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Constitutions of Melfi
the oldest surviving written constitution in the world, which increased the power of the monarch of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies by replacing vassals and church officials with royal bureaucrats
Golden Horde
the Mongol group that ruled over portions of central Asia, the former lands of the Rus, and northwest Asia
a centuries-long effort by the church to impose religious homogeneity on Western Europe through torture and execution, if necessary
a proto-democratic gathering of a Mongol leader’s followers, called to reach agreement on major political decisions
Magna Carta
an English document that reiterated existing rights of vassals, confirmed the papal position that the church is above the state, and spelled out some basic rights of commoners
top officials in the Imperial Chinese bureaucracy, selected by a series of exams on Confucian texts
People of the Felt Walls
Temujin’s name for his ethnically and linguistically diverse followers
Islamic religious law
horse relay stations established by Chinggis Khan for long-distance communication on military campaigns; they were later expanded into rest areas and supply depots
Chinggis Khan’s law code, designed to eliminate the sources of conflict in steppe society and bring harmony to his people
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