Skip to Content
OpenStax Logo
University Physics Volume 2

Challenge Problems

University Physics Volume 2Challenge Problems
Buy book
  1. Preface
  2. Unit 1. Thermodynamics
    1. 1 Temperature and Heat
      1. Introduction
      2. 1.1 Temperature and Thermal Equilibrium
      3. 1.2 Thermometers and Temperature Scales
      4. 1.3 Thermal Expansion
      5. 1.4 Heat Transfer, Specific Heat, and Calorimetry
      6. 1.5 Phase Changes
      7. 1.6 Mechanisms of Heat Transfer
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    2. 2 The Kinetic Theory of Gases
      1. Introduction
      2. 2.1 Molecular Model of an Ideal Gas
      3. 2.2 Pressure, Temperature, and RMS Speed
      4. 2.3 Heat Capacity and Equipartition of Energy
      5. 2.4 Distribution of Molecular Speeds
      6. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    3. 3 The First Law of Thermodynamics
      1. Introduction
      2. 3.1 Thermodynamic Systems
      3. 3.2 Work, Heat, and Internal Energy
      4. 3.3 First Law of Thermodynamics
      5. 3.4 Thermodynamic Processes
      6. 3.5 Heat Capacities of an Ideal Gas
      7. 3.6 Adiabatic Processes for an Ideal Gas
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    4. 4 The Second Law of Thermodynamics
      1. Introduction
      2. 4.1 Reversible and Irreversible Processes
      3. 4.2 Heat Engines
      4. 4.3 Refrigerators and Heat Pumps
      5. 4.4 Statements of the Second Law of Thermodynamics
      6. 4.5 The Carnot Cycle
      7. 4.6 Entropy
      8. 4.7 Entropy on a Microscopic Scale
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
  3. Unit 2. Electricity and Magnetism
    1. 5 Electric Charges and Fields
      1. Introduction
      2. 5.1 Electric Charge
      3. 5.2 Conductors, Insulators, and Charging by Induction
      4. 5.3 Coulomb's Law
      5. 5.4 Electric Field
      6. 5.5 Calculating Electric Fields of Charge Distributions
      7. 5.6 Electric Field Lines
      8. 5.7 Electric Dipoles
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
    2. 6 Gauss's Law
      1. Introduction
      2. 6.1 Electric Flux
      3. 6.2 Explaining Gauss’s Law
      4. 6.3 Applying Gauss’s Law
      5. 6.4 Conductors in Electrostatic Equilibrium
      6. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    3. 7 Electric Potential
      1. Introduction
      2. 7.1 Electric Potential Energy
      3. 7.2 Electric Potential and Potential Difference
      4. 7.3 Calculations of Electric Potential
      5. 7.4 Determining Field from Potential
      6. 7.5 Equipotential Surfaces and Conductors
      7. 7.6 Applications of Electrostatics
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    4. 8 Capacitance
      1. Introduction
      2. 8.1 Capacitors and Capacitance
      3. 8.2 Capacitors in Series and in Parallel
      4. 8.3 Energy Stored in a Capacitor
      5. 8.4 Capacitor with a Dielectric
      6. 8.5 Molecular Model of a Dielectric
      7. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    5. 9 Current and Resistance
      1. Introduction
      2. 9.1 Electrical Current
      3. 9.2 Model of Conduction in Metals
      4. 9.3 Resistivity and Resistance
      5. 9.4 Ohm's Law
      6. 9.5 Electrical Energy and Power
      7. 9.6 Superconductors
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    6. 10 Direct-Current Circuits
      1. Introduction
      2. 10.1 Electromotive Force
      3. 10.2 Resistors in Series and Parallel
      4. 10.3 Kirchhoff's Rules
      5. 10.4 Electrical Measuring Instruments
      6. 10.5 RC Circuits
      7. 10.6 Household Wiring and Electrical Safety
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    7. 11 Magnetic Forces and Fields
      1. Introduction
      2. 11.1 Magnetism and Its Historical Discoveries
      3. 11.2 Magnetic Fields and Lines
      4. 11.3 Motion of a Charged Particle in a Magnetic Field
      5. 11.4 Magnetic Force on a Current-Carrying Conductor
      6. 11.5 Force and Torque on a Current Loop
      7. 11.6 The Hall Effect
      8. 11.7 Applications of Magnetic Forces and Fields
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    8. 12 Sources of Magnetic Fields
      1. Introduction
      2. 12.1 The Biot-Savart Law
      3. 12.2 Magnetic Field Due to a Thin Straight Wire
      4. 12.3 Magnetic Force between Two Parallel Currents
      5. 12.4 Magnetic Field of a Current Loop
      6. 12.5 Ampère’s Law
      7. 12.6 Solenoids and Toroids
      8. 12.7 Magnetism in Matter
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    9. 13 Electromagnetic Induction
      1. Introduction
      2. 13.1 Faraday’s Law
      3. 13.2 Lenz's Law
      4. 13.3 Motional Emf
      5. 13.4 Induced Electric Fields
      6. 13.5 Eddy Currents
      7. 13.6 Electric Generators and Back Emf
      8. 13.7 Applications of Electromagnetic Induction
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    10. 14 Inductance
      1. Introduction
      2. 14.1 Mutual Inductance
      3. 14.2 Self-Inductance and Inductors
      4. 14.3 Energy in a Magnetic Field
      5. 14.4 RL Circuits
      6. 14.5 Oscillations in an LC Circuit
      7. 14.6 RLC Series Circuits
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    11. 15 Alternating-Current Circuits
      1. Introduction
      2. 15.1 AC Sources
      3. 15.2 Simple AC Circuits
      4. 15.3 RLC Series Circuits with AC
      5. 15.4 Power in an AC Circuit
      6. 15.5 Resonance in an AC Circuit
      7. 15.6 Transformers
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    12. 16 Electromagnetic Waves
      1. Introduction
      2. 16.1 Maxwell’s Equations and Electromagnetic Waves
      3. 16.2 Plane Electromagnetic Waves
      4. 16.3 Energy Carried by Electromagnetic Waves
      5. 16.4 Momentum and Radiation Pressure
      6. 16.5 The Electromagnetic Spectrum
      7. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
  4. A | Units
  5. B | Conversion Factors
  6. C | Fundamental Constants
  7. D | Astronomical Data
  8. E | Mathematical Formulas
  9. F | Chemistry
  10. G | The Greek Alphabet
  11. Answer Key
    1. Chapter 1
    2. Chapter 2
    3. Chapter 3
    4. Chapter 4
    5. Chapter 5
    6. Chapter 6
    7. Chapter 7
    8. Chapter 8
    9. Chapter 9
    10. Chapter 10
    11. Chapter 11
    12. Chapter 12
    13. Chapter 13
    14. Chapter 14
    15. Chapter 15
    16. Chapter 16
  12. Index

Challenge Problems

81.

A 10-gauge copper wire has a cross-sectional area A=5.26mm2A=5.26mm2 and carries a current of I=5.00AI=5.00A. The density of copper is ρ=8.95g/cm3ρ=8.95g/cm3. One mole of copper atoms (6.02×1023atoms)(6.02×1023atoms) has a mass of approximately 63.50 g. What is the magnitude of the drift velocity of the electrons, assuming that each copper atom contributes one free electron to the current?

82.

The current through a 12-gauge wire is given as I(t)=(5.00A)sin(2π60Hzt)I(t)=(5.00A)sin(2π60Hzt). What is the current density at time 15.00 ms?

83.

A particle accelerator produces a beam with a radius of 1.25 mm with a current of 2.00 mA. Each proton has a kinetic energy of 10.00 MeV. (a) What is the velocity of the protons? (b) What is the number (n) of protons per unit volume? (b) How many electrons pass a cross sectional area each second?

84.

In this chapter, most examples and problems involved direct current (DC). DC circuits have the current flowing in one direction, from positive to negative. When the current was changing, it was changed linearly from I=ImaxI=Imax to I=+ImaxI=+Imax and the voltage changed linearly from V=VmaxV=Vmax to V=+VmaxV=+Vmax, where Vmax=ImaxRVmax=ImaxR. Suppose a voltage source is placed in series with a resistor of R=10ΩR=10Ω that supplied a current that alternated as a sine wave, for example, I(t)=(3.00A)sin(2π4.00st)I(t)=(3.00A)sin(2π4.00st). (a) What would a graph of the voltage drop across the resistor V(t) versus time look like? (b) What would a plot of V(t) versus I(t) for one period look like? (Hint: If you are not sure, try plotting V(t) versus I(t) using a spreadsheet.)

85.

A current of I=25AI=25A is drawn from a 100-V battery for 30 seconds. By how much is the chemical energy reduced?

86.

Consider a square rod of material with sides of length L=3.00cmL=3.00cm with a current density of J=J0eαxk^=(0.35Am2)e(2.1×10−3m−1)xk^J=J0eαxk^=(0.35Am2)e(2.1×10−3m−1)xk^ as shown below. Find the current that passes through the face of the rod.

Picture shows a co-ordinate axis with the square rod placed over it. It has dimensions of L in j and i directions. Current is flowing into the k direction through the area dx.
87.

A resistor of an unknown resistance is placed in an insulated container filled with 0.75 kg of water. A voltage source is connected in series with the resistor and a current of 1.2 amps flows through the resistor for 10 minutes. During this time, the temperature of the water is measured and the temperature change during this time is ΔT=10.00°CΔT=10.00°C. (a) What is the resistance of the resistor? (b) What is the voltage supplied by the power supply?

88.

The charge that flows through a point in a wire as a function of time is modeled as q(t)=q0et/T=10.0Cet/5sq(t)=q0et/T=10.0Cet/5s. (a) What is the initial current through the wire at time t=0.00st=0.00s? (b) Find the current at time t=12Tt=12T. (c) At what time t will the current be reduced by one-half I=12I0I=12I0?

89.

Consider a resistor made from a hollow cylinder of carbon as shown below. The inner radius of the cylinder is Ri=0.20mmRi=0.20mm and the outer radius is R0=0.30mmR0=0.30mm. The length of the resistor is L=0.90mmL=0.90mm. The resistivity of the carbon is ρ=3.5×10−5Ω·mρ=3.5×10−5Ω·m. (a) Prove that the resistance perpendicular from the axis is R=ρ2πLln(R0Ri).R=ρ2πLln(R0Ri). (b) What is the resistance?

Picture shows a cylinder of the length L. Internal radius is R1, external radius is R2.
90.

What is the current through a cylindrical wire of radius R=0.1mmR=0.1mm if the current density is J=J0RrJ=J0Rr, where J0=32000Am2?J0=32000Am2?

91.

A student uses a 100.00-W, 115.00-V radiant heater to heat the student’s dorm room, during the hours between sunset and sunrise, 6:00 p.m. to 7:00 a.m. (a) What current does the heater operate at? (b) How many electrons move through the heater? (c) What is the resistance of the heater? (d) How much heat was added to the dorm room?

92.

A 12-V car battery is used to power a 20.00-W, 12.00-V lamp during the physics club camping trip/star party. The cable to the lamp is 2.00 meters long, 14-gauge copper wire with a charge density of n=9.50×1028m−3n=9.50×1028m−3. (a) What is the current draw by the lamp? (b) How long would it take an electron to get from the battery to the lamp?

93.

A physics student uses a 115.00-V immersion heater to heat 400.00 grams (almost two cups) of water for herbal tea. During the two minutes it takes the water to heat, the physics student becomes bored and decides to figure out the resistance of the heater. The student starts with the assumption that the water is initially at the temperature of the room Ti=25.00°CTi=25.00°C and reaches Tf=100.00°CTf=100.00°C. The specific heat of the water is c=4180Jkg∙Kc=4180Jkg∙K. What is the resistance of the heater?

Citation/Attribution

Want to cite, share, or modify this book? This book is Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 and you must attribute OpenStax.

Attribution information
  • If you are redistributing all or part of this book in a print format, then you must include on every physical page the following attribution:
    Access for free at https://openstax.org/books/university-physics-volume-2/pages/1-introduction
  • If you are redistributing all or part of this book in a digital format, then you must include on every digital page view the following attribution:
    Access for free at https://openstax.org/books/university-physics-volume-2/pages/1-introduction
Citation information

© Oct 6, 2016 OpenStax. Textbook content produced by OpenStax is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 license. The OpenStax name, OpenStax logo, OpenStax book covers, OpenStax CNX name, and OpenStax CNX logo are not subject to the Creative Commons license and may not be reproduced without the prior and express written consent of Rice University.