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Key Equations

Momentum of a charged particle in a cyclotron p=0.3Brp=0.3Br
Center-of-mass energy of a colliding beam machine W2=2[E1E2+(p1c)(p2c)]+(m1c2)2+(m2c2)2W2=2[E1E2+(p1c)(p2c)]+(m1c2)2+(m2c2)2
Approximate time for exchange of a virtual particle between two other particles Δt=hEΔt=hE
Hubble’s law v=H0dv=H0d
Cosmological space-time metric ds2=c2dt2a(t)2dΣ2ds2=c2dt2a(t)2dΣ2
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