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the Roman government’s distribution of grain to the population, which was also a political tool for the emperor
the Roman practice of dividing land into a grid in preparation for development and agriculture
less well-off Romans who relied on a patron’s gifts for subsistence
a large structure in Rome that was the site of gladiatorial matches and other entertainments
the name for a typical Roman house, as well as the family unit
an enslaved professional fighter paid to battle before an audience, sometimes to the death
a high regard for the cultural institutions of Greece including its religion, philosophy, and system of education
imperial cult
the religious cult that venerated the Roman emperors as gods
the trainer and manager of a group of gladiators
large agricultural estates in the countryside, worked by enslaved people to produce profit for the owner
the basic unit of the Roman army, made up of around five thousand soldiers
the process of releasing a person from slavery, usually in front of a magistrate or via a slaveholder’s will, or through a person’s purchasing their own freedom
the patriarch of an extended Roman family, with authority over his wife, children, and any other dependents
a wealthy Roman aristocrat sought by clients in need of assistance
provincial contractors who bid for the right to collect taxes and profited from the excess money they gathered
vestal virgins
the priesthood of six women who took a vow of chastity and maintained the sacred fire in Rome
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