-for-DC-Baltimore-Tuesday-283807831.html (March 1, 2016).
26. Jenna Johnson, “Immigration continues to be Donald Trump’s rallying issue,” Washington Post, 22 October 2015, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/post-politics/wp/2015/10/22/immigration-continues-to-be-donald-trumps-rallying-issue/.
27. http://www.news-leader.com/story/news/2015/11/09/springfield-naacp-responds-mu-president-resignation/75473312/ (March 1, 2016).
28. See in general Jeffrey M. Berry and Clyde Wilcox. 2008. The Interest Group Society. 5th ed. New York: Routledge.
29. David Carter. 2010. Stonewall: The Riots that Sparked the Gay Revolution. New York: St. Martin’s Griffin.
30. http://milkfoundation.org/about/harvey-milk-biography/ (November 8, 2015).
31. Clive S. Thomas and Ronald J. Hrebenar. 1990. “Interest Groups in the States.” In Politics in the American States: A Comparative Analysis, 5th ed., eds. Virginia Gray, Herbert Jacob, and Robert B. Albritton. Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman, 123–158; Clive S. Thomas and Ronald J. Hrebenar. 1991. “Nationalization of Interest Groups and Lobbying in the States.” In Interest Group Politics, 3d ed., eds. Allan J. Cigler and Burdett A. Loomis. Washington, DC: CQ Press, 63–80; Clive S. Thomas and Ronald J. Hrebenar. 1996. “Interest Groups in the States.” In Politics in the American States: A Comparative Analysis, 6th ed., eds. Virginia Gray, and Herbert Jacob. Washington, DC: CQ Press, 122–158; Clive S. Thomas and Ronald J. Hrebenar. 1999. “Interest Groups in the States.” In Politics in the American States: A Comparative Analysis, 7th ed., eds. Virginia Gray, Russell L. Hanson, and Herbert Jacob. Washington, DC: CQ Press, 113–143; Clive S. Thomas and Ronald J. Hrebenar. 2004. “Interest Groups in the States.” In Politics in the American States: A Comparative Analysis, 8th ed., eds. Virginia Gray and Russell L. Hanson. Washington, DC: CQ Press, 100–128.
32. http://www.uspirg.org/ (November 1, 2015).
33. Rick Noack, “7 countries where Americans can study at universities, in English, for free (or almost free),” Washington Post, 29 October 2014, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/worldviews/wp/2014/10/29/7-countries-where-americans-can-study-at-universities-in-english-for-free-or-almost-free/.
34. Thomas and Hrebenar, “Nationalization of Interest Groups and Lobbying in the States;” Nownes and Newmark, “Interest Groups in the States.”
35. Thomas and Hrebenar, “Interest Groups in the States,” 1991, 1996, 1999, 2004; Thomas and Hrebenar, “Nationalization of Interest Groups and Lobbying in the States.”
36. https://www.opensecrets.org/lobby/top.php?showYear=2014&indexType=l (March 1, 2016).
37. Sidney Verba, Kay Lehmnn Schlozman, and Henry Brady. 1995. Voice and Equality. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
38. Steven J. Rosenstone and John Mark Hansen. 2003. Mobilization, Participation, and Democracy in America. New York: Longman.
39. Verba et al., Voice and Equality; Mark J. Rozell, Clyde Wilcox, and Michael M. Franz. 2012. Interest Groups in American Campaigns: The New Face of Electioneering. Oxford University Press: New York.
40. Aaron Smith, “Conservative Group’s Times Square Billboard Attacks a $15 Minimum Wage,” 31 August 2015, http://money.cnn.com/2015/08/31/news/economy/times-square-minimum-wage/.
41. Robert Putnam. 2000. Bowling Alone. New York: Simon and Shuster; Rosenstone and Hansen, Mobilization, Participation and Democracy in America.
42. David B. Truman 1951. The Governmental Process: Political Interests and Public Opinion. New York: Knopf.
43. Dahl, Robert A. 1956. A Preface to Democratic Theory. Chicago: University of Chicago Press; Dahl, Robert A. 1961. Who Governs? Democracy and Power in an American City. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
44. E. E. Schattschneider. 1960. The Semisovereign People: A Realist’s View of Democracy in America. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 35.
45. W. G. Domhoff. 2009. Who rules America? Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall; K. L. Schlozman, “What Accent the Heavenly choir? Political Equality and the American Pressure System,” Journal of Politics 46, No. 2 (1984) 1006–1032; K. L. Schlozman, S. Verba, and H. E. Brady. 2012. The Unheavenly Chorus: Unequal Political Voice and the Broken Promise of American Democracy. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
46. Olson, Jr., The Logic of Collective Action.
47. Kevin Drum, “Nobody Cares What You Think Unless You’re Rich,” Mother Jones, 8 April 2014, http://www.motherjones.com/kevin-drum/2014/04/nobody-cares-what-you-think-unless-youre-rich.
48. Larry Bartels, “Rich People Rule!” Washington Post, 8 April 2014, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/monkey-cage/wp/2014/04/08/rich-people-rule.
49. Frank R. Baumgartner and Beth L. Leech. 1998. Basic Interests: The Importance of Groups in Political Science. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
50. Francis E. Rourke. 1984. Bureaucracy, Politics, and Public Policy, 3rd ed. NY: Harper Collins.
51. Hugh Heclo. 1984. “Issue Networks and the Executive Establishment.” In The New American Political System, ed. Anthony King. Washington DC: The American Enterprise Institute, 87–124.
52. V. Gray and D. Lowery, “To Lobby Alone or in a Flock: Foraging Behavior among Organized Interests,” American Politics Research 26, No. 1 (1998): 5–34; M. Hojnacki, “Interest Groups’ Decisions to Join Alliances or Work Alone,” American Journal of Political Science 41, No. 1 (1997): 61–87; Kevin W. Hula. 1999. Lobbying Together: Interest Group Coalitions in Legislative Politics. Washington DC: Georgetown University Press.
53. Virginia Gray and David Lowery. 1996. The Population Ecology of Interest Representation: Lobbying Communities in the American States. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press; Andrew S. McFarland. 2004. Neopluralism. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas.
54. Mark A. Smith. 2000. American Business and Political Power: Public Opinion, Elections, and Democracy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press; F. R. Baumgartner, J. M. Berry, M. Hojnacki, D. C. Kimball, and B. L. Leech. 2009, Lobbying and Policy Change. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
55. Patrick McGeehan, “New York Plans $15-an-Hour Minimum Wage for Fast Food Workers,” New York Times, 22 July 2015, http://www.nytimes.com/2015/07/23/nyregion/new-york-minimum-wage-fast-food-workers.html; Paul Davidson, “Fast-Food Workers Strike, Seeing $15 Wage, Political Muscle,” USA Today, 10 November 2015 http://www.usatoday.com/story/money/2015/11/10/fast-food-strikes-begin/75482782/.
56. John R. Wright. 1996. Interest Groups and Congress: Lobbying, Contributions, and Influence. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn and Bacon; Mark J. Rozell, Clyde Wilcox, and Michael M. Franz. 2012. Interest Groups in American Campaigns: The New Face of Electioneering. New York: Oxford University Press.
57. https://www.nrapvf.org/grades/; http://www.bradycampaign.org/2013-state-scorecard (March 1, 2016).
58. http://www.adaction.org/pages/publications/voting-records.php; http://acuratings.conservative.org/ (March 1, 2016).
59. https://www.opensecrets.org/pacs/ (March 1, 2016).
60. Conor M. Dowling and Michael G. Miller. 2014. Super PAC! Money, Elections, and Voters after Citizens United. New York: Routledge.
61. Wright, Interest Groups and Congress: Lobbying, Contributions, and Influence.
62. Richard L. Hall and Frank W. Wayman, “Buying Time: Moneyed Interests and the Mobilization of Bias in Congressional Committees,” American Political Science Review 84.3 (1990): 797-820.
63. Sean Lengell, “Boehner: Grover Norquist Just a ‘Random’ Guy,” Washington Times, 3 November 2011, http://www.washingtontimes.com/blog/inside-politics/2011/nov/3/boehner-grover-norquist-just-random-guy/.
64. Obergefell v. Hodges, 576 U.S. ___ (2015).
65. Wright, Interest Groups and Congress: Lobbying, Contributions, and Influence; Rozell, Wilcox, and Franz, Interest Groups in American Campaigns: The New Face of Electioneering.
66. Buckley v. Valeo, 75-436, 424 U.S. 1 (1976).
67. Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission, 08-205, 558 U.S. 310 (2010).
68. McCutcheon v. Federal Election Commission, 12-536, 572 U.S. ___ (2014).
69. The Associated Press. 29 January 2017. "Koch Political Network to Spend $300M to $400M over 2 Years." Fortune. http://fortune.com/2017/01/29/koch-political-network-spending/.
70. Nicholas Confessore, “Koch Brothers’ Budget of $889 Million for 2016 Is on Par With Both Parties’ Spending,” New York Times, 26 January 2015, http://www.nytimes.com/2015/01/27/us/politics/kochs-plan-to-spend-900-million-on-2016-campaign.html.
71. Adam J. Newmark, “Measuring State Legislative Lobbying Regulation, 1990–2003.” State Politics and Policy Quarterly 5 (2005): 182–191; Nownes and Newmark, “Interest Groups in the States.”
72. Nownes, Interest Groups in American Politics.
73. Geov Parrish, “Making Sense of the Abramoff Scandal,” 19 December 2005 http://www.alternet.org/story/29827/making_sense_of_the_abramoff_scandal (March 1, 2016).
74. Neil A. Lewis, “Abramoff Gets 4 Years in Prison for Corruption,” New York Times, 4 September 2008, http://www.nytimes.com/2008/09/05/washington/05abramoff.html?_r=0.
75. http://gawker.com/5856082/corrupt-lobbyist-jack-abramoffs-plan-to-end-corrupt-lobbying (March 1, 2016).

Congress

1. There are six non-voting delegations representing American Samoa, the District of Columbia, Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. While these delegates are not able to vote on legislation, they may introduce it and are able to vote in congressional committees and on procedural matters.
2. Steven Hill, “How the Voting Rights Act Hurts Democrats and Minorities,” The Atlantic, 17 June 2013, http://www.theatlantic.com/politics/archive/2013/06/how-the-voting-rights-act-hurts-democrats-and-minorities/276893/.
3. Lainie Rutkow and Jon S. Vernick. 2011. “The U.S. Constitution’s Commerce Clause, the Supreme Court, and Public Health,” Public Health Report 126, No. 5 (September–October): 750–753.
4. United States v. Lopez, 514 U.S. 549 (1995).
5. National Federation of Independent Businesses v. Sebelius, 567 U.S. ___ (2012).
6. Marbury v. Madison, 5 U.S. 137 (1803).
7. “Abraham Lincoln: Impact and Legacy,” http://millercenter.org­/president/biography/lincoln-impact-and-legacy (May 24, 2016).
8. David M. Jordan. 2011. FDR, Dewey, and the Election of 1944. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 290; Paul G. Willis and George L. Willis. 1952. “The Politics of the Twenty-Second Amendment,” The Western Political Quarterly 5, No. 3: 469–82; Paul B. Davis. 1979. “The Results and Implications of the Enactment of the Twenty-Second Amendment,” Presidential Studies Quarterly 9, No. 3: 289–303.
9. U.S. Term Limits, Inc. v. Thornton, 514 U.S. 779 (1995).
10. http://dailysignal.com/2015/11/11/12-bills-that-the-filibuster-stopped-from-becoming-law/ (May 15, 2016).
11. “The Cost of Winning a House and Senate Seat, 1986–2014,” http://www.cfinst.org/pdf/vital/VitalStats_t1.pdf (May 15, 2016).
12. http://www.opensecrets.org/overview/wherefrom.php (May 15, 2016).
13. https://www.opensecrets.org/races/summary.php?id=OH08&cycle=2014 (May 15, 2016).
14. “Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act of 2002,” http://www.fec.gov/pages/bcra/bcra_update.shtml (May 15, 2016); Greg Scott and Gary Mullen, “Thirty Year Report,” September 2005, http://www.fec.gov/info/publications/30year.pdf (May 15, 2016).
15. Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission, 558 U.S. 310 (2010).
16. “2012 Outside Spending, by Super PAC,” https://www.opensecrets.org/outsidespending/summ.php?cycle=2012&chrt=V&type=S (May 15, 2016).
17. “Contribution Limits for the 2015-2016 Federal Elections,” http://www.fec.gov/info/contriblimitschart1516.pdf (May 15, 2016).
18. “Incumbent Advantage,” http://www.opensecrets.org/overview/incumbs.php?cycle=2014 (May 15, 2016).
19. Larry J. Sabato, Kyle Kondik, and Geoffrey Skelley, “Long Odds for Most Senate Primary Challenges,” 30 January 2014, http://www.centerforpolitics.org/crystalball/articles/long-odds-for-most-senate-primary-challenges/ (May 1, 2016).
20. David R. Mayhew. 1974. Congress: The Electoral Connection. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
21. R. Eric Petersen, “Casework in a Congressional Office: Background, Rules, Laws, and Resources,” 24 November 2014, https://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/RL33209.pdf (May 1, 2016).
22. Angus Campbell. 1960. “Surge and Decline: A Study of Electoral Change.” The Public Opinion Quarterly 24, No. 3: 397–418.
23. “Midterm congressional elections explained: Why the president’s party typically loses,” 1 October 2014, http://journalistsresource.org/studies/politics/elections/voting-patterns-midterm-congressional-elections-why-presidents-party-typically-loses (May 1, 2016).
24. “A Profile of the Modern Military,” 5 October 2011, http://www.pewsocialtrends.org/2011/10/05/chapter-6-a-profile-of-the-modern-military/ (May 1, 2016).
25. Dhrumil Mehta and Harry Enten, “The 2014 Senate Elections Were the Most Nationalized In Decades,” 2 December 2014, http://fivethirtyeight.com/datalab/the-2014-senate-elections-were-the-most-nationalized-in-decades/ (May 1, 2016); Gregory Giroux, “Straight-Ticket Voting Rises As Parties Polarize,” Bloomberg, 29 November 2014, http://www.bloomberg.com/politics/articles/2014-11-29/straightticket-voting-rises-as-parties-polarize (May 1, 2016).
26. Steven S. Smith. 1999. The American Congress. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.
27. Edmund Burke, “Speech to the Electors of Bristol,” 3 November 1774, http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders/documents/v1ch13s7.html (May 1, 2016).
28. “Claire McCaskill, Emily’s List Celebrate Women’s Wins in 2012,” 14 November 2012, http://abcnews.go.com/blogs/politics/2012/11/claire-mccaskill-emilys-list-celebrate-womens-wins-in-2012/ (May 1, 2016).
29. Grace Panetta and Samantha Lee. 12 January 2019. “This Graphic Shows How Much More Diverse the House of Representatives Is Getting.” Business Insider. https://www.businessinsider.com/changes-in-gender-racial-diversity-between-the-115th-and-116th-house-2018-12.
30. “Statement by John McCain on Banning Earmarks,” 13 March 2008, http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/?pid=90739 (May 15, 2016); “Press Release - John McCain’s Economic Plan,” 15 April 2008, http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/?pid=94082 (May 15, 2016).
31. Kathleen Parker, “Health-Care Reform’s Sickeningly Sweet Deals,” The Washington Post, 10 March 2010, http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2010/03/09/AR2010030903068.html (May 1, 2016); Dana Milbank, “Sweeteners for the South,” The Washington Post, 22 November 2009, http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2009/11/21/AR2009112102272.html (May 1, 2016); Jeffry H. Anderson, “Nebraska’s Dark-Horse Candidate and the Cornhusker Kickback,” The Weekly Standard, 4 May 2014.
32. Phil Hirschkorn and Wyatt Andrews, “One-Fifth of House Freshmen Sleep in Offices,” CBS News, 22 January 2011, http://www.cbsnews.com/news/one-fifth-of-house-freshmen-sleep-in-offices/ (May 1, 2016).
33. “Congress and the Public,” http://www.gallup.com/poll/1600/congress-public.aspx (May 15, 2016).
34. “Congress and the Public,” http://www.gallup.com/poll/1600/congress-public.aspx (May 15, 2016).
35. Amy Davidson, “The Hillary Hearing,” The New Yorker, 2 November 2015; David A. Graham, “What Conservative Media Say About the Benghazi Hearing,” The Atlantic, 23 October 2015.
36. Glen S. Krutz. 2001. Hitching a Ride: Omnibus Legislating in the U.S. Congress. Columbus, OH: Ohio State University Press.

The Presidency

1. Articles of Confederation, Article XI, 1781.
2. Jack Rakove and Susan Zlomke. 1987. “James Madison and the Independent Executive,” Presidential Studies Quarterly 17, No. 2: 293–300.
3. Tadahisa Kuroda. 1994. The Origins of the Twelfth Amendment: The Electoral College in the Early Republic, 1787-1804. Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing.
4. U.S. Constitution, Article II, Section 1.
5. Alan Clendenning, “Court: Cheney Is Wyoming Resident,” ABC News, 7 December 2000, http://abcnews.go.com/Politics/story?id=122289&page=1 (May 1, 2016).
6. U.S. Constitution, Article II, Section 1.
7. U.S. Constitution, Article II, Section 3.
8. “Judgeship Appointments By President,” http://www.uscourts.gov/judges-judgeships/authorized-judgeships/judgeship-appointments-president (May 1, 2016).
9. G. Calvin Mackenzie, “The Real Invisible Hand: Presidential Appointees in the Administration of George W. Bush,” http://www.whitehousetransitionproject.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/PresAppt-GWB.pdf (May 1, 2016).
10. https://www.justice.gov/about (May 1, 2016).
11. Fred Greenstein. 2010. “The Policy-Driven Leadership of James K. Polk: Making the Most of a Weak Presidency,” Presidential Studies Quarterly 40, No. 4: 725–33.
12. Michael Les Benedict. 1973. “A New Look at the Impeachment of Andrew Johnson,” Political Science Quarterly 88, No. 3: 349–67.
13. U.S. Constitution, Article II, Section 1.
14. Mark J. Rozel. 1999. “’The Law': Executive Privilege: Definition and Standards of Application,” Presidential Studies Quarterly 29, No. 4: 918–30.
15. Glen S. Krutz and Jeffrey S. Peake. 2009. Treaty Politics and the Rise of Executive Agreements: International Commitments in a System of Shared Powers. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
16. Charles Stewart. 1989. Budget Reform Politics: The Design of the Appropriations Process in the House of Representatives, 1865-1921. New York: Cambridge University Press.
17. Daniel Myron Greene. 1908. “The Evolution of the National Political Convention,” The Sewanee Review 16, No. 2: 228–32.
18. Marty Cohen. 2008. The Party Decides: Presidential Nominations before and after Reform. Chicago: University of Chicago.
19. James Roger Sharp. 2010. The Deadlocked Election of 1800: Jefferson, Burr, and the Union in the Balance. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas.
20. John Samples, “In Defense of the Electoral College,” 10 November 2000, http://www.cato.org/publications/commentary/defense-electoral-college (May 1, 2016).
21. Clifton B. Parker, “Now We Know Why It’s Time to Dump the Electoral College,” The Fiscal Times, 12 April 2016, http://www.thefiscaltimes.com/2016/04/12/Now-We-Know-Why-It-s-Time-Dump-Electoral-College.
22. Jason Scott-Sheets, “Public financing is available for presidential candidates. So what’s not to like about free money?” 14 April 2016, http://www.opensecrets.org/news/2016/04/public-financing-is-available-for-presidential-candidates-so-whats-not-to-like-about-free-money/.
23. Glen S. Krutz, Richard Fleisher, and Jon R. Bond. 1998. “From Abe Fortas to Zoe Baird.” American Political Science Review 92, No. 4: 871–882.
24. Michael Oreskes. 1989. “Senate Rejects Tower, 53–47; First Cabinet Veto since ‘59; Bush Confers on New Choice,” New York Times, 10 March 1989, http://www.nytimes.com/1989/03/10/us/senate-rejects-tower-53-47-first-cabinet-veto-since-59-bush-confers-new-choice.html.
25. Mark J. Rozell, William D. Pederson, Frank J. Williams. 2000. George Washington and the Origins of the American Presidency. Portsmouth, NH: Greenwood Publishing Group, 17.
26. “Hearing of the Senate Judiciary Committee on the Nomination of Clarence Thomas to the Supreme Court,” Electronic Text Center, University of Virginia Library, 11 October 1991.
27. Jon R. Bond, Richard Fleisher, and Glen S. Krutz. 2009. “Malign Neglect: Evidence That Delay Has Become the Primary Method of Defeating Presidential Appointments” Congress & the Presidency 36, No. 3: 226–243.
28. Barbara Perry, “One-third of all U.S. presidents appointed a Supreme Court justice in an election year,” Washington Post, 29 February 2016, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/monkey-cage/wp/2016/02/29/one-third-of-all-u-s-presidents-appointed-a-supreme-court-justice-in-an-election-year/.
29. Jennifer Liberto, “It pays to work for the White House,” CNN Money, 2 July 2014, http://money.cnn.com/2014/07/02/news/economy/white-house-salaries/ (May 1, 2016).
30. Gary P. Gershman. 2008. The Legislative Branch of Federal Government: People, Process, and Politics. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO.
31. Bruce Drake, “Obama lags his predecessors in recess appointments,” 13 January 2014, http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2014/01/13/obama-lags-his-predecessors-in-recess-appointments/ (May 1, 2016).
32. National Labor Relations Board v. Canning, 573 U.S. ___ (2014).
33. Amy C. Gaudion and Douglas Stuart, “More Than Just a Running Mate,” The New York Times, 19 July 2012, http://campaignstops.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/07/19/more-than-just-a-running-mate/.
34. Stephen Skowronek. 2011. Presidential Leadership in Political Time: Reprise and Reappraisal. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas.
35. Wendy Wick Reaves. 1987. “Thomas Nast and the President,” American Art Journal 19, No. 1: 61–71.
36. George C. Edwards. 2016. Predicting the Presidency: The Potential of Persuasive Leadership. Princeton: Princeton University Press; George C. Edwards and Stephen J. Wayne. 2003. Presidential Leadership: Politics and Policy Making. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Thomson Learning.
37. Rupert Cornwell, “Bill and Hillary’s double trouble: Clinton’s ’two for the price of one’ pledge is returning to haunt him,” Independent, 8 March 1994, http://www.independent.co.uk/voices/bill-and-hillarys-double-trouble-clintons-two-for-the-price-of-one-pledge-is-returning-to-haunt-him-1427937.html (May 1, 2016).
38. Tamar Lewin, “First Person; A Feminism That Speaks For Itself,” New York Times, 3 October 1993, http://www.nytimes.com/1993/10/03/weekinreview/first-person-a-feminism-that-speaks-for-itself.html.
39. Myers v. United States, 272 U.S. 52 (1925).
40. “Bush Issues Pardons, but to a Relative Few,” New York Times, 22 December 2006, http://www.nytimes.com/2006/12/22/washington/22pardon.html.
41. U.S. Department of Justice. “Clemency Statistics.” https://www.justice.gov/pardon/clemencystatistics (January 10, 2019).
42. Andrea Marks and Tom Dickinson. 31 January 2019. “A Timeline of Controversial Presidential Pardons.” Rolling Stone. https://www.rollingstone.com/politics/politics-news/presidential-pardons-787452/.
43. Mark Mazzetti, Eileen Sullivan, and Maggie Haberman. 25 January 2019. “Indicting Roger Stone, Mueller Shows Link between Trump Campaign and WikiLeaks.” New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2019/01/25/us/politics/roger-stone-trump-mueller.html.
44. Youngstown Sheet & Tube Co. v. Sawyer, 343 U.S. 579 (1952).
45. Julie Des Jardins, “From Citizen to Enemy: The Tragedy of Japanese Internment,” http://www.gilderlehrman.org/history-by-era/world-war-ii/essays/from-citizen-enemy-tragedy-japanese-internment (May 1, 2016).
46. Korematsu v. United States, 323 U.S. 214 (1944).
47. Ilya Somin, “Justice Scalia on Kelo and Korematsu,” Washington Post, 8 February 2014, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/volokh-conspiracy/wp/2014/02/08/justice-scalia-on-kelo-and-korematsu/.
48. Glen S. Krutz. 2001. Hitching a Ride: Omnibus Legislating in the U.S. Congress. Columbus, OH: Ohio State University Press.
49. Clinton v. City of New York, 524 U.S. 417 (1998).
50. Richard E. Neustadt. 1960. Presidential Power and the Modern Presidents New York: Wiley.
51. Fred I. Greenstein. 1982. The Hidden-Hand Presidency: Eisenhower as Leader. New York: Basic Books.
52. Stephen Skowronek. 2011. Presidential Leadership in Political Time: Reprise and Reappraisal. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas.

The Courts

1. Obergefell v. Hodges, 576 U.S. __ (2015).
2. In cases of original jurisdiction the courts cannot decide—the U.S. Constitution mandates that the U.S. Supreme Court must hear cases of original jurisdiction.
3. “The U.S. Supreme Court.” The Judicial Learning Center. http://judiciallearningcenter.org/the-us-supreme-court/ (March 1, 2016).
4. Bernard Schwartz. 1993. A History of the Supreme Court. New York: Oxford University Press, 16.
5. “Washington D.C. A National Register of Historic Places Travel Itinerary.” U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service. http://www.nps.gov/nr/travel/wash/dc78.htm (March 1, 2016).
6. Chisholm v. Georgia, 2 U.S. 419 (1793).
7. Associated Press. “What You Should Know About Forgotten Founding Father John Jay,” PBS Newshour. July 4, 2015. http://www.pbs.org/newshour/rundown/forgotten-founding-father.
8. “Life and Legacy.” The John Marshall Foundation. http://www.johnmarshallfoundation.org (March 1, 2016).
9. Marbury v. Madison, 5 U.S. 137 (1803).
10. Stephen Hass. “Judicial Review.” National Juris University. http://juris.nationalparalegal.edu/(X(1)S(wwbvsi5iswopllt1bfpzfkjd))/JudicialReview.aspx (March 1, 2016).
11. Marbury v. Madison, 5 U.S. 137 (1803).
12. Marbury v. Madison, 5 U.S. 137 (1803).
13. “The Common Law and Civil Law Traditions.” The Robbins Collection. School of Law (Boalt Hall). University of California at Berkeley. https://www.law.berkeley.edu/library/robbins/CommonLawCivilLawTraditions.html (March 1, 2016).
14. National Federation of Independent Business v. Sebelius, 567 U.S. __ (2012).
15. Burwell v. Hobby Lobby, 573 U.S. __ (2014).
16. King v. Burwell, 576 U.S. __ (2015).
17. Elonis v. United States, 13-983 U.S. __ (2015).
18. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission v. Abercrombie & Fitch Stores, 575 U.S. __ (2015).
19. Liptak, Adam. “Muslim Woman Denied Job Over Head Scarf Wins in Supreme Court.” New York Times. 1 June 2015. http://www.nytimes.com/2015/06/02/us/supreme-court-rules-in-samantha-elauf-abercrombie-fitch-case.html?_r=0.
20. Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, 347 U.S. 483 (1954).
21. Gregg v. Georgia, 428 U.S. 153 (1976).
22. Atkins v. Virginia, 536 U.S. 304 (2002); Roper v. Simmons, 543 U.S. 551 (2005); Kennedy v. Louisiana, 554 U.S. 407 (2008).
23. Glossip v. Gross, 576 U.S. __ (2015).
24. “October Term 2015.” SCOTUSblog. http://www.scotusblog.com/case-files/terms/ot2015/?sort=mname (March 1, 2016).
25. Bureau of International Information Programs, United States Department of State. Outline of the U.S. Legal System. 2004.
26. Miranda v. Arizona, 384 U.S. 436 (1966).
27. “State Courts vs. Federal Courts.” The Judicial Learning Center. http://judiciallearningcenter.org/state-courts-vs-federal-courts/ (March 1, 2016).
28. “State Courts vs. Federal Courts.” The Judicial Learning Center. http://judiciallearningcenter.org/state-courts-vs-federal-courts/ (March 1, 2016).
29. “U.S. Court System.” Syracuse University. http://www2.maxwell.syr.edu/plegal/scales/court.html (March 1, 2016).
30. Miranda v. Arizona, 384 U.S. 436 (1966).
31. Paul R. Brace and Melinda Gann Hall. 2005. “Is Judicial Federalism Essential to Democracy? State Courts in the Federal System.” In Institutions of American Democracy, The Judicial Branch, eds. Kermit L. Hall and Kevin T. McGuire. New York: Oxford University Press.
32. States of Nebraska and Oklahoma v. State of Colorado. Motion for Leave to File Complaint, Complaint and Brief in Support. December 2014. http://www.scribd.com/doc/250506006/Nebraska-Oklahoma-Lawsuit.
33. Joel B. Grossman and Austin Sarat. 1971. “Political Culture and Judicial Research.” Washington University Law Review. 1971 (2) Symposium: Courts, Judges, Politics—Some Political Science Perspectives. http://openscholarship.wustl.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=2777&context=law_lawreview.
34. “The U.S. District Courts and the Federal Judiciary.” Federal Judicial Center. http://www.fjc.gov/history/home.nsf/page/courts_district.html (March 1, 2016).
35. “Circuit Riding.” Encyclopedia Britannica. http://www.britannica.com/topic/circuit-riding (March 1, 2016).
36. “The U.S. Circuit Courts and the Federal Judiciary.” Federal Judicial Center. http://www.fjc.gov/history/home.nsf/page/courts_circuit.html (March 1, 2016).
37. Benjamin N. Cardozo. 1921. The Nature of the Judicial Process. New Haven: Yale University Press. http://www.constitution.org/cmt/cardozo/jud_proc.htm.
38. Plessy v. Ferguson, 163 U.S. 537 (1896); Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, 347 U.S. 483 (1954).
39. American Bar Association Coalition for Justice. 2008. “Judicial Selection.” In American Bar Association, eds. American Judicature Society and Malia Reddick. http://www.americanbar.org/content/dam/aba/migrated/JusticeCenter/Justice/PublicDocuments/judicial_selection_roadmap.authcheckdam.pdf.
40. American Bar Association Coalition for Justice. 2008. “Judicial Selection.” In American Bar Association, eds. American Judicature Society and Malia Reddick. http://www.americanbar.org/content/dam/aba/migrated/JusticeCenter/Justice/PublicDocuments/judicial_selection_roadmap.authcheckdam.pdf.
41. James Delmont. 13 December 2018. "John Roberts Will Be the New Anthony Kennedy." American Greatness. https://www.amgreatness.com/2018/12/13/john-roberts-will-be-the-new-anthony-kennedy/.
42. John M. Broder. “Edward M. Kennedy, Senate Stalwart, Is Dead at 77.” New York Times. 26 August 2009.
43. Michael A. Fletcher and Charles Babington. “Miers, Under Fire From Right, Withdrawn as Court Nominee.” Washington Post. 28 October 2005. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2005/10/27/AR2005102700547.html.
44. Bureau of International Information Programs. United States Department of State. Outline of the U.S. Legal System. 2004.
45. Russell Wheeler. “The Changing Face of the Federal Judiciary.” Governance Studies at Brookings. August 2009. http://www.brookings.edu/~/media/research/files/papers/2009/8/federal-judiciary-wheeler/08_federal_judiciary_wheeler.pdf.
46. Dahlia Lithwick. “Who Feeds the Supreme Court?” Slate.com. September 14, 2015. http://www.slate.com/articles/news_and_politics/jurisprudence/2015/09/supreme_court_feeder_judges_men_and_few_women_send_law_clerks_to_scotus.html.
47. “Role of Supreme Court Law Clerk: Interview with Philippa Scarlett.” IIP Digital. United States of America Embassy. http://iipdigital.usembassy.gov/st/english/publication/2013/02/20130211142365.html#axzz3grjRwiG (March 1, 2016).
48. “Supreme Court Procedures.” United States Courts. http://www.uscourts.gov/about-federal-courts/educational-resources/about-educational-outreach/activity-resources/supreme-1 (March 1, 2016).
49. Roe v. Wade, 410 U.S. 113 (1973).
50. ”Rule 10. Considerations Governing Review on Certiorari.” Rules of the Supreme Court of the United States. Adopted April 19, 2013, Effective July 1, 2013. http://www.supremecourt.gov/ctrules/2013RulesoftheCourt.pdf.
51. Bush v. Gore, 531 U.S. 98 (2000).
52. Gregory A. Caldeira and John R. Wright. 1988. “Organized Interests and Agenda-Setting in the U.S. Supreme Court,” American Political Science Review 82: 1109–1128.
53. Gregory A. Caldeira, John R. Wright, and Christopher Zorn. 2012. “Organized Interests and Agenda Setting in the U.S. Supreme Court Revisited.” Presentation at the Second Annual Conference on Institutions and Lawmaking, Emory University. http://polisci.emory.edu/home/cslpe/conference-institutions-law-making/2012/papers/caldeira_wright_zorn_cwzpaper.pdf.
54. “About the Office.” Office of the Solicitor General. The United States Department of Justice. http://www.justice.gov/osg/about-office-1 (March 1, 2016).
55. Ryan C. Black and Ryan J. Owens. “Solicitor General Influence and the United States Supreme Court.” Vanderbilt University. http://www.vanderbilt.edu/csdi/archived/working%20papers/Ryan%20Owens.pdf (March 1, 2016).
56. Mark Joseph Stern., “If SCOTUS Decides in Favor of Marriage Equality, Thank Solicitor General Don Verrilli,” Slate.com. April 29, 2015. http://www.slate.com/blogs/outward/2015/04/29/don_verrilli_solicitor_general_was_the_real_hero_of_scotus_gay_marriage.html.
57. “The Court and its Procedures.” Supreme Court of the United States. May 26, 2015.
58. “Supreme Court Procedures.” United States Courts. http://www.uscourts.gov/about-federal-courts/educational-resources/about-educational-outreach/activity-resources/supreme-1 (March 1, 2016).
59. “Supreme Court Procedures.” United States Courts. http://www.uscourts.gov/about-federal-courts/educational-resources/about-educational-outreach/activity-resources/supreme-1 (March 1, 2016).
60. Jonathan Sherman. “End the Supreme Court's Ban on Cameras.” New York Times. 24 April 2015. http://www.nytimes.com/2015/04/24/opinion/open-the-supreme-court-to-cameras.html.
61. Matt Sedensky. “Justice questions way court nominees are grilled.” The Associated Press. May 14, 2010. http://www.boston.com/news/nation/articles/2010/05/14/justice_questions_way_court_nominees_are_grilled/.
62. Bowers v. Hardwick, 478 U.S. 186 (1986).
63. Lawrence v. Texas, 539 U.S. 558 (2003).
64. Lawrence v. Texas, 539 U.S. 558 (2003).
65. Louis Jacobson. “Is Barack Obama trying to ‘pack’ the D.C. Circuit Court of Appeals?” Tampa Bay Times, PolitiFact.com. June 5, 2013. http://www.politifact.com/truth-o-meter/statements/2013/jun/05/chuck-grassley/barack-obama-trying-pack-dc-circuit-court-appeals/.
66. Worcester v. Georgia, 31 U.S. (6 Pet.) 515 (1832).
67. “Court History.” Supreme Court History: The First Hundred Years. http://www.pbs.org/wnet/supremecourt/antebellum/history2.html (March 1, 2016).
68. Dwight D. Eisenhower. “Radio and Television Address to the American People on the Situation in Little Rock.” Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States: Eisenhower, Dwight D., The American Presidency Project. September 24, 1957. http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/?pid=10909.

State and Local Government

1. “Articles of Confederation,” https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/SMAN-107/pdf/SMAN-107-pg935.pdf (March 14, 2016).
2. “Tax History Museum: The Revolutionary War to the War of 1812 (1777–1815),” http://www.taxhistory.org/www/website.nsf/Web/THM1777?OpenDocument (March 14, 2016).
3. Reid Wilson. 4 April 2015. “Conservative Lawmakers Weigh Bid to Call for Constitutional Convention.” Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/conservative-lawmakers-weigh-bid-tocall-for-constitutional-convention/2015/04/04/b25d4f1e-db02-11e4-ba28-f2a685dc7f89_story.html. Jamiles Lartey. “Conservatives Call for Constitutional Intervention Last Seen 230 Years Ago.” The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2018/aug/11/conservatives-call-for-constitutional-convention-alec.
4. A. L. A. Schechter Poultry Corp. v. United States, 295 U.S. 495 (1935).
5. William E. Leuchtenburg, “When Franklin Roosevelt Clashed with the Supreme Court—and Lost,” Smithsonian Magazine, May 2005. http://www.smithsonianmag.com/history/when-franklin-roosevelt-clashed-with-the-supreme-court-and-lost-78497994/.
6. Karen Tumulty, “‘Great Society’ Agenda Led to Great—and Lasting—Philosophical Divide,” Washington Post, 8 January 2014. http://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/great-society-agenda-led-to-great--and-lasting--philosophical-divide/2014/01/08/b082e5d0-786d-11e3-b1c5-739e63e9c9a7_story.html.
7. Michael Schuyler. 19 February 2014. “A Short History of Government Taxing and Spending in the United States,” http://taxfoundation.org/article/short-history-government-taxing-and-spending-united-states.
8. Philip Joyce, “Is the Era of Unfunded Federal Mandates Over?” Governing, 16 April 2014. http://www.governing.com/columns/smart-mgmt/col-is-era-unfunded-federal-mandates-over.html.
9. “State Policy Choices under Welfare Reform,” http://www.brookings.edu/research/papers/2002/04/welfare-gais (March 14, 2016).
10. “Why Existing Law Won’t Stop Corporations from Harming Your Community,” August 31, 2015. http://celdf.org/2015/08/why-existing-law-wont-stop-corporations-from-harming-your-community/ (March 14, 2016).
11. Jesse J. Richardson, Jr. 5 August 2011. “Dillon’s Rule is from Mars, Home Rule is from Venus: Local Government Autonomy and the Rules of Statutory Construction,” Publius 41, No. 4: 662–685.
12. Max B. Baker, “Denton City Council Repeals Fracking Ban,” Fort Worth Star-Telegram, 16 June 2015. http://www.star-telegram.com/news/business/barnett-shale/article24627469.html.
13. Roberton Williams and Yuri Shadunsky. “State and Local Tax Policy: What are the Sources of Revenue for Local Governments?” http://www.taxpolicycenter.org/briefing-book/state-local/revenues/local_revenue.cfm (March 14, 2016).
14. Charles E. Gilliland. November 2013. “Property Taxes: The Bad, the Good, and the Ugly,” Texas A&M University - Real Estate Center, TR 2037. https://assets.recenter.tamu.edu/documents/articles/2037.pdf.
15. “What is Proposition 13?” http://www.californiataxdata.com/pdf/Prop13.pdf (March 14, 2016).
16. Yolanda Perez, John Avault, and Jim Vrabel. December 2002. “Tax Exempt Property in Boston,” Boston Redevelopment Authority Policy Development and Research Report 562, http://www.californiataxdata.com/pdf/Prop13.pdf.
17. Channon Hodge and David Gillen, “What Bankruptcy Means for Detroit,” New York Times, 4 December 2013. http://www.nytimes.com/video/business/100000002583690/what-bankruptcy-means-for-detroit.html.
18. Daniel Elazar. 1972. American Federalism: A View from the States, 2nd ed. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Company.
19. Maria L. La Ganga, “Under New Oregon law, All Eligible Voters are Registered Unless They Opt Out,” Los Angeles Times, 17 March 2015. http://www.latimes.com/nation/la-na-oregon-automatic-voter-registration-20150317-story.html.
20. Jeff Guo, “It’s Official: New Oregon Law Will Automatically Register People to Vote,” Washington Post, 17 March 2015. http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/govbeat/wp/2015/03/17/its-official-new-oregon-law-will-automatically-register-people-to-vote/.
21. Alec MacGillis. 18 March 2015. “The Oregon Trail: The State’s New Governor is Going on the Offensive in the Battle for Voting Rights,” http://www.slate.com/articles/news_and_politics/politics/2015/03/kate_brown_and_automatic_voter_registration_oregon_s_new_governor_has_gone.html.
22. Dean DeChiaro, “$830M in Tax Breaks Later, Christie Says His Camden Plan Won’t Work for America,” U.S. News and World Report, 19 August 2015. http://www.usnews.com/news/articles/2015/08/19/830m-in-tax-breaks-later-christie-says-his-camden-plan-wont-work-for-america.
23. “Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity: Data, Trends and Maps,” http://www.cdc.gov/obesity/data/prevalence-maps.html (March 14, 2016).
24. Jie Zong and Jeanne Batalova. 26 February 2015. “Frequently Requested Statistics on Immigrants and Immigration in the United States,” http://www.migrationpolicy.org/article/frequently-requested-statistics-immigrants-and-immigration-united-states.
25. Lindsey Cook, “Americans Still Hate Congress,” U.S. News and World Report, 18 August 2014. http://www.usnews.com/news/blogs/data-mine/2014/08/18/americans-still-hate-congress.
26. Wilson Andrews, Alicia Parlapiano, and Karen Yourish, “Who is Running for President?” New York Times, 4 March 2016. http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2016/us/elections/2016-presidential-candidates.html?_r=0.
27. Alan Rosenthal. 2013. The Best Job in Politics; Exploring How Governors Succeed as Policy Leaders. Thousand Oaks, CA: CQ Press.
28. Elaine S. Povich, “Many State Governors Have Budget Problems with Their Own Parties,” Governing, 4 February 2013. http://www.governing.com/news/headlines/many-state-governors-have-budget-problems-with-their-own-parties.html.
29. “Governors’ Powers and Authority,” http://www.nga.org/cms/home/management-resources/governors-powers-and-authority.html (March 14, 2016).
30. Laura van Assendelft. 1997. Governors, Agenda Setting, and Divided Government. Lanham, MD: University Press of America.
31. National Conference of State Legislatures. “The Veto Process.” In General Legislative Procedures. Washington, DC: National Conference of State Legislatures, 6-29–6-64. http://www.ncsl.org/documents/legismgt/ilp/98tab6pt3.pdf (March 14, 2016).
32. Monica Davey, “Wisconsin Voters Excise Editing from Governor’s Veto Powers,” New York Times, 3 April 2008. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/04/03/us/03wisconsin.html?_r=0.
33. Daniel C. Vock. 24 April 2007. “Govs Enjoy Quirky Veto Power,” http://www.pewtrusts.org/en/research-and-analysis/blogs/stateline/2007/04/24/govs-enjoy-quirky-veto-power.
34. Steven Walters, “Voters Drive Stake into ‘Frankenstein Veto’,” Milwaukee Journal Sentinel, 2 April 2008. http://www.jsonline.com/news/wisconsin/29395824.html.
35. National Conference of State Legislatures. 20 September 2012. “Initiative, Referendum and Recall,” http://www.ncsl.org/research/elections-and-campaigns/initiative-referendum-and-recall-overview.aspx.
36. National Conference of State Legislatures. 6 May 2009. “Special Sessions,” http://www.ncsl.org/research/about-state-legislatures/special-sessions472.aspx.
37. Patrick Svitek, “Abbott Tries Wooing General Electric to Texas,” The Texas Tribune, 10 June 2015. https://www.texastribune.org/2015/06/10/abbott-looks-woo-general-electric-connecticut/.
38. Ted Mann and Jon Kamp, “General Electric to Move Headquarters to Boston,” The Wall Street Journal, 13 January 2016. http://www.wsj.com/articles/general-electric-plans-to-move-headquarters-to-boston-1452703676.
39. Abigail Hess.14 November 2018. "Amazon Says It Will Bring 50,000 Jobs to Its Two New Headquarters—Here's How to Land a Job at the Company." CNBC. https://www.cnbc.com/2018/11/14/amazon-has-promise-to-create-50000-new-jobsheres-how-to-land-one.html.
40. “Virginia Governor Tries to Woo Indiana Businesses,” http://www.nbcwashington.com/blogs/first-read-dmv/Virginia-Governor-Tries-to-Woo-Indiana-Businesses-298087131.html (March 14, 2016).
41. Stephanie Wang, “What the ‘Religious Freedom’ Law Really Means for Indiana,” Indy Star, 3 April 2015. http://www.indystar.com/story/news/politics/2015/03/29/religious-freedom-law-really-means-indiana/70601584/
42. James Gherardi. March 25, 2015. “Indiana Businesses Concerned Over Economic Impact of Religious Freedom Bill,” http://cbs4indy.com/2015/03/25/indiana-businesses-concerned-over-economic-impact-of-religious-freedom-bill/.
43. Tony Cook, Tom LoBianco, and Brian Eason, “Gov. Mike Pence signs RFRA Fix,” Indy Star, 2 April 2015. http://www.indystar.com/story/news/politics/2015/04/01/indiana-rfra-deal-sets-limited-protections-for-lgbt/70766920/.
44. German Lopez. April 2, 2015. “How Indiana’s Religious Freedom Law Sparked a Battle Over LGBT Rights,” http://www.vox.com/2015/3/31/8319493/indiana-rfra-lgbt.
45. 29 October 2014. “These Images Show Just How Much Some Neighborhoods Were Changed by Hurricane Sandy,” http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2014/10/29/hurricane-sandy-second-anniversary-images_n_6054274.html.
46. Michael Barbaro, “After Obama, Christie Wants a G.O.P. Hug,” New York Times, 19 November 2012. http://www.nytimes.com/2012/11/20/us/politics/after-embrace-of-obama-chris-christie-woos-a-wary-gop.html?_r=0.
47. Teresa Welsh, “Is Chris Christie a GOP Traitor for His Obama Hurricane Praise?” U.S. News and World Report, 1 November 2012. http://www.usnews.com/opinion/articles/2012/11/01/is-chris-christie-a-gop-traitor-for-praising-obamas-response-to-hurricane-sandy
48. Susan Gardner, “Baltimore Erupts into Chaos: Governor activates National Guard,” 27 April 2015. http://www.dailykos.com/story/2015/04/27/1380756/-Baltimore-erupts-into-chaos-Governor-activates-National-Guard#.
49. Shira Schoenberg. 2 February 2015. “Governor Calls on 500 Massachusetts National Guard Troops to Dig State Out from Snowstorms,” http://www.masslive.com/news/boston/index.ssf/2015/02/in_unprecedented_move_500_nati.html.
50. Leslie Larson and Jennifer Fermino, “Cuomo and de Blasio Tell Storm Critics ‘Better Safe Than Sorry’,” New York Daily News, 27 January 2015. http://www.nydailynews.com/news/politics/cuomo-de-blasio-critics-better-safe-article-1.2093306.
51. “Pardons, Reprieves, Commutations and Respites,” http://www.sos.wv.gov/public-services/execrecords/Pages/Pardons.aspx (March 14, 2016).
52. “Clemency Process by State,” http://www.deathpenaltyinfo.org/clemency?did=126&scid=13#process (March 14, 2016).
53. Rosenthal, The Best Job in Politics; Exploring How Governors Succeed as Policy Leaders.
54. Edmund Burke. 1969. “The English Constitutional System.” In Representation. Hanna Pitkin. New York: Atherton Press.
55. Ohio Legislative Service Commission. 2015–2016. “Legislative Oversight.” In A Guidebook for Ohio Legislators, 14th ed. Columbus, OH: Ohio Legislative Service Commission.
56. National Conference of State Legislatures. 11 March 2013. “Number of Legislators and Length of Terms in Years,” http://www.ncsl.org/research/about-state-legislatures/number-of-legislators-and-length-of-terms.aspx.
57. National Conference of State Legislatures. 8 January 2019. “Legislatures at a Glance.” http://www.ncsl.org/research/about-state-legislatures/legislatures-at-a-glance.aspx.
58. National Conference of State Legislatures. 10 January 2008. “African-American Legislators 2009,” http://www.ncsl.org/research/about-state-legislatures/african-american-legislators-in-2009.aspx; “2009 Latino Legislators.” http://www.ncsl.org/research/about-state-legislatures/latino-legislators-overview.aspx (March 14, 2016).
59. Chris T. Owens. 2005. “Black Substantive Representation in State Legislatures from 1971–1999,” Social Science Quarterly 84, No. 5: 779–791; Robert R. Preuhs. 2005. “Descriptive Representation, Legislative Leadership, and Direct Democracy: Latino Influence on English Only Laws in the States, 1984–2002,” State Politics and Policy Quarterly 5, No. 3: 203–224; Sue Thomas. 1991. “The Impact of Women on State Legislative Policies.” The Journal of Politics 53, No. 4: 958–976.
60. Rene Rocha, Caroline Tolbert, Daniel Bowen, and Christopher Clark. 2010. “Race and Turnout: Does Descriptive Representation in State Legislatures Increase Minority Voting?” Political Research Quarterly 63, No. 4: 890–907.
61. “2014 Legislative Partisan Composition,” http://www.ncsl.org/portals/1/ImageLibrary/WebImages/Elections/2014_Leg_Party_Control_map.gif (March 14, 2016).
62. Peverill Squire. 2007. “Measuring State Legislative Professionalism: The Squire Index Revisited.” State Politics & Policy Quarterly 7, No. 2: 211–227.
63. National Conference of State Legislatures. 1 June 2014. “Table 2. Average Job Time, Compensation and Staff Size by Category of Legislature,” http://www.ncsl.org/research/about-state-legislatures/full-and-part-time-legislatures.aspx#average.
64. Peverill, “Measuring State Legislative Professionalism: The Squire Index Revisited.”
65. National Conference of State Legislatures. 13 March 2015. “The Term-Limited States,” http://www.ncsl.org/research/about-state-legislatures/chart-of-term-limits-states.aspx.
66. See note 65.
67. See note 65.
68. National Conference of State Legislatures. “Term Limits and the Courts,” http://www.ncsl.org/research/about-state-legislatures/summaries-of-term-limits-cases.aspx (March 14, 2016).
69. National Conference of State Legislatures. 20 September 2012. “Initiative, Referendum and Recall,” http://www.ncsl.org/research/elections-and-campaigns/initiative-referendum-and-recall-overview.aspx.
70. John Carey, Richard Niemi, and Lynda Powell. 2000. Term Limits in State Legislatures. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
71. See note 70.
72. “The U.S. Term Limits Pledge,” http://ustermlimitsamendment.org/about-us/ (March 14, 2016).
73. Stanley Caress and Todd Kunioka. 2012. Term Limits and Their Consequences: The Aftermath of Legislative Reform. New York: State University of New York Press.
74. Lyke Thompson, Charles Elder, and Richard Elling. 2004. Political and Institutional Effects of Term Limits. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
75. See note above.
76. Brian Lavin. 30 August 2012. “Census Bureau Reports There are 89,004 Local Governments in the United States (CB12-161),” https://www.census.gov/newsroom/releases/archives/governments/cb12-161.html.
77. Frank Coppa. 2000. County Government: A Guide to Efficient and Accountable Government. Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing.
78. Coppa, County Government: A Guide to Efficient and Accountable Government.
79. Coppa, County Government: A Guide to Efficient and Accountable Government.
80. Coppa, County Government: A Guide to Efficient and Accountable Government.
81. http://www.naco.org/counties (March 14, 2016).
82. Lavin, “Census Bureau Reports There are 89,004 Local Governments in the United States (CB12-161).”
83. “Forms of Municipal Government,” http://www.nlc.org/build-skills-and-networks/resources/cities-101/city-structures/forms-of-municipal-government (March 14, 2016).
84. “Mayoral Powers,” http://www.nlc.org/build-skills-and-networks/resources/cities-101/city-officials/mayoral-powers (March 14, 2016).
85. “Forms of Municipal Government.”
86. Mark Alesia, “Kansas City has Stadium Success Story—in Major League Soccer,” Indy Star, 18 March 2015. http://www.indystar.com/story/news/2015/03/17/kansas-city-stadium-success-story-major-league-soccer/24928853/.

The Bureaucracy

1. For general information on ancient bureaucracies see Amanda Summer. 2012. “The Birth of Bureaucracy”. Archaeology 65, No. 4: 33–39; Clyde Curry Smith. 1977. “The Birth of Bureaucracy”. The Bible Archaeologist 40, No. 1: 24–28; Ronald J. Williams. 1972. “Scribal Training in Ancient Egypt,” Journal of the American Oriental Society 92, No. 2: 214–21.
2. Richard Stillman. 2009. Public Administration: Concepts and Cases. 9th edition. Boston: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.
3. For the early origins of the U.S. bureaucracy see Michael Nelson. 1982. “A Short, Ironic History of American National Bureaucracy,” The Journal of Politics 44 No. 3: 747–78.
4. Daniel Walker Howe. 2007. What Hath God Wrought: The Transformation of America, 1815-1848. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 334.
5. Jack Ladinsky. 1966. “Review of Status and Kinship in the Higher Civil Service: Standards of Selection in the Administrations of John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, and Andrew Jackson,” American Sociological Review 31 No. 6: 863–64.
6. For more on the Pendleton Act and its effects see Sean M. Theriault. 2003. “Patronage, the Pendleton Act, and the Power of the People,” The Journal of Politics 65 No. 1: 50–68; Craig V. D. Thornton. 1983. “Review of Centenary Issues of the Pendleton Act of 1883: The Problematic Legacy of Civil Service Reform,” Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 2 No. 4: 653–53.
7. Jack Rabin and James S. Bowman. 1984. “Politics and Administration: Woodrow Wilson and American Public Administration,” Public Administration and Public Policy; 22: 104.
8. For more on President Wilson’s efforts at reform see Kendrick A. Clements. 1998. “Woodrow Wilson and Administrative Reform,” Presidential Studies Quarterly 28 No. 2: 320–36; Larry Walker. 1989. “Woodrow Wilson, Progressive Reform, and Public Administration,” Political Science Quarterly 104, No. 3: 509–25.
9. https://www.opm.gov/policy-data-oversight/data-analysis-documentation/federal-employment-reports/historical-tables/executive-branch-civilian-employment-since-1940/ (May 15, 2016).
10. https://www.opm.gov/policy-data-oversight/data-analysis-documentation/federal-employment-reports/historical-tables/total-government-employment-since-1962 (May 15, 2016).
11. For more on LBJ and the Great Society see: John A. Andrew. 1998. Lyndon Johnson and the Great Society. Chicago: Ivan R Dee; Julian E. Zelizer. 2015. The Fierce Urgency of Now: Lyndon Johnson, Congress, and the Battle for the Great Society. New York: Penguin Press.
12. John Mikesell. 2014. Fiscal Administration, 9th ed. Boston: Cengage.
13. United States Civil Service Commission. 1974. Biography of an Ideal: a history of the federal civil service. Washington, D.C.: Office of Public Affairs, U.S. Civil Service Commission. 40–44.
14. Ronald N. Johnson and Gary D. Libecap. 1994. The Federal Civil Service System and the Problem of Bureaucracy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
15. Patricia W. Ingraham and Carolyn Ban. 1984. Legislating Bureaucratic Change : The Civil Service Reform Act of 1978. Albany: State University of New York Press.
16. Dennis V. Damp. 2008. The Book of U.S. Government Jobs: Where They Are, What’s Available, & How to Get One. McKees Rocks, PA: Bookhaven Press, 30.
17. Lisa Rein, “For federal-worker hopefuls, the civil service exam is making a comeback,” Washington Post, 2 April 2015, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/federal-eye/wp/2015/04/02/for-federal-worker-hopefuls-the-civil-service-exam-is-making-a-comeback/.
18. https://www.opm.gov/policy-data-oversight/classification-qualifications/general-schedule-qualification-policies/#url=General-Policies (May 16, 2016).
19. Susan J. Hekman. 1983. “Weber’s Ideal Type: A Contemporary Reassessment”. Polity 16 No. 1: 119–37.
20. Congressional Budget Office Report, https://www.cbo.gov/publication/44172 (June 6, 2016).
21. A. L. A. Schechter Poultry Corp. v. United States, 295 U.S. 495 (1935).
22. http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/rls/dos/436.htm (June 6, 2016).
23. David C. Nice. 1998. Amtrak: the history and politics of a national railroad. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner.
24. James L. Perry. 1996. “Measuring Public Service Motivation: An Assessment of Construct Reliability and Validity.” Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory 6, No. 1: 5–22.
25. Kenneth H. Ashworth. 2001. Caught Between the Dog and the Fireplug, or, How to Survive Public Service. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.
26. Philip J. Harter. 1982. “Negotiating Regulations: A Cure for Malaise,” Georgetown Law Journal, 71, No. 1.
27. https://www.treasury.gov/tigta/auditreports/2013reports/201310053fr.pdf (May 1, 2016).
28. http://www.gao.gov/ (May 1, 2016).
29. http://www.gao.gov/about/products/about-gao-reports.html (May 1, 2016).
30. https://www.whitehouse.gov/omb (May 1, 2016).
31. Sylvan Lane. 12 December 2018. "Consumer Bureau Morale Plummeted under Mulvaney: Report." The Hill. https://thehill.com/policy/finance/421007-consumer-bureau-morale-plummeted-under-mulvaney-analysis.
32. https://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/text/5/552; https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/STATUTE-90/pdf/STATUTE-90-Pg1241.pdf (June 6, 2016).
33. www.foia.gov (May 1, 2016).
34. http://www.foreffectivegov.org/access-to-information-scorecard-2015/ (May 1, 2016).
35. http://govinfo.library.unt.edu/npr/whoweare/history2.html (June 16, 2016).
36. Kevin R. Kosar. “Privatization and the Federal Government: An Introduction,” CRS Report for Congress, December 28, 2006. https://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/RL33777.pdf (June 16, 2016).
37. https://www.salliemae.com/about/who-we-are/history/ (June 16, 2016).
38. James Risen, “Controversial Contractors Iraq Works is Split Up,” New York Times, 24 May 2008. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/05/24/world/middleeast/24contract.html (June 16, 2016).
39. Alan K. Campbell. 1978. “Civil Service Reform: A New Commitment.” Public Administration Review 38 No. 2, 99.
40. Campbell, “Civil Service Reform,” 100.

Domestic Policy

1. “H.R. 4872 — Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010,” https://www.congress.gov/bill/111th-congress/house-bill/4872 (March 1, 2016).
2. James E. Anderson. 2000. Public Policymaking: An Introduction, 4th ed. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
3. “National Health Insurance—A Brief History of Reform Efforts in the U.S.,” March 2009, https://kaiserfamilyfoundation.files.wordpress.com/2013/01/7871.pdf (March 1, 2016).
4. “Romneycare vs. Obamacare: Key Similarities & Differences,” 13 November 2013. http://boston.cbslocal.com/2013/11/13/romneycare-vs-obamacare-key-similarities-differences/ (March 1, 2016).
5. E. E. Schattschneider. 1960. The Semi-Sovereign People. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
6. Brad Plumer, “Everything you need to know about the assault weapons ban, in one post,” The Washington Post, 17 December 2012. https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/wonk/wp/2012/12/17/everything-you-need-to-know-about-banning-assault-weapons-in-one-post/ (March 1, 2016).
7. Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, 347 U.S. 483 (1954).
8. David Mildenberg, “Private Toll Road Investors Shift Revenue Risk to States,” 26 November 2013. http://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2013-11-27/private-toll-road-investors-shift-revenue-risk-to-states (March 1, 2016).
9. http://www.history.com/topics/inventions/transcontinental-railroad (March 1, 2016).
10. http://www.dollartimes.com/inflation/inflation.php?amount=49&year=1919 (March 1, 2016).
11. Upton Sinclair. 1906. The Jungle. New York: Grosset and Dunlap.
12. http://www.fda.gov/AboutFDA/WhatWeDo/History/ (March 1, 2016).
13. “An Update to the Budget and Economic Outlook: 2014 to 2024,” 27 August 2014. https://www.cbo.gov/publication/45653 (March 1, 2016).
14. “Update 2016,” https://www.ssa.gov/pubs/EN-05-10003.pdf (March 1, 2016).
15. https://www.ssa.gov/planners/retire/ageincrease.html (March 1, 2016).
16. “The Facts on Medicare Spending and Financing,” http://kff.org/medicare/fact-sheet/medicare-spending-and-financing-fact-sheet/ (March 1, 2016); “National Health Expenditure Fact Sheet,” https://www.cms.gov/research-statistics-data-and-systems/statistics-trends-and-reports/nationalhealthexpenddata/nhe-fact-sheet.html (March 1, 2016).
17. “National Health Expenditure Fact Sheet,” https://www.cms.gov/research-statistics-data-and-systems/statistics-trends-and-reports/nationalhealthexpenddata/nhe-fact-sheet.html (March 1, 2016).
18. Thomas R. Oliver, Philip R. Lee, and Helene L. Lipton. 2004. “A Political History of Medicare and Prescription Drug Coverage,” Milbank Quarterly 82, No. 2: 283–354, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2690175/.
19. Bryan D. Jones and Frank R. Baumgartner. 2005. The Politics of Attention. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
20. Daniel Mazmanian and Paul Sabatier. 1989. Implementation and Public Policy. Washington, DC: Rowman and Littlefield.
21. Kathrin F. Stanger-Hall and David W. Hall. 2011. “Abstinence-Only Education and Teen Pregnancy Rates: Why We Need Comprehensive Sex Education in the U.S.,” PLoS One October 14, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3194801/.
22. Arthur B. Laffer, Stephen Moore and Peter J. Tanous. 2009. The End of Prosperity: How Higher Taxes Will Doom the Economy. New York: Simon & Schuster.
23. “Mandatory Spending in 2015: An Infographic,” 6 January 2016. www.cbo.gov/publication/51111 (March 1, 2016).
24. “Discretionary Spending in 2015: An Infographic,” 6 January 2016. www.cbo.gov/publication/51112 (March 1, 2016).
25. “The Federal Budget in 2015: An Infographic,” 6 January 2016. www.cbo.gov/publication/51110 (March 1, 2016).
26. “2015 Federal Tax Rates, Personal Exemptions, and Standard Deductions,” http://www.irs.com/articles/2015-federal-tax-rates-personal-exemptions-and-standard-deductions (March 1, 2016).
27. “High income Americans pay most income taxes, but enough to be ‘fair’?” http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2016/04/13/high-income-americans-pay-most-income-taxes-but-enough-to-be-fair/ (March 1, 2016).
28. “Excise tax,” https://www.irs.gov/Businesses/Small-Businesses-&-Self-Employed/Excise-Tax (March 1, 2016).
29. "United States Posts Record Budget Deficit in November." Washington Post. 13 December 2018. https://www.washingtonpost.com/business/economy/united-states-posts-record-budget-deficit-in-november/2018/12/13/3cdb2310-fef3-11e8-83c0-b06139e540e5_story.html?utm_term=.d4eb59c09004.
30. “U.S. Code § 225a - Maintenance of long run growth of monetary and credit aggregates,” https://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/text/12/225a (March 1, 2016).
31. https://www.federalreserveeducation.org/about-the-fed/history (March 1, 2016).

Foreign Policy

1. Eugene R. Wittkopf, Christopher M. Jones, and Charles W. Kegley, Jr. 2007. American Foreign Policy: Pattern and Process, 7th ed. Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth.
2. Michelle Camacho Liu. 2011. Investing in Higher Education for Latinos: Trends in Latino College Access and Success. Washington, DC: National Conference of State Legislatures. http://www.ncsl.org/documents/educ/trendsinlatinosuccess.pdf (May 12, 2016).
3. Charlene Barshefsky and James T. Hill. 2008. U.S.–Latin America Relations: A New Direction for a New Reality. Washington, DC: Council on Foreign Relations. i.cfr.org/content/publications/attachments/LatinAmerica_TF.pdf (May 12, 2016).
4. U.S. Census Bureau, “Foreign Trade: U.S. International Trade Data” https://www.census.gov/foreign-trade/data/index.html (May 12, 2016).
5. Joseph S. Nye, Jr. 2005. Soft Power: The Means to Success in World Politics. Washington, DC: Public Affairs.
6. U.S. Agency for International Development, “U.S. Overseas Loans and Grants (Greenbook),” https://explorer.usaid.gov/reports-greenbook.html (June 18, 2016); C. Eugene Emery Jr., and Amy Sherman. 2016. “Marco Rubio says foreign aid is less than 1 percent of federal budget,” Politifact, 11 March 2016. www.politifact.com/truth-o-meter/statements/2016/mar/11/marco-rubio/marco-rubio-says-foreign-aid-less-1-percent-federa/.
7. Glen S. Krutz and Jeffrey S. Peake. 2009. Treaty Politics and the Rise of Executive Agreements: International Commitments in a System of Shared Powers. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.
8. United States v. Pink, 315 U.S. 203 (1942).
9. Krutz and Peake. Treaty Politics and the Rise of Executive Agreements.
10. Jon Bond, Richard Fleisher, Stephen Hanna, and Glen S. Krutz. 2000. “The Demise of the. Two Presidencies,” American Politics Quarterly 28, No. 1: 3–25.
11. James M. McCormick. 2010. American Foreign Policy and Process, 5th ed. Boston: Wadsworth.
12. The Gallup Organization, “Most Important Problem,” http://www.gallup.com/poll/1675/most-important-problem.aspx (May 12, 2016).
13. John W. Kingdon. 1973. Congressmen’s Voting Decisions. New York: Harper & Row; Richard Hall. 1996. Participation in Congress. New Haven, CT: University of Yale Press.
14. Robert M. Gates. 2015. Duty: Memoirs of a Secretary at War. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.
15. David A. Graham, “Robert Gates, America’s Unlikely Gay-Rights Hero,” The Atlantic, 28 July 2015. http://www.theatlantic.com/politics/archive/2015/07/robert-gates-boy-scouts-gay-leaders/399716/.
16. “George Washington’s Farewell Address.” 1796. New Haven, CT: School Avalon Project, Yale Law Library. http://avalon.law.yale.edu/18th_century/washing.asp (May 12, 2016).
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