The Second Industrial Revolution, which began in the second half of the nineteenth century and lasted until the start of World War I, brought about more than the economic developments that you learned about in Expansion in the Industrial Age. In addition to radically changing national economies and international trade, it also transformed the ways in which individuals lived and worked. Workplaces, homes, cities, and the experiences of entertainment, art, and literature were completely reshaped. Even the family underwent significant changes. This chapter focuses on the social and cultural transformations that accompanied the technological innovations of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.