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Review Questions

1 .
What were peninsulares?
  1. White people born in America of mixed European and Indigenous descent
  2. White Europeans born in the Iberian Peninsula who lived in the Spanish American colonies
  3. White people of Spanish descent born in the Americas and living in the Yucatán Peninsula
  4. White European colonists who were born and lived in the Americas
2 .
What were creoles?
  1. people born in the Americas of mixed European and native descent
  2. White Europeans born in the Iberian Peninsula who lived in the Spanish American colonies
  3. people born in the Americas of mixed European and African descent
  4. White European colonists who were born and lived in the Americas
3 .
During the Bourbon Era, why did the creole elite adopt Enlightenment ideas?
  1. those ideas helped them to effectively govern their colonies
  2. those ideas justified their desire for more social and political authority
  3. those ideas drew them closer to their English neighbors in British America
  4. those ideas drew them closer to the Spanish nobility
4 .
To what did the term casta in Spanish America refer?
  1. a social hierarchy encoded in law and based on what were thought to be inherited characteristics
  2. a nativist label for people of African descent, used during the wars of independence
  3. the lowest social layer, linked to a person’s economic status
  4. people of Indigenous descent who lived in the rural areas
5 .
Under the intendancy system, what did the Bourbon kings in Spain do?
  1. tried to stimulate trade and economic development in the Spanish colonies
  2. abolished old taxes in Spanish America and welcomed the help of the Catholic Church
  3. dismantled their fortifications in port cities such as Veracruz, in New Spain
  4. decreased the number of peninsular bureaucrats in the colonial administration
6 .
What measure taken by radical French revolutionaries provoked insurrections in the Americas?
  1. the establishment of national armies
  2. the granting of political equality to all people
  3. the ending of slavery in all French territory
  4. the declaration of universal male suffrage
7 .
What country was founded after a successful revolt by enslaved people?
  1. Brazilian
  2. Mexican
  3. Haitian
  4. Argentine
8 .
What was one characteristic of the Hidalgo revolt in Mexico?
  1. the strong support of conservative creole leaders
  2. Hidalgo’s immediate proclamation of independence
  3. the large-scale participation of the Indigenous and mixed-race labor force
  4. the support of the church hierarchy
9 .
What socioeconomic group was stronger at the end of Mexico’s struggles for independence?
  1. wealthy merchants
  2. the church hierarchy
  3. mine owners
  4. wealthy landowners
10 .
What did Latin American liberals/patriots usually favor?
  1. radical land reform
  2. increased participation in government
  3. protection of Indigenous communal landholdings
  4. special privileges for the church
11 .
The South American wars of independence _____.
  1. received no significant foreign assistance
  2. did not rely on the support of the majority of the population
  3. were not led by military leaders
  4. were not a civil war between patriots and royalists
12 .
What was the most important action taken by the Congress of Cúcuta?
  1. the writing of a liberal constitution for a new republican nation, Gran Colombia
  2. the imposition of new taxes
  3. the abolition of slavery
  4. the suppression of male convents
13 .
What did Simón Bolívar’s political program for Gran Colombia envision?
  1. a monarchy to be ruled by a European king
  2. a republican system based on universal suffrage
  3. a republican system with suffrage restricted to the propertied elite
  4. an authoritarian form of government based on his own dictatorship
14 .
What was the most critical issue discussed at the Guayaquil Conference?
  1. whether Guayaquil should belong to Peru or Gran Colombia
  2. whether independent Spanish America should be monarchical or republican
  3. whether Bolívar or San Martín should have the glory of completing the struggle for independence
  4. how to defeat the Spanish forces in Peru
15 .
What did the relocation of the Portuguese monarchy to Brazil do?
  1. ended Brazil's colonial status and made it a kingdom on equal footing with Portugal
  2. resulted in Brazil’s independence from Spanish rule
  3. led to war between Portugal and Great Britain
  4. led to the abolition of slavery in Brazil
16 .
What was the event that precipitated the declaration of Brazil's independence?
  1. French invasion of Portugal in 1807
  2. Anglo-Portuguese Treaty of Strangford of 1810
  3. arrival of the Portuguese court in Rio de Janeiro in 1808
  4. refusal of Pedro I to obey the Portuguese Cortes’s order to return to Portugal in 1822
17 .
How did Brazil differ from the former Spanish colonies after achieving its independence?
  1. Brazil abolished slavery soon after achieving independence.
  2. Brazil was reduced to colonial status only a few years after becoming independent.
  3. Brazil was governed by a monarch even after it became independent.
  4. Brazil gave women the right to vote when it became independent.
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