Skip to ContentGo to accessibility pageKeyboard shortcuts menu
OpenStax Logo

Abrahamic faiths
the religions of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, which all trace their origins through a common ancestor, the prophet Abraham
an Islamic title designating a spiritual and secular leader
an area under the control of a Muslim ruler called a caliph
the words and actions of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and his immediate successors that, along with the Quran, form the fundamental basis for Islamic law
the Islamic pilgrimage to Mecca
an Arabic term meaning “emigration” that describes a defining moment for early Muslims as they fled Mecca for Medina in 622 CE
the religious leader of Shia Muslims
the religious and cultural conversion of those living under Islamic rule
non-Arab converts to Islam in the early Islamic period who had to be adopted by an Arab tribe as part of the conversion process
the holy scripture of Islam, which Muslims believe was given to humanity by God through Muhammad
a term meaning “rightly guided” that describes the first four caliphs after Muhammad’s death: Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman, and Ali
one of the two umbrella sects of Islam, whose members believe leadership of the Muslim community should reside in the family of Muhammad only through his son-in-law Ali
the larger of the two umbrella sects of Islam, whose adherents did not require leadership of the community to come specifically from the descendants of Muhammad through Ali
a class of religious clerics and scholars who act as the primary interpreters of Islamic law
the community of Muslims
Order a print copy

As an Amazon Associate we earn from qualifying purchases.


This book may not be used in the training of large language models or otherwise be ingested into large language models or generative AI offerings without OpenStax's permission.

Want to cite, share, or modify this book? This book uses the Creative Commons Attribution License and you must attribute OpenStax.

Attribution information
  • If you are redistributing all or part of this book in a print format, then you must include on every physical page the following attribution:
    Access for free at
  • If you are redistributing all or part of this book in a digital format, then you must include on every digital page view the following attribution:
    Access for free at
Citation information

© Mar 25, 2024 OpenStax. Textbook content produced by OpenStax is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License . The OpenStax name, OpenStax logo, OpenStax book covers, OpenStax CNX name, and OpenStax CNX logo are not subject to the Creative Commons license and may not be reproduced without the prior and express written consent of Rice University.