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  1. Preface
  2. Students and the System
    1. 1 American Government and Civic Engagement
      1. Introduction
      2. 1.1 What is Government?
      3. 1.2 Who Governs? Elitism, Pluralism, and Tradeoffs
      4. 1.3 Engagement in a Democracy
      5. Key Terms
      6. Summary
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
      9. Suggestions for Further Study
    2. 2 The Constitution and Its Origins
      1. Introduction
      2. 2.1 The Pre-Revolutionary Period and the Roots of the American Political Tradition
      3. 2.2 The Articles of Confederation
      4. 2.3 The Development of the Constitution
      5. 2.4 The Ratification of the Constitution
      6. 2.5 Constitutional Change
      7. Key Terms
      8. Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Suggestions for Further Study
    3. 3 American Federalism
      1. Introduction
      2. 3.1 The Division of Powers
      3. 3.2 The Evolution of American Federalism
      4. 3.3 Intergovernmental Relationships
      5. 3.4 Competitive Federalism Today
      6. 3.5 Advantages and Disadvantages of Federalism
      7. Key Terms
      8. Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Suggestions for Further Study
  3. Individual Agency and Action
    1. 4 Civil Liberties
      1. Introduction
      2. 4.1 What Are Civil Liberties?
      3. 4.2 Securing Basic Freedoms
      4. 4.3 The Rights of Suspects
      5. 4.4 Interpreting the Bill of Rights
      6. Key Terms
      7. Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Suggestions for Further Study
    2. 5 Civil Rights
      1. Introduction
      2. 5.1 What Are Civil Rights and How Do We Identify Them?
      3. 5.2 The African American Struggle for Equality
      4. 5.3 The Fight for Women’s Rights
      5. 5.4 Civil Rights for Indigenous Groups: Native Americans, Alaskans, and Hawaiians
      6. 5.5 Equal Protection for Other Groups
      7. Key Terms
      8. Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Suggestions for Further Study
    3. 6 The Politics of Public Opinion
      1. Introduction
      2. 6.1 The Nature of Public Opinion
      3. 6.2 How Is Public Opinion Measured?
      4. 6.3 What Does the Public Think?
      5. 6.4 The Effects of Public Opinion
      6. Key Terms
      7. Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Suggestions for Further Study
    4. 7 Voting and Elections
      1. Introduction
      2. 7.1 Voter Registration
      3. 7.2 Voter Turnout
      4. 7.3 Elections
      5. 7.4 Campaigns and Voting
      6. 7.5 Direct Democracy
      7. Key Terms
      8. Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Suggestions for Further Study
  4. Toward Collective Action: Mediating Institutions
    1. 8 The Media
      1. Introduction
      2. 8.1 What Is the Media?
      3. 8.2 The Evolution of the Media
      4. 8.3 Regulating the Media
      5. 8.4 The Impact of the Media
      6. Key Terms
      7. Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Suggestions for Further Study
    2. 9 Political Parties
      1. Introduction
      2. 9.1 What Are Parties and How Did They Form?
      3. 9.2 The Two-Party System
      4. 9.3 The Shape of Modern Political Parties
      5. 9.4 Divided Government and Partisan Polarization
      6. Key Terms
      7. Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Suggestions for Further Study
    3. 10 Interest Groups and Lobbying
      1. Introduction
      2. 10.1 Interest Groups Defined
      3. 10.2 Collective Action and Interest Group Formation
      4. 10.3 Interest Groups as Political Participation
      5. 10.4 Pathways of Interest Group Influence
      6. 10.5 Free Speech and the Regulation of Interest Groups
      7. Key Terms
      8. Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Suggestions for Further Study
  5. Delivering Collective Action: Formal Institutions
    1. 11 Congress
      1. Introduction
      2. 11.1 The Institutional Design of Congress
      3. 11.2 Congressional Elections
      4. 11.3 Congressional Representation
      5. 11.4 House and Senate Organizations
      6. 11.5 The Legislative Process
      7. Key Terms
      8. Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Suggestions for Further Study
    2. 12 The Presidency
      1. Introduction
      2. 12.1 The Design and Evolution of the Presidency
      3. 12.2 The Presidential Election Process
      4. 12.3 Organizing to Govern
      5. 12.4 The Public Presidency
      6. 12.5 Presidential Governance: Direct Presidential Action
      7. Key Terms
      8. Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Suggestions for Further Study
    3. 13 The Courts
      1. Introduction
      2. 13.1 Guardians of the Constitution and Individual Rights
      3. 13.2 The Dual Court System
      4. 13.3 The Federal Court System
      5. 13.4 The Supreme Court
      6. 13.5 Judicial Decision-Making and Implementation by the Supreme Court
      7. Key Terms
      8. Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Suggestions for Further Study
    4. 14 State and Local Government
      1. Introduction
      2. 14.1 State Power and Delegation
      3. 14.2 State Political Culture
      4. 14.3 Governors and State Legislatures
      5. 14.4 State Legislative Term Limits
      6. 14.5 County and City Government
      7. Key Terms
      8. Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Suggestions for Further Study
  6. The Outputs of Government
    1. 15 The Bureaucracy
      1. Introduction
      2. 15.1 Bureaucracy and the Evolution of Public Administration
      3. 15.2 Toward a Merit-Based Civil Service
      4. 15.3 Understanding Bureaucracies and their Types
      5. 15.4 Controlling the Bureaucracy
      6. Key Terms
      7. Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Suggestions for Further Study
    2. 16 Domestic Policy
      1. Introduction
      2. 16.1 What Is Public Policy?
      3. 16.2 Categorizing Public Policy
      4. 16.3 Policy Arenas
      5. 16.4 Policymakers
      6. 16.5 Budgeting and Tax Policy
      7. Key Terms
      8. Summary
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
      11. Suggestions for Further Study
    3. 17 Foreign Policy
      1. Introduction
      2. 17.1 Defining Foreign Policy
      3. 17.2 Foreign Policy Instruments
      4. 17.3 Institutional Relations in Foreign Policy
      5. 17.4 Approaches to Foreign Policy
      6. Key Terms
      7. Summary
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
      10. Suggestions for Further Study
  7. A | Declaration of Independence
  8. B | The Constitution of the United States
  9. C | Federalist Papers #10 and #51
  10. D | Electoral College Votes by State, 2012–2020
  11. E | Selected Supreme Court Cases
  12. Answer Key
    1. Chapter 1
    2. Chapter 2
    3. Chapter 3
    4. Chapter 4
    5. Chapter 5
    6. Chapter 6
    7. Chapter 7
    8. Chapter 8
    9. Chapter 9
    10. Chapter 10
    11. Chapter 11
    12. Chapter 12
    13. Chapter 13
    14. Chapter 14
    15. Chapter 15
    16. Chapter 16
    17. Chapter 17
  13. References
  14. Index
A
Act for the Gradual Abolition of Slavery2.3 The Development of the Constitution
agent of political socialization6.1 The Nature of Public Opinion
Agricultural Adjustment Act3.2 The Evolution of American Federalism
Aid to Families with Dependent Children3.3 Intergovernmental Relationships
Air Quality Act16.4 Policymakers
American Bar Association13.3 The Federal Court System
American Recovery and Reinvestment Act3.1 The Division of Powers, 8.4 The Impact of the Media
American Woman Suffrage Association5.3 The Fight for Women’s Rights
Americans with Disabilities Act5.5 Equal Protection for Other Groups
Arizona State Legislature v. Arizona Independent Redistricting Commission9.4 Divided Government and Partisan Polarization
Asian American Political Alliance5.5 Equal Protection for Other Groups
associate justice13.4 The Supreme Court
Association of Community Organizations for Reform Now7.2 Voter Turnout
B
Black Lives MatterIntroduction
bottom-up implementation16.4 Policymakers
Boulder Canyon Project Act16.2 Categorizing Public Policy
Brandenburg v. Ohio4.2 Securing Basic Freedoms
Branzburg v. Hayes8.3 Regulating the Media
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka16.1 What Is Public Policy?
Budget and Impoundment Control Act11.5 The Legislative Process
Burwell v. Hobby Lobby Stores, Inc.5.5 Equal Protection for Other Groups
C
Central American Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA) Implementation Act17.1 Defining Foreign Policy
centralizationIntroduction
Children’s Health Insurance Program3.3 Intergovernmental Relationships
Children’s Internet Protection Act4.2 Securing Basic Freedoms
chronic minority7.2 Voter Turnout
Citizen Change7.2 Voter Turnout
closed primary7.3 Elections
coattail effect7.3 Elections
collective representation11.3 Congressional Representation
Communications Act8.3 Regulating the Media
Confederation Congress2.2 The Articles of Confederation
Congressional Black Caucus11.3 Congressional Representation
Congressional Budget Office16.4 Policymakers
congressional-executive agreement17.2 Foreign Policy Instruments
conscientious objector4.2 Securing Basic Freedoms
consecutive term limits14.4 State Legislative Term Limits
Constitutional Convention of 178711.1 The Institutional Design of Congress
Consumer Financial Protection Bureau15.4 Controlling the Bureaucracy
Controlled Substances Act7.5 Direct Democracy
council-administrator system14.5 County and City Government
council-elected executive system14.5 County and City Government
council-manager system14.5 County and City Government
Crawford v. Marion County Election Board7.2 Voter Turnout
critical election9.2 The Two-Party System
cultivation theory8.4 The Impact of the Media
D
decentralizationIntroduction
delegate model of representation11.3 Congressional Representation
delegates7.3 Elections
Department of Defense Directive 1304.265.5 Equal Protection for Other Groups
descriptive representation11.3 Congressional Representation
direct democracy1.1 What is Government?
discretionary spending16.5 Budgeting and Tax Policy
District of Columbia v. Heller4.2 Securing Basic Freedoms
district system7.3 Elections
E
early voting7.2 Voter Turnout
Education Amendments Act11.3 Congressional Representation
Education for all Handicapped Children Act5.5 Equal Protection for Other Groups
Elementary and Secondary Education Act3.2 The Evolution of American Federalism
Employment Division v. Smith4.2 Securing Basic Freedoms
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission5.2 The African American Struggle for Equality
F
Fair Packaging and Labeling Act3.2 The Evolution of American Federalism
fairness doctrine8.3 Regulating the Media
Federal Assault Weapons Ban16.1 What Is Public Policy?
federal court system13.3 The Federal Court System
Federal Radio Commission8.2 The Evolution of the Media
first-past-the-post9.2 The Two-Party System
Flag Protection Act4.2 Securing Basic Freedoms
free exercise clause4.2 Securing Basic Freedoms
free-market economics16.2 Categorizing Public Policy
freedom of expression4.2 Securing Basic Freedoms
Freedom of Information Act15.4 Controlling the Bureaucracy
Freedom of Information Act (FOIA)8.3 Regulating the Media
frontloading7.3 Elections
full faith and credit clause3.1 The Division of Powers
G
general election campaign7.3 Elections
General Services Administration12.3 Organizing to Govern
Gillette v. United States4.2 Securing Basic Freedoms
Gonzales v. Raich7.5 Direct Democracy
Government Accountability Office15.4 Controlling the Bureaucracy
H
Harper v. Virginia Board of Elections5.2 The African American Struggle for Equality
Hazelwood v. Kuhlmeier4.2 Securing Basic Freedoms
Health Care and Education Reconciliation ActIntroduction
Help America Vote Act7.1 Voter Registration
Homeland Security Act17.2 Foreign Policy Instruments
Honest Leadership and Open Government Act10.5 Free Speech and the Regulation of Interest Groups
House Foreign Affairs Committee17.3 Institutional Relations in Foreign Policy
I
Immigration federalism3.4 Competitive Federalism Today
inaugural address12.3 Organizing to Govern
incumbency advantage7.4 Campaigns and Voting
indecency regulations8.3 Regulating the Media
Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act5.4 Civil Rights for Indigenous Groups: Native Americans, Alaskans, and Hawaiians
individualistic political culture14.2 State Political Culture
international agreement17.2 Foreign Policy Instruments
Interstate Voter Registration Crosscheck Program7.1 Voter Registration
Iran Nuclear Agreement17.2 Foreign Policy Instruments
J
Jeffersonian Democratic-Republicans3.2 The Evolution of American Federalism
Judicial Code of 191113.3 The Federal Court System
L
League of United Latin American Citizens5.5 Equal Protection for Other Groups
legislative liaison10.1 Interest Groups Defined
legislative professionalism14.3 Governors and State Legislatures
liberal internationalism17.4 Approaches to Foreign Policy
M
majoritarian voting9.2 The Two-Party System
Marriage Equality ActIntroduction
McCain-Feingold Act11.2 Congressional Elections
McConnell v. Federal Election Commission7.3 Elections
McCutcheon v. Federal Election Commission10.5 Free Speech and the Regulation of Interest Groups
membership organization10.1 Interest Groups Defined
Merit Systems Protection Board15.2 Toward a Merit-Based Civil Service
midterm elections7.3 Elections
Miller v. California8.3 Regulating the Media
minimal effects theory8.4 The Impact of the Media
moralistic political culture14.2 State Political Culture
Mothers Against Drunk Driving3.4 Competitive Federalism Today
N
National American Woman Suffrage Association5.3 The Fight for Women’s Rights
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People5.2 The African American Struggle for Equality
National Commission on Voting Rights7.1 Voter Registration
National Firearms Act4.2 Securing Basic Freedoms
National Governors Association14.3 Governors and State Legislatures
National Industrial Recovery Act3.2 The Evolution of American Federalism
National Labor Relations Act3.2 The Evolution of American Federalism
National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) v. Jones and Laughlin Steel3.2 The Evolution of American Federalism
National Minimum Drinking Age Act3.4 Competitive Federalism Today
National Organization for Women5.3 The Fight for Women’s Rights
National Organization of Women6.3 What Does the Public Think?
National Security Act17.2 Foreign Policy Instruments
National Voter Registration Act7.1 Voter Registration
National Woman Suffrage Association5.3 The Fight for Women’s Rights
National Woman’s Party5.3 The Fight for Women’s Rights
Negotiated Rulemaking Act15.4 Controlling the Bureaucracy
North Atlantic Treaty Organization17.1 Defining Foreign Policy
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)17.1 Defining Foreign Policy
O
ObamacareIntroduction
Office of Personnel Management15.2 Toward a Merit-Based Civil Service
Office of the First Lady12.4 The Public Presidency
Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act3.2 The Evolution of American Federalism
open primary7.3 Elections
Organization of American States17.1 Defining Foreign Policy
P
particularized benefit10.1 Interest Groups Defined
party realignment9.2 The Two-Party System
Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act14.1 State Power and Delegation
Pew Charitable Trust7.1 Voter Registration
Planned Parenthood v. Casey4.4 Interpreting the Bill of Rights
plurality voting9.2 The Two-Party System
policy advocates16.4 Policymakers
policy analysts16.4 Policymakers
policy process16.4 Policymakers
political action committees (PACs)7.3 Elections
Political socialization6.1 The Nature of Public Opinion
politico model of representation11.3 Congressional Representation
privileges and immunities clause3.1 The Division of Powers
Project Vote Smart7.2 Voter Turnout
proportional representation9.2 The Two-Party System
public interest group10.1 Interest Groups Defined
public relations8.1 What Is the Media?
Pure Food and Drug Act16.2 Categorizing Public Policy
R
redistributive policy16.2 Categorizing Public Policy
Religious Land Use and Institutionalized Persons Act4.2 Securing Basic Freedoms
reporter’s privilege8.3 Regulating the Media
representative democracy1.1 What is Government?
residency requirement7.1 Voter Registration
Rule of Naturalization3.4 Competitive Federalism Today
S
Schenck v. United States4.2 Securing Basic Freedoms
Second Bank of the United States3.2 The Evolution of American Federalism
selective incorporation4.1 What Are Civil Liberties?
self-incrimination4.3 The Rights of Suspects
Senate Committee on Foreign Relations17.3 Institutional Relations in Foreign Policy
Senate Judiciary Committee13.3 The Federal Court System
Seneca Falls Convention5.3 The Fight for Women’s Rights
Seventeenth Amendment2.5 Constitutional Change
shadow campaigns7.4 Campaigns and Voting
Sixteenth Amendment3.1 The Division of Powers
social welfare policy16.3 Policy Arenas
sole executive agreement17.2 Foreign Policy Instruments
Southern Christian Leadership Conference5.2 The African American Struggle for Equality
State of the State address14.3 Governors and State Legislatures
straight-ticket voting7.4 Campaigns and Voting
Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee5.2 The African American Struggle for Equality
super PACs7.3 Elections
supply-side economics16.5 Budgeting and Tax Policy
Surface Transportation Program3.3 Intergovernmental Relationships
surge-and-decline theory11.2 Congressional Elections
Swift Boat Veterans for Truth7.4 Campaigns and Voting
Systematic Alien Verification for Entitlements7.1 Voter Registration
T
Telecommunications Act8.3 Regulating the Media
Telephone Consumer Protection Act6.2 How Is Public Opinion Measured?
Temporary Assistance for Needy Families3.3 Intergovernmental Relationships
theory of delegate representation6.4 The Effects of Public Opinion
Tillman Act7.3 Elections
Tinker v. Des Moines4.2 Securing Basic Freedoms
top-down implementation16.4 Policymakers
top-two primary7.3 Elections
Town of Greece v. Galloway6.4 The Effects of Public Opinion
Traditional conservatism6.1 The Nature of Public Opinion
traditionalistic political culture14.2 State Political Culture
Transportation Security Administration3.2 The Evolution of American Federalism
trustee model of representation11.3 Congressional Representation
Twentieth Amendment2.5 Constitutional Change
Twenty-Seventh Amendment2.5 Constitutional Change
Twenty-Third Amendment2.5 Constitutional Change
W
Weeks v. United States4.2 Securing Basic Freedoms
Westboro Baptist Church4.2 Securing Basic Freedoms
Whistleblower Protection Act15.4 Controlling the Bureaucracy
Whistleblower Protection Enhancement Act15.4 Controlling the Bureaucracy
winner-take-all system7.3 Elections
Wisconsin v. Yoder4.2 Securing Basic Freedoms
Workforce Investment Act3.3 Intergovernmental Relationships
writ of certiorari13.4 The Supreme Court
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