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balance of power
a situation in which competing nations have approximately equal military power
black legend
the myth, mostly promoted by English writers, that the Spanish treated Native Americans far more harshly than other European colonizers
the social class whose members owned the means of production and whose main goal was the preservation of capital
British Raj
the period from 1858 to 1947 when the British government directly ruled India through the Viceroy of India
Canton system
a system that allowed Europeans to trade with China only if they worked through the Chinese guilds that enjoyed monopoly rights to the tea and silk trades
an economic system in which private individuals and companies own the means of production, and free (unregulated) markets set the value of most goods and services based on supply and demand
an official authorization to conduct a major economic activity such as the creation of a colony
cultural accommodation
the practice of integrating a culture into the dominant society without forcing it to fully integrate and adopt all the dominant culture’s components
economic imperialism
the practice of dominating a foreign country economically
indirect rule
a system in which colonial powers cooperated with Indigenous elites and allowed local leaders to exercise some authority
Industrial Revolution
the period during which societies transitioned away from a focus on agriculture and handicraft production to manufacturing, primarily with machines
laissez-faire economics
the theory that market forces alone should drive the economy and that governments should refrain from direct intervention in or moderation of the economic system
British workers in the early nineteenth century who resisted industrialization
the idea, espoused by Karl Marx, that recognizing class struggle is central to understanding societies
the use of machines to replace the labor of animals and humans
the landless working class
Indian soldiers who served the British in India
an economic system in which the public owns the means of production
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