Application and Reflection Questions
Of all the factors that brought about the administrative disintegration of the Roman West, which do you think was the most important? Why?
How did the spread of Christianity and its acceptance by emperors alter Roman society from what it was in earlier antiquity?
Should we continue to refer to the Byzantine Empire in this period as the Roman Empire? Why or why not?
What marked Zoroastrianism as unique among religious traditions in Late Antiquity?
How did religious beliefs serve as both unifying and divisive factors in Late Antiquity?
How did religious issues in Aksumite and Himyarite culture affect the development of these societies?
How were Aksum and Himyar affected by their relationships with the Byzantines and Sasanians, and what influence did each have on other states?
Do you think people were focused more on religion or on politics in Late Antiquity? Why?
Why did both the Sasanians and the Byzantines create alliances with Arab tribes in the fifth and sixth centuries CE?
In what way did outsiders to the former Roman Empire affect its successors?
What role did long-distance trade play in the development of the Palmyra, Kush, and Arab societies?