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Review Questions

1 .
How did members of the ulama engage in debates and collaboration across the Muslim world?
  1. trade contracts
  2. correspondence
  3. poll taxes
  4. caravansaries
2 .
Which of the following was true of trade across the Islamic world?
  1. Dhimmis were prohibited from participating in trade.
  2. Trade helped expand the reach of Islam.
  3. Markets lacked a uniform system of weights and measures.
  4. Merchants operated outside the rules of sharia.
3 .
What did Muslim traders often rely on to avoid having to carry large amounts of gold over great distances?
  1. market inspectors
  2. caravansaries
  3. letters of credit
  4. sharia
4 .
Why might governments in states along trading routes have sponsored caravansaries?
  1. They needed them to issue letters of credit.
  2. They required them to verify business contracts.
  3. They used them to discourage dhimmis from trading.
  4. They wanted to encourage trade across their lands.
5 .
What technological innovation demonstrates the relationship between Islamic practice and technological innovation?
  1. the use of trigonometry to calculate the qibla
  2. the use of artillery in the siege of Constantinople
  3. the use of Portuguese observations to create a world map
  4. the use of the arquebus for Mughal warfare
6 .
What was the system of enslaving young men from villages in the Balkans and putting them into state service known as?
  1. vaqf
  2. millet system
  3. devshirme
  4. Sultanate of Women
7 .
What was an achievement of Sultan Suleiman’s reign?
  1. the conquest of Constantinople and the destruction of the Byzantine Empire
  2. the establishment of government-supported schools for children of all religions
  3. the destruction of the Topkapi Palace
  4. the creation of a unified legal code that applied to all parts of the empire
8 .
What best describes scientific and technological study under the Ottomans?
  1. Ottoman scientists considered scientific study a form of religious devotion and conducted research in a variety of areas, especially medicine and astronomy.
  2. Science was strictly controlled by religious authorities, who could suppress discoveries that contradicted religious doctrine.
  3. Scientific research was restricted to Muslims; bright students who were members of a millet had to convert to Islam to participate.
  4. Ottoman military technology got better over time, but weaponry became heavier and required new methods of transportation.
9 .
Which of the following accurately describes the Sultanate of Women?
  1. Sultan Suleiman I decided to appoint a woman as his successor in order to confound and confuse his rivals, the Habsburg and the Safavids.
  2. Women, usually the wives or mothers of the reigning sultan, were now able to exert considerable influence at court.
  3. A matriarchal queendom was established in eastern Anatolia to exert military and social pressure on the Caucasus and Safavid Iran.
  4. Most of the businesses and major institutions in the Grand Bazaar were owned by women, and they achieved political influence as a result.
10 .
How did the Safavids emerge?
  1. as the legitimate political heirs to Tamerlane
  2. as a religious movement
  3. by conquering Iran on behalf of the Ottomans
  4. by conquering Iran on behalf of the Uzbeks
11 .
What did Shah Ismail claim about himself?
  1. that he was descended from Adam, Muhammad, and Ali
  2. that he was the long-awaited twelfth imam
  3. that he was divine
  4. that he was heir to the Ottoman throne
12 .
What tenet would a student in a Shia religious school be least likely to learn?
  1. The “Four Rightly Guided” caliphs should be respected as the first imams.
  2. Jesus will appear to herald the Day of Judgment, accompanied by the twelfth Shia imam.
  3. The leader of the ummah should be a descendant of Muhammad.
  4. The Quran is the most sacred text of Islam.
13 .
What best describes the way the Safavid shahs dealt with groups competing for political power and influence at court?
  1. They awarded positions based on hereditary descent from the previous job holder.
  2. They gave control of the military to the Qizilbash and served only in an advisory capacity.
  3. They enslaved men from the Caucasus and employed them as soldiers to temper the power of the Qizilbash.
  4. They heavily preferred ethnic Persians in administrative positions.
14 .
Why did Abbas relocate his capital to Isfahan?
  1. It was close to trade outposts on the Mediterranean coast.
  2. It was far from the war front with the Ottomans.
  3. It was near the migratory paths of the game birds Abbas liked to hunt.
  4. It was ideally situated between two major rivers.
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