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Bantu migrations
the millennia-long expansion of Bantu-speaking peoples southward from West and Central Africa, spreading a common cultural foundation that included language, farming, and ironworking
the name used by Carthaginians, Greeks, and Romans to describe the native peoples of the Maghreb; today, this population generally self-identifies as Amazigh, or Imazighen
a community of vegetation and wildlife adapted to a particular climate
a place in a river where the otherwise placid flow is upset by a waterfall, a shallow portion, or the presence of boulders
a type of monumental mud-brick structure unique to Nubian civilization and believed to have served a religious function
a Kushite title that roughly translates to “queen mother” and was a powerful position in Meroitic Kush
the western half of North Africa, including most of present-day Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, and Libya
the name Egyptians gave to the expansive area south of the first cataract and extending into sub-Saharan Africa; it included the Kingdom of Kush
an east–west belt of semiarid grassland that forms a transitional zone between the Sahara to the north and the equatorial rainforest to the south
a grassy plain with scattered trees found to the north and south of the tropical African rainforest
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