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  1. Preface
  2. Unit 1. Optics
    1. 1 The Nature of Light
      1. Introduction
      2. 1.1 The Propagation of Light
      3. 1.2 The Law of Reflection
      4. 1.3 Refraction
      5. 1.4 Total Internal Reflection
      6. 1.5 Dispersion
      7. 1.6 Huygens’s Principle
      8. 1.7 Polarization
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    2. 2 Geometric Optics and Image Formation
      1. Introduction
      2. 2.1 Images Formed by Plane Mirrors
      3. 2.2 Spherical Mirrors
      4. 2.3 Images Formed by Refraction
      5. 2.4 Thin Lenses
      6. 2.5 The Eye
      7. 2.6 The Camera
      8. 2.7 The Simple Magnifier
      9. 2.8 Microscopes and Telescopes
      10. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
    3. 3 Interference
      1. Introduction
      2. 3.1 Young's Double-Slit Interference
      3. 3.2 Mathematics of Interference
      4. 3.3 Multiple-Slit Interference
      5. 3.4 Interference in Thin Films
      6. 3.5 The Michelson Interferometer
      7. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    4. 4 Diffraction
      1. Introduction
      2. 4.1 Single-Slit Diffraction
      3. 4.2 Intensity in Single-Slit Diffraction
      4. 4.3 Double-Slit Diffraction
      5. 4.4 Diffraction Gratings
      6. 4.5 Circular Apertures and Resolution
      7. 4.6 X-Ray Diffraction
      8. 4.7 Holography
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
  3. Unit 2. Modern Physics
    1. 5 Relativity
      1. Introduction
      2. 5.1 Invariance of Physical Laws
      3. 5.2 Relativity of Simultaneity
      4. 5.3 Time Dilation
      5. 5.4 Length Contraction
      6. 5.5 The Lorentz Transformation
      7. 5.6 Relativistic Velocity Transformation
      8. 5.7 Doppler Effect for Light
      9. 5.8 Relativistic Momentum
      10. 5.9 Relativistic Energy
      11. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
    2. 6 Photons and Matter Waves
      1. Introduction
      2. 6.1 Blackbody Radiation
      3. 6.2 Photoelectric Effect
      4. 6.3 The Compton Effect
      5. 6.4 Bohr’s Model of the Hydrogen Atom
      6. 6.5 De Broglie’s Matter Waves
      7. 6.6 Wave-Particle Duality
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
    3. 7 Quantum Mechanics
      1. Introduction
      2. 7.1 Wave Functions
      3. 7.2 The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle
      4. 7.3 The Schrӧdinger Equation
      5. 7.4 The Quantum Particle in a Box
      6. 7.5 The Quantum Harmonic Oscillator
      7. 7.6 The Quantum Tunneling of Particles through Potential Barriers
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    4. 8 Atomic Structure
      1. Introduction
      2. 8.1 The Hydrogen Atom
      3. 8.2 Orbital Magnetic Dipole Moment of the Electron
      4. 8.3 Electron Spin
      5. 8.4 The Exclusion Principle and the Periodic Table
      6. 8.5 Atomic Spectra and X-rays
      7. 8.6 Lasers
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
    5. 9 Condensed Matter Physics
      1. Introduction
      2. 9.1 Types of Molecular Bonds
      3. 9.2 Molecular Spectra
      4. 9.3 Bonding in Crystalline Solids
      5. 9.4 Free Electron Model of Metals
      6. 9.5 Band Theory of Solids
      7. 9.6 Semiconductors and Doping
      8. 9.7 Semiconductor Devices
      9. 9.8 Superconductivity
      10. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    6. 10 Nuclear Physics
      1. Introduction
      2. 10.1 Properties of Nuclei
      3. 10.2 Nuclear Binding Energy
      4. 10.3 Radioactive Decay
      5. 10.4 Nuclear Reactions
      6. 10.5 Fission
      7. 10.6 Nuclear Fusion
      8. 10.7 Medical Applications and Biological Effects of Nuclear Radiation
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    7. 11 Particle Physics and Cosmology
      1. Introduction
      2. 11.1 Introduction to Particle Physics
      3. 11.2 Particle Conservation Laws
      4. 11.3 Quarks
      5. 11.4 Particle Accelerators and Detectors
      6. 11.5 The Standard Model
      7. 11.6 The Big Bang
      8. 11.7 Evolution of the Early Universe
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
  4. A | Units
  5. B | Conversion Factors
  6. C | Fundamental Constants
  7. D | Astronomical Data
  8. E | Mathematical Formulas
  9. F | Chemistry
  10. G | The Greek Alphabet
  11. Answer Key
    1. Chapter 1
    2. Chapter 2
    3. Chapter 3
    4. Chapter 4
    5. Chapter 5
    6. Chapter 6
    7. Chapter 7
    8. Chapter 8
    9. Chapter 9
    10. Chapter 10
    11. Chapter 11
  12. Index

Check Your Understanding

3.1

3.63°and7.27°3.63°and7.27°, respectively

3.2

a. 853 nm, 1097 nm; b. 731 nm, 975 nm

3.3

a. too small; b. up to 8×10−58×10−5

Conceptual Questions

1.

No. Two independent light sources do not have coherent phase.

3.

Because both the sodium lamps are not coherent pairs of light sources. Two lasers operating independently are also not coherent so no interference pattern results.

5.

Monochromatic sources produce fringes at angles according to dsinθ=mλdsinθ=mλ. With white light, each constituent wavelength will produce fringes at its own set of angles, blending into the fringes of adjacent wavelengths. This results in rainbow patterns.

7.

Differing path lengths result in different phases at destination resulting in constructive or destructive interference accordingly. Reflection can cause a 180°180° phase change, which also affects how waves interfere. Refraction into another medium changes the wavelength inside that medium such that a wave can emerge from the medium with a different phase compared to another wave that travelled the same distance in a different medium.

9.

Phase changes occur upon reflection at the top of glass cover and the top of glass slide only.

11.

The surface of the ham being moist means there is a thin layer of fluid, resulting in thin-film interference. Because the exact thickness of the film varies across the piece of ham, which is illuminated by white light, different wavelengths produce bright fringes at different locations, resulting in rainbow colors.

13.

Other wavelengths will not generally satisfy t=λ/n4t=λ/n4 for the same value of t so reflections will result in completely destructive interference. For an incidence angle θθ, the path length inside the coating will be increased by a factor 1/cosθ1/cosθ so the new condition for destructive interference becomes tcosθ=λ/n4tcosθ=λ/n4.

15.

In one arm, place a transparent chamber to be filled with the gas. See Example 3.6.

Problems

17.

0.997°0.997°

19.

0.290μm0.290μm

21.

5.77×10−7m=577nm5.77×10−7m=577nm

23.

62.5; since m must be an integer, the highest order is then m=62m=62.

25.

1.44μm1.44μm

27.

a. 20.3°20.3°; b. 4.98°4.98°; c. 5.76, the highest order is m=5m=5.

29.

a. 2.37 cm; b. 1.78 cm

31.

560 nm

33.

1.2 mm

35.

a. 0.40°,0.53°;0.40°,0.53°; b. 4.6×10−3m4.6×10−3m

37.

1:9

39.

532 nm (green)

41.

8.39×10−8m=83.9nm8.39×10−8m=83.9nm

43.

620 nm (orange)

45.

380 nm

47.

a. Assuming n for the plane is greater than 1.20, then there are two phase changes: 0.833 cm. b. It is too thick, and the plane would be too heavy. c. It is unreasonable to think the layer of material could be any thickness when used on a real aircraft.

49.

4.55×10−4m4.55×10−4m

51.

D=2.53×10−6mD=2.53×10−6m

Additional Problems

53.

0.29°and0.86°0.29°and0.86°

55.

a. 4.26 cm; b. 2.84 cm

57.

6

59.

0.20 m

61.

0.0839 mm

63.

a. 9.8, 10.4, 11.7, and 15.7 cm; b. 3.9 cm

65.

0.0575°0.0575°

67.

700 nm

69.

189 nm

71.

a. green (504 nm); b. magenta (white minus green)

73.

1.29

75.

52.7μm52.7μm and 53.0μm53.0μm

77.

160 nm

79.

413 nm and 689 nm

81.

73.9μm73.9μm

83.

47

85.

8.5μm8.5μm

87.

0.013°C0.013°C

Challenge Problems

89.

Bright and dark fringes switch places.

91.

The path length must be less than one-fourth of the shortest visible wavelength in oil. The thickness of the oil is half the path length, so it must be less than one-eighth of the shortest visible wavelength in oil. If we take 380 nm to be the shortest visible wavelength in air, 33.9 nm.

93.

4.42×10−5m4.42×10−5m

95.

for one phase change: 950 nm (infrared); for three phase changes: 317 nm (ultraviolet); Therefore, the oil film will appear black, since the reflected light is not in the visible part of the spectrum.

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