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Cádiz Cortes
the central Spanish junta established in the city of Cádiz that coordinated Spanish resistance to the French occupation
in Spanish colonies, American-born White people of European descent
Grito de Dolores
the “cry” of Dolores, Miguel Hidalgo’s declaration of rebellion made in the town of Dolores on September 16, 1810
Grito do Ipiranga
the “cry” of Ipiranga, Pedro I’s declaration of Brazilian independence, made at the Ipiranga River in 1822
intendancy system
the centralizing administrative system in Spanish America whereby local governments were run by governors
deliberative or administrative councils in Spain and Spanish America
cowboys of the Venezuelan plains
Monroe Doctrine
a principle of U.S. foreign policy that warned European nations to refrain from interfering with independent countries in the Western Hemisphere
in Spanish colonies, European-born White people from Spain
Plan de Iguala
Agustín de Iturbide’s proclamation of independence creating a constitutional monarchy and protecting both the Catholic Church and Europeans living in Mexico
an administrative subdivision of the Spanish Empire, ruled by a direct representative of the king
Virgin of Guadalupe
the apparition of the Virgin Mary who is said to have appeared to the Aztec peasant Juan Diego and later became the national symbol and patron saint of Mexico
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