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Writing Guide with Handbook

15.4 Annotated Sample Reading: Case Study on Louis Victor "Tan" Leborgne

Writing Guide with Handbook15.4 Annotated Sample Reading: Case Study on Louis Victor "Tan" Leborgne

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Table of contents
  1. Preface
  2. The Things We Carry: Experience, Culture, and Language
    1. 1 Unit Introduction
    2. 1 The Digital World: Building on What You Already Know to Respond Critically
      1. Introduction
      2. 1.1 "Reading" to Understand and Respond
      3. 1.2 Social Media Trailblazer: Selena Gomez
      4. 1.3 Glance at Critical Response: Rhetoric and Critical Thinking
      5. 1.4 Annotated Student Sample: Social Media Post and Responses on Voter Suppression
      6. 1.5 Writing Process: Thinking Critically About a “Text”
      7. 1.6 Evaluation: Intention vs. Execution
      8. 1.7 Spotlight on … Academia
      9. 1.8 Portfolio: Tracing Writing Development
      10. Further Reading
      11. Works Cited
    3. 2 Language, Identity, and Culture: Exploring, Employing, Embracing
      1. Introduction
      2. 2.1 Seeds of Self
      3. 2.2 Identity Trailblazer: Cathy Park Hong
      4. 2.3 Glance at the Issues: Oppression and Reclamation
      5. 2.4 Annotated Sample Reading from The Souls of Black Folk by W. E. B. Du Bois
      6. 2.5 Writing Process: Thinking Critically about How Identity Is Constructed Through Writing
      7. 2.6 Evaluation: Antiracism and Inclusivity
      8. 2.7 Spotlight on … Variations of English
      9. 2.8 Portfolio: Decolonizing Self
      10. Further Reading
      11. Works Cited
    4. 3 Literacy Narrative: Building Bridges, Bridging Gaps
      1. Introduction
      2. 3.1 Identity and Expression
      3. 3.2 Literacy Narrative Trailblazer: Tara Westover
      4. 3.3 Glance at Genre: The Literacy Narrative
      5. 3.4 Annotated Sample Reading: from Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass by Frederick Douglass
      6. 3.5 Writing Process: Tracing the Beginnings of Literacy
      7. 3.6 Editing Focus: Sentence Structure
      8. 3.7 Evaluation: Self-Evaluating
      9. 3.8 Spotlight on … The Digital Archive of Literacy Narratives (DALN)
      10. 3.9 Portfolio: A Literacy Artifact
      11. Further Reading
      12. Works Cited
      13. Works Consulted
  3. Bridging the Divide Between Personal Identity and Academia
    1. 2 Unit Introduction
    2. 4 Memoir or Personal Narrative: Learning Lessons from the Personal
      1. Introduction
      2. 4.1 Exploring the Past to Understand the Present
      3. 4.2 Memoir Trailblazer: Ta-Nehisi Coates
      4. 4.3 Glance at Genre: Conflict, Detail, and Revelation
      5. 4.4 Annotated Sample Reading: from Life on the Mississippi by Mark Twain
      6. 4.5 Writing Process: Making the Personal Public
      7. 4.6 Editing Focus: More on Characterization and Point of View
      8. 4.7 Evaluation: Structure and Organization
      9. 4.8 Spotlight on … Multilingual Writers
      10. 4.9 Portfolio: Filtered Memories
      11. Further Reading
      12. Works Cited
    3. 5 Profile: Telling a Rich and Compelling Story
      1. Introduction
      2. 5.1 Profiles as Inspiration
      3. 5.2 Profile Trailblazer: Veronica Chambers
      4. 5.3 Glance at Genre: Subject, Angle, Background, and Description
      5. 5.4 Annotated Sample Reading: “Remembering John Lewis” by Carla D. Hayden
      6. 5.5 Writing Process: Focusing on the Angle of Your Subject
      7. 5.6 Editing Focus: Verb Tense Consistency
      8. 5.7 Evaluation: Text as Personal Introduction
      9. 5.8 Spotlight on … Profiling a Cultural Artifact
      10. 5.9 Portfolio: Subject as a Reflection of Self
      11. Works Cited
    4. 6 Proposal: Writing About Problems and Solutions
      1. Introduction
      2. 6.1 Proposing Change: Thinking Critically About Problems and Solutions
      3. 6.2 Proposal Trailblazer: Atul Gawande
      4. 6.3 Glance at Genre: Features of Proposals
      5. 6.4 Annotated Student Sample: “Slowing Climate Change” by Shawn Krukowski
      6. 6.5 Writing Process: Creating a Proposal
      7. 6.6 Editing Focus: Subject-Verb Agreement
      8. 6.7 Evaluation: Conventions, Clarity, and Coherence
      9. 6.8 Spotlight on … Technical Writing as a Career
      10. 6.9 Portfolio: Reflecting on Problems and Solutions
      11. Further Reading
      12. Works Cited
    5. 7 Evaluation or Review: Would You Recommend It?
      1. Introduction
      2. 7.1 Thumbs Up or Down?
      3. 7.2 Review Trailblazer: Michiko Kakutani
      4. 7.3 Glance at Genre: Criteria, Evidence, Evaluation
      5. 7.4 Annotated Student Sample: "Black Representation in Film" by Caelia Marshall
      6. 7.5 Writing Process: Thinking Critically About Entertainment
      7. 7.6 Editing Focus: Quotations
      8. 7.7 Evaluation: Effect on Audience
      9. 7.8 Spotlight on … Language and Culture
      10. 7.9 Portfolio: What the Arts Say About You
      11. Further Reading
      12. Works Cited
    6. 8 Analytical Report: Writing from Facts
      1. Introduction
      2. 8.1 Information and Critical Thinking
      3. 8.2 Analytical Report Trailblazer: Barbara Ehrenreich
      4. 8.3 Glance at Genre: Informal and Formal Analytical Reports
      5. 8.4 Annotated Student Sample: "U.S. Response to COVID-19" by Trevor Garcia
      6. 8.5 Writing Process: Creating an Analytical Report
      7. 8.6 Editing Focus: Commas with Nonessential and Essential Information
      8. 8.7 Evaluation: Reviewing the Final Draft
      9. 8.8 Spotlight on … Discipline-Specific and Technical Language
      10. 8.9 Portfolio: Evidence and Objectivity
      11. Further Reading
      12. Works Cited
    7. 9 Rhetorical Analysis: Interpreting the Art of Rhetoric
      1. Introduction
      2. 9.1 Breaking the Whole into Its Parts
      3. 9.2 Rhetorical Analysis Trailblazer: Jamil Smith
      4. 9.3 Glance at Genre: Rhetorical Strategies
      5. 9.4 Annotated Student Sample: “Rhetorical Analysis: Evicted by Matthew Desmond” by Eliana Evans
      6. 9.5 Writing Process: Thinking Critically about Rhetoric
      7. 9.6 Editing Focus: Mixed Sentence Constructions
      8. 9.7 Evaluation: Rhetorical Analysis
      9. 9.8 Spotlight on … Business and Law
      10. 9.9 Portfolio: How Thinking Critically about Rhetoric Affects Intellectual Growth
      11. Further Reading
      12. Works Cited
    8. 10 Position Argument: Practicing the Art of Rhetoric
      1. Introduction
      2. 10.1 Making a Case: Defining a Position Argument
      3. 10.2 Position Argument Trailblazer: Charles Blow
      4. 10.3 Glance at Genre: Thesis, Reasoning, and Evidence
      5. 10.4 Annotated Sample Reading: "Remarks at the University of Michigan" by Lyndon B. Johnson
      6. 10.5 Writing Process: Creating a Position Argument
      7. 10.6 Editing Focus: Paragraphs and Transitions
      8. 10.7 Evaluation: Varied Appeals
      9. 10.8 Spotlight on … Citation
      10. 10.9 Portfolio: Growth in the Development of Argument
      11. Further Reading
      12. Works Cited
    9. 11 Reasoning Strategies: Improving Critical Thinking
      1. Introduction
      2. 11.1 Developing Your Sense of Logic
      3. 11.2 Reasoning Trailblazer: Paul D. N. Hebert
      4. 11.3 Glance at Genre: Reasoning Strategies and Signal Words
      5. 11.4 Annotated Sample Reading: from Book VII of The Republic by Plato
      6. 11.5 Writing Process: Reasoning Supported by Evidence
      7. Further Reading
      8. Works Cited
    10. 12 Argumentative Research: Enhancing the Art of Rhetoric with Evidence
      1. Introduction
      2. 12.1 Introducing Research and Research Evidence
      3. 12.2 Argumentative Research Trailblazer: Samin Nosrat
      4. 12.3 Glance at Genre: Introducing Research as Evidence
      5. 12.4 Annotated Student Sample: "Healthy Diets from Sustainable Sources Can Save the Earth" by Lily Tran
      6. 12.5 Writing Process: Integrating Research
      7. 12.6 Editing Focus: Integrating Sources and Quotations
      8. 12.7 Evaluation: Effectiveness of Research Paper
      9. 12.8 Spotlight on … Bias in Language and Research
      10. 12.9 Portfolio: Why Facts Matter in Research Argumentation
      11. Further Reading
      12. Works Cited
    11. 13 Research Process: Accessing and Recording Information
      1. Introduction
      2. 13.1 The Research Process: Where to Look for Existing Sources
      3. 13.2 The Research Process: How to Create Sources
      4. 13.3 Glance at the Research Process: Key Skills
      5. 13.4 Annotated Student Sample: Research Log
      6. 13.5 Research Process: Making Notes, Synthesizing Information, and Keeping a Research Log
      7. 13.6 Spotlight on … Ethical Research
      8. Further Reading
      9. Works Cited
    12. 14 Annotated Bibliography: Gathering, Evaluating, and Documenting Sources
      1. Introduction
      2. 14.1 Compiling Sources for an Annotated Bibliography
      3. 14.2 Glance at Form: Citation Style, Purpose, and Formatting
      4. 14.3 Annotated Student Sample: “Healthy Diets from Sustainable Sources Can Save the Earth” by Lily Tran
      5. 14.4 Writing Process: Informing and Analyzing
      6. Further Reading
      7. Works Cited
    13. 15 Case Study Profile: What One Person Says About All
      1. Introduction
      2. 15.1 Tracing a Broad Issue in the Individual
      3. 15.2 Case Study Trailblazer: Vilayanur S. Ramachandran
      4. 15.3 Glance at Genre: Observation, Description, and Analysis
      5. 15.4 Annotated Sample Reading: Case Study on Louis Victor "Tan" Leborgne
      6. 15.5 Writing Process: Thinking Critically About How People and Language Interact
      7. 15.6 Editing Focus: Words Often Confused
      8. 15.7 Evaluation: Presentation and Analysis of Case Study
      9. 15.8 Spotlight on … Applied Linguistics
      10. 15.9 Portfolio: Your Own Uses of Language
      11. Further Reading
      12. Works Cited
  4. Navigating Rhetoric in Real Life
    1. 3 Unit Introduction
    2. 16 Print or Textual Analysis: What You Read
      1. Introduction
      2. 16.1 An Author’s Choices: What Text Says and How It Says It
      3. 16.2 Textual Analysis Trailblazer: bell hooks
      4. 16.3 Glance at Genre: Print or Textual Analysis
      5. 16.4 Annotated Student Sample: "Artists at Work" by Gwyn Garrison
      6. 16.5 Writing Process: Thinking Critically About Text
      7. 16.6 Editing Focus: Literary Works Live in the Present
      8. 16.7 Evaluation: Self-Directed Assessment
      9. 16.8 Spotlight on … Humanities
      10. 16.9 Portfolio: The Academic and the Personal
      11. Further Reading
      12. Works Cited
    3. 17 Image Analysis: What You See
      1. Introduction
      2. 17.1 “Reading” Images
      3. 17.2 Image Trailblazer: Sara Ludy
      4. 17.3 Glance at Genre: Relationship Between Image and Rhetoric
      5. 17.4 Annotated Student Sample: “Hints of the Homoerotic” by Leo Davis
      6. 17.5 Writing Process: Thinking Critically and Writing Persuasively About Images
      7. 17.6 Editing Focus: Descriptive Diction
      8. 17.7 Evaluation: Relationship Between Analysis and Image
      9. 17.8 Spotlight on … Video and Film
      10. 17.9 Portfolio: Interplay Between Text and Image
      11. Further Reading
      12. Works Cited
    4. 18 Multimodal and Online Writing: Creative Interaction between Text and Image
      1. Introduction
      2. 18.1 Mixing Genres and Modes
      3. 18.2 Multimodal Trailblazer: Torika Bolatagici
      4. 18.3 Glance at Genre: Genre, Audience, Purpose, Organization
      5. 18.4 Annotated Sample Reading: “Celebrating a Win-Win” by Alexandra Dapolito Dunn
      6. 18.5 Writing Process: Create a Multimodal Advocacy Project
      7. 18.6 Evaluation: Transitions
      8. 18.7 Spotlight on . . . Technology
      9. 18.8 Portfolio: Multimodalism
      10. Further Reading
      11. Works Cited
    5. 19 Scripting for the Public Forum: Writing to Speak
      1. Introduction
      2. 19.1 Writing, Speaking, and Activism
      3. 19.2 Podcast Trailblazer: Alice Wong
      4. 19.3 Glance at Genre: Language Performance and Visuals
      5. 19.4 Annotated Student Sample: “Are New DOT Regulations Discriminatory?” by Zain A. Kumar
      6. 19.5 Writing Process: Writing to Speak
      7. 19.6 Evaluation: Bridging Writing and Speaking
      8. 19.7 Spotlight on … Delivery/Public Speaking
      9. 19.8 Portfolio: Everyday Rhetoric, Rhetoric Every Day
      10. Further Reading
      11. Works Cited
    6. 20 Portfolio Reflection: Your Growth as a Writer
      1. Introduction
      2. 20.1 Thinking Critically about Your Semester
      3. 20.2 Reflection Trailblazer: Sandra Cisneros
      4. 20.3 Glance at Genre: Purpose and Structure
      5. 20.4 Annotated Sample Reading: “Don’t Expect Congrats” by Dale Trumbore
      6. 20.5 Writing Process: Looking Back, Looking Forward
      7. 20.6 Editing Focus: Pronouns
      8. 20.7 Evaluation: Evaluating Self-Reflection
      9. 20.8 Spotlight on … Pronouns in Context
      10. Further Reading
      11. Works Cited
  5. Handbook
  6. Index

Learning Outcomes

By the end of this section, you will be able to:

  • Apply critical thinking and communication in varying rhetorical and cultural contexts.
  • Identify and describe the genre conventions and rhetorical situation of case studies.
  • Analyze relationships between ideas and patterns of organization.

Introduction

Pierre Paul Broca is a French physician, anatomist, and anthropologist.
Figure 15.4 Pierre Paul Broca (credit: “Paul Broca” by Anonymous/Wikimedia Commons, Public Domain)

French physician Pierre Paul Broca (1824–1880), an early researcher of brain science, is credited with developing theories about how the brain controls motor functions such as language. One of his patients, Louis Victor Leborgne, suffered from a continuing loss of speech that resulted in an inability to form any syllables other than tan. Following Leborgne’s death, Broca examined Leborgne’s brain and observed some abnormalities in the left frontal lobe. These observations would eventually lead to the larger discovery that different areas of the brain control different motor functions.

This sample case study imagines what Broca might have written about Leborgne. The contemporary references at the end of the study are those used by the actual writer of the case study, not Pierre Paul Broca.

Living by Their Own Words

Patient Admission

public domain textThis 50-year-old Caucasian male was transferred from the psychiatry division to the surgical ward of Bicêtre Hospital in Paris on 11 April 1861. I performed a thorough physical examination upon his admission. The presenting diagnosis is diffuse gangrenous inflammation and infiltration of connective tissue of the entire lower right extremity, extending from the instep upward to the buttock. The patient shows complete paralysis of his right-side limbs. The left limbs are mobile with adequate control and power. Both bowel and bladder control are intact. The eyes are equally focused and reactive to light, although the vision in the left eye has deteriorated more than in the right eye. The patient exhibits difficulty in swallowing food, but the tongue is not paralyzed, and voice is normal.end public domain text

annotated textIntroduction. Broca first orients readers to the details of the case study: the participant, Leborgne, and how Leborgne came to be under his care.end annotated text

annotated textBackground and Context. Broca gives a detailed description of the case study participant. He notes physical details of Leborgne’s paralysis so that readers understand that Leborgne retains control over his voice and tongue. This knowledge allows Broca to eliminate paralysis as a cause of the subject’s inability to use language.end annotated text

public domain textThe patient is completely unable to form words other than the single syllable tan, which he most often repeats twice in rapid succession: “tan-tan.” This is said in varying tones and inflections. Paralysis of the patient’s dominant arm prevents writing. Nevertheless, the patient can communicate to a surprising extent through facial expressions and gestures with his left hand. His intellect appears normal, and he shows no signs of head trauma.end public domain text

annotated textResearch Question. In this paragraph, Broca further describes his participant and begins to bring the case study into focus. The details he provides about Leborgne’s ability to communicate and use language will be the focus of the study. Broca observes that Leborgne can communicate nonverbally, and no physical signs indicate that his brain may be affected. Broca wants to understand why Leborgne communicates as he does.end annotated text

Patient History

public domain textPersonal History. My personal interviews with family members revealed that Louis Victor Leborgne was born 21 July 1809, in Moret-sur-Loing. The town has many tanneries, a fact that may account for his use of the syllable tan. His father is an elementary school teacher. The patient is one of six siblings. His previous occupation was formier [artisan who made forms for shoemakers]. He is unmarried and has no children. Members of his immediate family visit but have been unable to provide care for him at home, resulting in an extended hospital stay of 21 years. Interviews with other patients in the ward have indicated that the patient is unfavorably viewed as egotistical and vindictive.end public domain text

annotated textDescription of Research Methods. In this section, Broca notes that he interviewed Leborgne’s family and other patients in the hospital and provides a hypothesis as to why Leborgne uses the syllable tan to communicate.end annotated text

annotated textOrganization. The author uses headings to organize the different sections of the case study. Main headings are centered; subheadings are left-justified.end annotated text

public domain textMedical History. My interviews with family members and hospital staff responsible for his care yielded only a cursory medical history. They did, however, reveal that the patient developed epilepsy in his childhood or youth; the exact age is unknown.end public domain text

public domain textAt age 30, the patient lost the ability to speak but did not immediately seek medical attention. When the condition persisted, he came to Bicêtre Hospital and was admitted to the psychiatry division in 1840 (exact date not recorded).end public domain text

annotated textLimitations of Research. Broca again notes the use of personal interview data as a research method / primary source. He acknowledges the limitations of this method (“only a cursory medical history”) but was able to gather relevant details, such as when Leborgne developed epilepsy, when he lost the ability to speak, and when he was first admitted to the hospital.end annotated text

public domain textApproximately 10 years after the onset of his first symptoms, Leborgne experienced gradual weakness of his right arm, which developed into complete paralysis in that limb. This condition was followed by weakness in his right leg and foot. Apparently, it took four years from the start of the paralysis of his right arm until the patient completely lost the ability to stand. In these years, his vision and mental faculties also deteriorated.end public domain text

public domain textThe patient remains in bed, having refused to leave it for the past seven years. During this time, his clothing was changed once a week. The infrequent change of clothes caused a delay in discovering the extent of his gangrenous inflammation and infection. At this point, the patient could hardly move and was transferred to the surgical unit, where I first met him.end public domain text

annotated textBackground and Context. More details of Leborgne’s medical history are given. Broca concludes the patient history by relating the circumstances leading to his treatment of Leborgne. This section provides a detailed account of everything known about the participant and his condition. Broca doesn’t rely only on records to gather this history, though. He interviews hospital staff to try to gather additional information not recorded.end annotated text

Treatment

public domain textThe gangrene being too extensive for surgery, I confined myself to testing his mental faculties and language comprehension. By using his fingers, the patient was able to respond accurately to mathematical questions. He understood and responded to verbal questions as well. At times, his answers were incorrect, such as claiming to have children; I attribute these lapses to sepsis, which by now was far advanced.end public domain text

annotated textResearch Methods. In this section, Broca begins to relate how he observed Leborgne’s ability to communicate.end annotated text

annotated textAnalysis of Results. Broca tries to explain the reason for Leborgne’s incorrect responses.end annotated text

public domain textLacking any physical irregularities that would cause his loss of speech, I conclude the condition must be related to brain function. This condition is so singular that it seems useful to assign it a special name. I will designate it, therefore, as aphemia, or loss of speech.end public domain text

public domain textThe patient expired on 17 April 1861 at 11:00 a.m. Cause of death was gangrenous infection and sepsis.end public domain text

annotated textBroad Theory. Broca poses a theory about Leborgne’s limited ability to communicate: “the condition must be related to brain function.” This theory will be tested later in the case study and, if correct, might be applicable to how the brain works for everyone.end annotated text

Autopsy Findings

public domain textI performed an autopsy 24 hours postmortem and found a number of irregularities in the patient’s brain. A softened area over the perisylvian region contained a cavity the size of a chicken’s egg, filled with serous fluid. Volume loss affected the gyri, subcortical perisylvian area, insula, and part of the striate nucleus. I weighed the brain and discovered it to be lighter than normal. I attribute the low weight to the loss of volume in the left cerebral hemisphere.end public domain text

public domain textI observed a significant malformation on the left frontal lobe, which I believe to be the source of the patient’s aphemia and, therefore, the brain location controlling speech production. Wishing to preserve the brain, I performed a surface examination only, without a full dissection. I have placed the preserved brain at the Musée Dupuytren in Paris.end public domain text

annotated textResearch Methods. Broca provides details of the autopsy and describes the abnormalities he found in Leborgne’s brain. These details are crucial to the study because of Broca’s earlier comment about Leborgne’s inability to communicate resulting from brain function.end annotated text

annotated textAnalysis of Results. Broca further hones his theories based on his observations of Leborgne’s brain. Broca hypothesizes that this malformation is the cause of Leborgne’s condition and, therefore, is located in the part of the brain that is related to speech.end annotated text

Discussion

public domain textI presented Leborgne’s case at the meeting of the Société d’Anthropologie de Paris on 18 April 1861, where it generated considerable controversy. My former teacher Jean-Baptiste Bouillaud had previously advanced the idea that the language function is localized in the frontal lobes, with which, based on my autopsy of Leborgne’s brain, I concur. Anatomist Louis Pierre Gratiolet opposed the idea that there could exist a specific area responsible for speech, arguing that the brain functions as a whole. Esteemed physician Ernest Auburtin asserted that specific areas of the brain have specific functions and further stated that motor articulation is not directly relevant to the ability to conceive words and ideas.end public domain text

annotated textAdvancing Knowledge. Broca uses his case study to contribute to the research on brain functions.end annotated text

annotated textLimitations of the Research. Broca notes that not all attending the meeting are in agreement, suggesting that further research is needed to learn more about the brain and whether specific parts control specific functions.end annotated text

Conclusion

public domain textGiven my patient Leborgne’s success at responding to verbal and mathematical questions despite his loss of speech, I am convinced that brain function is localized. Auburtin’s theory of more compartmentalized specificity is intriguing, and I intend to pursue this idea. Leborgne’s preserved brain remains at the Musée Dupuytren, where it is available for further study.end public domain text

annotated textWhat’s Next. Inviting additional research, Broca calls on his audience to research localized brain function. He notes that Leborgne’s brain is available for researchers to observe.end annotated text

References

Domanski, C. W. (2013). Mysterious “Monsieur Leborgne”: The mystery of the famous patient in the history of neuropsychology is explained. Journal of the History of the Neurosciences, 22(1), 47–52. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/0964704X.2012.667528

Konnikova, M. (2013, February 8). The man who couldn’t speak and how he revolutionized psychology. Scientific American. https://blogs.scientificamerican.com/literally-psyched/the-man-who-couldnt-speakand-how-he-revolutionized-psychology/

Mohammed, N., Narayan, V., Patra, D. P., & Nanda, A. (2018). Louis Victor Leborgne (“Tan”). World Neurosurgery, 114, 121–125. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2018.02.021

Ruane, M. (2013, July). Discovering the identity of a 150-year-old patient. Smithsonian. https://www.smithsonianmag.com/history/discovering-the-identity-of-a-150-year-old-patient-4563869/

Discussion Questions

1.
What methods does Broca use in his case study?
2.
What are Broca’s field observations?
3.
What types of evidence does Broca gather for his case study?
4.
How does Broca analyze his data? What conclusion does he reach?
5.
If Leborgne had lived longer, what are some ways Broca could have expanded his study on his patient’s use of language?

Language and Expression

One significant finding of Broca’s case study was that Leborgne grew up in the town of Moret-sur-Loing. The town had many tanneries, leading Broca to theorize that Leborgne’s use of the syllable tan was related to his home. Why is this theory important? It illustrates how personal history affects people. It is possible that Leborgne used language in this way because of his history and cultural association with his hometown. Culture and identity have a big impact on how people use language, even among people who speak the same language.

A diagram of a brain is labeled to show the Broca and Wernicke areas. The Broca area controls articulate speech function and the Wernicke area controls the comprehension of speech.
Figure 15.5 The Broca area—named for French anthropologist and pathologist Pierre Paul Broca (1824–1880), who discovered its function—is the part of the brain that controls articulate speech. The Wernicke area—named for German neurologist Carl Wernicke (1848–1905), who first described the area—is the part of the brain that controls the comprehension of speech. (credit: “BrocasAreaSmall” by NIH publication 97-4257/Wikimedia Commons, Public Domain)
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