Figure 11.1Wreckage of War.Australian artillery soldiers walked through the ruins of Château Wood outside Ypres, Belgium, in 1917. (credit: modification of work “Chateau Wood Ypres 1917” by Australian War Memorial/Wikimedia Commons, Public Domain)
World War I served as a clear demarcation line. By separating the world of empires from an emerging and more modern world, the conflict set the stage for a redrawn map of Europe. It featured many characteristics that have since become common in warfare—total war, civilian losses, massive numbers of troops in armies, and warfare that relies on military technology as well as the courageous charge of soldiers against enemies (Figure 11.1). The war was a surprise to many and was welcomed by some when it broke out in 1914. Its level of destruction, however, came to shape public opinion about war for decades.
Figure 11.2Timeline: The War to End All Wars.(credit: “1907”: modification of work “Triple Entente” by Unknown, Wikimedia Commons/Public Domain; credit: “Jun 1914”: modification of work “Franz Ferdinand & Sophie Leave Sarajevo Guildhall” by Unknown/Wikimedia Commons, CC0 1.0; credit: “Jul 1914”: modification of work “Cartoon Map of Europe in 1914” by Berlin State Library/The Public Domain Review, Public Domain; credit: “Mar 1917”: modification of work “Soldiers demonstration. February 1917” by socialist.memo.ru/Wikimedia Commons, Public Domain)
Figure 11.3Locator Map: The War to End All Wars.(credit: modification of work “World map blank shorelines” by Maciej Jaros/Wikimedia Commons, Public Domain)