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Review Questions

1 .
How did the noblewoman Cornelia represent traditional Roman values of femininity?
  1. She remarried immediately after becoming a widow.
  2. She was punished under Augustus’s law against adultery.
  3. She entered politics and had much influence on legislation concerning marriage.
  4. She devoted herself to raising her children above all else.
2 .
What was the toga virilis?
  1. a garment worn by senators who had recently come into office
  2. a veil worn by girls during their wedding ceremony
  3. a garment worn by boys to mark the transition into manhood and citizenship
  4. a shawl worn at funeral processions to honor the dead
3 .
What characterized Romans’ relationship to their ancestors?
  1. Ancestors were viewed with skepticism and apprehension.
  2. Ancestors served as examples of correct moral behavior.
  3. Ancestors were quickly forgotten after their funeral parades.
  4. Ancestors of emperors were the only ones viewed favorably.
4 .
In what sort of occupations did freed people typically serve?
  1. government and magistrate positions
  2. professions in trade, agriculture, or education
  3. military commanders and officers
  4. trainers at gladiatorial schools
5 .
How did rural life under slavery compare to experiences in the city?
  1. Enslaved people in rural areas worked only on large villas.
  2. Life under slavery in rural areas was harsh and offered fewer advantages.
  3. Enslaved people in rural areas were granted full Roman citizenship.
  4. There were no enslaved people in rural settings.
6 .
What was the most common source of enslaved people?
  1. abandoned infants
  2. family members who were sold into bondage
  3. members of gladiatorial schools
  4. people who were enslaved during wartime conquest
7 .
What is a likely modern analogy for the Roman gladiator?
  1. football players
  2. political leaders
  3. workers
  4. artisans
8 .
How did Diocletian reform the Roman tax system?
  1. He taxed provincials on the amount of olive oil they exported.
  2. He introduced an agricultural land tax.
  3. He forbade land from being taxed in any way.
  4. He taxed shipowners by the weight of grain their ships carried.
9 .
What was the nature of Augustus’s inheritance tax?
  1. It taxed the inheritance of veteran soldiers after a period of service.
  2. It taxed money inherited by publicani in certain provinces.
  3. It taxed patrons who had a certain number of clients.
  4. It taxed inheritances received from persons outside the immediate family.
10 .
Why was proximity to a seaport important to Roman trade?
  1. Shipping by sea was less expensive than by land.
  2. No road network existed outside Italy.
  3. Shipowners had a monopoly on the entire trade network.
  4. Romans were interested only in luxury goods from overseas.
11 .
What was an important feature of Roman mystery cults?
  1. strict devotion to the leader of the group
  2. adherence to worship of multiple deities
  3. hierarchical structure of initiation
  4. use of curse tablets to appease a deity
12 .
How did the imperial cult venerate a living emperor?
  1. by sacrificing on behalf of the emperor’s well-being
  2. by converting to Christianity
  3. by worshipping the emperor only when he was outside the city
  4. by sacrificing to the emperor in secret
13 .
What did the Edict of Milan accomplish?
  1. It established Milan as the capital of Constantine’s empire.
  2. It made Christianity the official state religion.
  3. It outlawed animal sacrifice in Rome.
  4. It legalized Christianity.
14 .
How could a person obtain Roman citizenship?
  1. It was given to provincial governors after a period of service.
  2. It was given to those who returned from exile.
  3. It was given to a person whose parents were both citizens.
  4. It was given to gladiators who had won a certain number of matches.
15 .
How did the Romans fortify the frontier in Britain?
  1. They built only luxurious villas there.
  2. They refused to buy goods produced by non-Roman locals.
  3. They forced locals to join the Roman army.
  4. They built forts, camps, and walls.
16 .
What does the Arch of Titus in Rome commemorate?
  1. the end of the riots in Alexandria
  2. the extension of citizenship to all free residents of the empire
  3. the Roman victory over the Jewish rebellion in Judaea
  4. the victory of Titus in a gladiatorial match in the Colosseum
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