University Physics Volume 3

Key Equations

Key Equations

 Momentum of a charged particle in a cyclotron $p=0.3Brp=0.3Br$ Center-of-mass energy of a colliding beam machine $W2=2[E1E2+(p1c)(p2c)]+(m1c2)2+(m2c2)2W2=2[E1E2+(p1c)(p2c)]+(m1c2)2+(m2c2)2$ Approximate time for exchange of a virtual particle between two other particles $Δt=hEΔt=hE$ Hubble’s law $v=H0dv=H0d$ Cosmological space-time metric $ds2=c2dt2−a(t)2dΣ2ds2=c2dt2−a(t)2dΣ2$