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Committee of Public Safety
the provisional government of revolutionary France from 1793 to 1794
Congress of Vienna
an 1814–1815 meeting of Britain, Russia, Prussia, and Austria to restore the balance of power and assert principles of conservatism
a political ideology that emerged in reaction to the freedoms associated with the revolutions of the eighteenth century and advocated submitting to government authority and giving religious doctrine a central role in maintaining social order and stability
Continental Congresses
two assemblies of elected colonial representatives that met in Philadelphia in 1774 and 1775, the second time to adopt the powers of government and approve the Declaration of Independence from Britain
deductive reasoning
a form of logical reasoning that begins with a general statement and applies it to specific conclusions
an executive council of five men established by the Convention in France to replace the Committee of Public Safety after the decline of the Reign of Terror
a philosophical concept based on the belief that all knowledge derives from sensory experience
enlightened despot
an absolutist ruler influenced by the principles of the Enlightenment
Estates General
a legislative assembly of the three estates, or orders, of French society: the clergy, the nobility, and commoners
general will
a concept in political philosophy by which the state can be legitimate only if it is guided by the will of the people as a whole
gens de couleur libres
a French term that referred to free people of color in the French colony of Saint-Domingue, now Haiti
Germanic Confederation
an alliance of thirty-nine mostly German-speaking states developed to replace the Holy Roman Empire in 1815
a moderate faction of the Jacobin political club in revolutionary France
inductive reasoning
a form of logical reasoning that gathers specific examples and observations to arrive at a broad generalization
a radical political club in revolutionary France that supported overthrowing the monarchy
a political ideology that promotes freedom of expression, popular sovereignty, the protection of civil rights and private property, and representative government
a radical faction of the Jacobin club in revolutionary France that supported executing the king
a political ideology that promotes the interests of the nation over international concerns and advocates the uniqueness and inherent superiority of the individual’s own country over others
natural rights
universal and inalienable rights that cannot be revoked or rescinded by human laws
popular sovereignty
the idea that government should exist only by the consent of the governed
Proclamation Line
the boundary of westward settlement that Britain marked out in its thirteen North American colonies
public sphere
shared spaces that enabled the exchange of ideas and information outside the control of state and church, like coffeehouses and salons
Reign of Terror
a period of the French Revolution during which the revolutionary government adopted repressive measures to prevent dissent
an Italian term that refers to the unification of Italy
informal gathering in the homes of wealthy aristocrats, generally hosted by women, that served as a site for the discussion of Enlightenment ideas and philosophies
a French term that referred to radicals from the lower and working classes during the French Revolution
Stamp Act
an act of the British Parliament that imposed taxes on legal documents and other printed materials in its North American colonies in 1765
the social contract
an implicit agreement among members of a society to surrender their natural rights to the state, which is then charged with maintaining and protecting those rights
a mix of Roman Catholic and indigenous West African religious practices popular in Haiti
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