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Key Terms

Android operating system
Google software operating system used to run non-iPhone mobile phones such as Samsung’s Galaxy
artificial intelligence (AI)
use of computers, robots, and machines to behave “intelligently,” engaging in autonomous decision making and behaviors
augmented reality (AR)
use of digital objects or elements in a real-life picture or scene
use of computers or machines to do tasks that could be completed by a person
binary digits
sequences of the numbers 0 and 1 used in computer programming
authentication that uses a person’s physical characteristics as a form of digital security
type of storage in a computer that operates in the background, holding data that can be quickly retrieved
central processing unit (CPU)
unit that contains the microprocessor, or “brains” of a computer system
device that requests and uses resources from other devices on the network
servers housed in data centers to facilitate remote storage and computer operations
cloud computing
delivering computer resources such as programs and data storage through the internet rather than storing resources directly on a computer
programmable machine that can execute predetermined lists of instructions and respond to new instructions
computer security
protection of computer systems and information that prevents unauthorized use
small data files that are deposited on user hard disks and internet sites visited
criminal offense that involves a computer and a network
data erasure
process by which information is not only deleted but overwritten as well
data masking
process by which personally identifiable information is removed from data, allowing a company to make decisions without violating customer privacy
data resiliency
ability to recover quickly from a data breach
domain name system (DNS)
phone book for the internet, enabling a user to send a message using their name, the symbol @, and the location of the computer as identified by its domain name
conducting business transactions online
process of taking information transmitted through the internet and converting it into an unrecognizable code to prevent unauthorized access
protocols used to connect computers in a local area network or LAN
external disk drive
hard disk for information storage such as USBs, CDs, DVDs, and flash memory cards
barrier between a network that is secured and one that is not secured
individuals who gain unauthorized access to a computer system to steal someone’s information
hard disk
secondary storage areas where users can save files and retrieve data and programs
computer accessories such as keyboard, mouse, printer, and computer monitor
communication protocol that is more secure than HTTP
device that sends and receives messages to and from all network connections
link on a page or document that, when clicked, navigates the user to that location; a connection between two web pages or documents
hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP)
rules that allow users to access information on the internet and protect confidential data such as credit card numbers
information processing cycle
sequence of events involved in processing information
internal disk drive
storage space within the computer that updates and produces copies of files
Internet of Things (IoT)
extension of internet connectivity beyond computers, enabling the transfer of information between machines and other objects, people, and animals by connecting them to the internet in some way
internet protocol address (IP address)
unique combination of characters used to identify the location of a host computer
internet service provider (ISP)
company that provides individuals or organizations with access to the internet
private network for internal company use; can be combined with cloud technology
iPhone operating system (iOS)
Apple’s software operating system, used to run iPhones, iPads, and other mobile devices
machine learning
use of software applications to make computations and decisions that can inform predictions without human intervention
computer that is capable of great processing speed and data storage for large organizations
software designed to damage the victim’s computer system once it gains access to it
small microprocessor unit used for programming and computer memory storage
personal computer that was much smaller than earlier computers and operated with microprocessors
consists of a control and an arithmetic-logic unit, which performs math and logical operations within a computer system
computer that is similar in power to a mainframe computer, but much smaller in size; used in mid-size organizations
controls communications for an entire computer system
technology that focuses on changing individual molecules to produce different properties or attributes
connection of two or more computer systems or devices, either by a cable or through a wireless connection
operating system
connection between a device’s hardware and its software
packet switching
technology that enabled the development of the internet; computer files are broken up into segments, which are transmitted over the network and reordered into a single file at their destination
password management
set of principles and best practices for storing and managing passwords to prevent unauthorized access to the computer
personal computer (PC)
microcomputer suitable for individual use
attempts to get users to interact with an email or website that appears to be legitimate but is fake
random access memory (RAM)
computer’s primary, short-term memory
malicious software that encrypts computer data, rendering it useless and inaccessible, forcing the owner to exchange something of value to regain access
read-only memory (ROM)
memory not meant for storage but to process information as the computer is being used
use of robotic machines to perform tasks that no human could perform
device that directs data traffic and allows for multiple devices to run on a network
secure sockets layer (SSL)
security protocol that uses encryption to help ensure privacy of information and communications across the internet
connects devices and allows for resource sharing across networks
short message service (SMS)
technology for sending text messages through mobile phones
smart space
physical space that incorporates technologies that can be controlled through the internet
social media
digital technology that allows users (individuals and organizations) to share information about themselves such as posts, photos, and videos
computer program or set of programs with the end goal of converting data into processes or actions
correspondence such as email that appears legitimate but instead is used to obtain your personal information
extremely powerful computer that has the fastest processors available
transmission control protocol/internet protocol (TCP/IP)
communication standard that allows data to be sent and received over a network, most notably the internet
research technique whereby information is verified and validated through multiple sources
virtual reality (VR)
simulated environment in which users can interact as if they were physically present
device that uses computing technology to collect and receive data via the internet
web browser
a program used to find content stored on the WWW
powerful single-user computer, similar to a personal computer but with more powerful microprocessors

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