University Physics Volume 2

# Key Equations

### Key Equations

 Definition of electric flux, for uniform electric field $Φ=E→·A→→EAcosθΦ=E→·A→→EAcosθ$ Electric flux through an open surface $Φ=∫SE→·n^dA=∫SE→·dA→Φ=∫SE→·n^dA=∫SE→·dA→$ Electric flux through a closed surface $Φ=∮SE→·n^dA=∮SE→·dA→Φ=∮SE→·n^dA=∮SE→·dA→$ Gauss’s law $Φ=∮SE→·n^dA=qencε0Φ=∮SE→·n^dA=qencε0$ Gauss’s Law for systems with symmetry $Φ=∮SE→·n^dA=E∮SdA=EA=qencε0Φ=∮SE→·n^dA=E∮SdA=EA=qencε0$ The magnitude of the electric field just outside the surface of a conductor $E=σε0E=σε0$
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