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University Physics Volume 2

Additional Problems

University Physics Volume 2Additional Problems
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  1. Preface
  2. Unit 1. Thermodynamics
    1. 1 Temperature and Heat
      1. Introduction
      2. 1.1 Temperature and Thermal Equilibrium
      3. 1.2 Thermometers and Temperature Scales
      4. 1.3 Thermal Expansion
      5. 1.4 Heat Transfer, Specific Heat, and Calorimetry
      6. 1.5 Phase Changes
      7. 1.6 Mechanisms of Heat Transfer
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    2. 2 The Kinetic Theory of Gases
      1. Introduction
      2. 2.1 Molecular Model of an Ideal Gas
      3. 2.2 Pressure, Temperature, and RMS Speed
      4. 2.3 Heat Capacity and Equipartition of Energy
      5. 2.4 Distribution of Molecular Speeds
      6. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    3. 3 The First Law of Thermodynamics
      1. Introduction
      2. 3.1 Thermodynamic Systems
      3. 3.2 Work, Heat, and Internal Energy
      4. 3.3 First Law of Thermodynamics
      5. 3.4 Thermodynamic Processes
      6. 3.5 Heat Capacities of an Ideal Gas
      7. 3.6 Adiabatic Processes for an Ideal Gas
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    4. 4 The Second Law of Thermodynamics
      1. Introduction
      2. 4.1 Reversible and Irreversible Processes
      3. 4.2 Heat Engines
      4. 4.3 Refrigerators and Heat Pumps
      5. 4.4 Statements of the Second Law of Thermodynamics
      6. 4.5 The Carnot Cycle
      7. 4.6 Entropy
      8. 4.7 Entropy on a Microscopic Scale
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
  3. Unit 2. Electricity and Magnetism
    1. 5 Electric Charges and Fields
      1. Introduction
      2. 5.1 Electric Charge
      3. 5.2 Conductors, Insulators, and Charging by Induction
      4. 5.3 Coulomb's Law
      5. 5.4 Electric Field
      6. 5.5 Calculating Electric Fields of Charge Distributions
      7. 5.6 Electric Field Lines
      8. 5.7 Electric Dipoles
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
    2. 6 Gauss's Law
      1. Introduction
      2. 6.1 Electric Flux
      3. 6.2 Explaining Gauss’s Law
      4. 6.3 Applying Gauss’s Law
      5. 6.4 Conductors in Electrostatic Equilibrium
      6. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    3. 7 Electric Potential
      1. Introduction
      2. 7.1 Electric Potential Energy
      3. 7.2 Electric Potential and Potential Difference
      4. 7.3 Calculations of Electric Potential
      5. 7.4 Determining Field from Potential
      6. 7.5 Equipotential Surfaces and Conductors
      7. 7.6 Applications of Electrostatics
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    4. 8 Capacitance
      1. Introduction
      2. 8.1 Capacitors and Capacitance
      3. 8.2 Capacitors in Series and in Parallel
      4. 8.3 Energy Stored in a Capacitor
      5. 8.4 Capacitor with a Dielectric
      6. 8.5 Molecular Model of a Dielectric
      7. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    5. 9 Current and Resistance
      1. Introduction
      2. 9.1 Electrical Current
      3. 9.2 Model of Conduction in Metals
      4. 9.3 Resistivity and Resistance
      5. 9.4 Ohm's Law
      6. 9.5 Electrical Energy and Power
      7. 9.6 Superconductors
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    6. 10 Direct-Current Circuits
      1. Introduction
      2. 10.1 Electromotive Force
      3. 10.2 Resistors in Series and Parallel
      4. 10.3 Kirchhoff's Rules
      5. 10.4 Electrical Measuring Instruments
      6. 10.5 RC Circuits
      7. 10.6 Household Wiring and Electrical Safety
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    7. 11 Magnetic Forces and Fields
      1. Introduction
      2. 11.1 Magnetism and Its Historical Discoveries
      3. 11.2 Magnetic Fields and Lines
      4. 11.3 Motion of a Charged Particle in a Magnetic Field
      5. 11.4 Magnetic Force on a Current-Carrying Conductor
      6. 11.5 Force and Torque on a Current Loop
      7. 11.6 The Hall Effect
      8. 11.7 Applications of Magnetic Forces and Fields
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    8. 12 Sources of Magnetic Fields
      1. Introduction
      2. 12.1 The Biot-Savart Law
      3. 12.2 Magnetic Field Due to a Thin Straight Wire
      4. 12.3 Magnetic Force between Two Parallel Currents
      5. 12.4 Magnetic Field of a Current Loop
      6. 12.5 Ampère’s Law
      7. 12.6 Solenoids and Toroids
      8. 12.7 Magnetism in Matter
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    9. 13 Electromagnetic Induction
      1. Introduction
      2. 13.1 Faraday’s Law
      3. 13.2 Lenz's Law
      4. 13.3 Motional Emf
      5. 13.4 Induced Electric Fields
      6. 13.5 Eddy Currents
      7. 13.6 Electric Generators and Back Emf
      8. 13.7 Applications of Electromagnetic Induction
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    10. 14 Inductance
      1. Introduction
      2. 14.1 Mutual Inductance
      3. 14.2 Self-Inductance and Inductors
      4. 14.3 Energy in a Magnetic Field
      5. 14.4 RL Circuits
      6. 14.5 Oscillations in an LC Circuit
      7. 14.6 RLC Series Circuits
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    11. 15 Alternating-Current Circuits
      1. Introduction
      2. 15.1 AC Sources
      3. 15.2 Simple AC Circuits
      4. 15.3 RLC Series Circuits with AC
      5. 15.4 Power in an AC Circuit
      6. 15.5 Resonance in an AC Circuit
      7. 15.6 Transformers
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    12. 16 Electromagnetic Waves
      1. Introduction
      2. 16.1 Maxwell’s Equations and Electromagnetic Waves
      3. 16.2 Plane Electromagnetic Waves
      4. 16.3 Energy Carried by Electromagnetic Waves
      5. 16.4 Momentum and Radiation Pressure
      6. 16.5 The Electromagnetic Spectrum
      7. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
  4. A | Units
  5. B | Conversion Factors
  6. C | Fundamental Constants
  7. D | Astronomical Data
  8. E | Mathematical Formulas
  9. F | Chemistry
  10. G | The Greek Alphabet
  11. Answer Key
    1. Chapter 1
    2. Chapter 2
    3. Chapter 3
    4. Chapter 4
    5. Chapter 5
    6. Chapter 6
    7. Chapter 7
    8. Chapter 8
    9. Chapter 9
    10. Chapter 10
    11. Chapter 11
    12. Chapter 12
    13. Chapter 13
    14. Chapter 14
    15. Chapter 15
    16. Chapter 16
  12. Index

Additional Problems

79.

Consider the process shown below. During steps AB and BC, 3600 J and 2400 J of heat, respectively, are added to the system. (a) Find the work done in each of the processes AB, BC, AD, and DC. (b) Find the internal energy change in processes AB and BC. (c) Find the internal energy difference between states C and A. (d) Find the total heat added in the ADC process. (e) From the information given, can you find the heat added in process AD? Why or why not?

The figure is a plot of pressure, p, in atmospheres on the vertical axis as a function of volume, V, in liters on the horizontal axis. The horizontal volume scale runs from 0 to 7, and the vertical pressure scale runs from 0 to 5. Four points, A, B, C, and D, are labeled on the plot and their pressures and volumes are labeled on the axes. Point A is at volume 3 L, pressure 2 atmospheres. Point B is at volume 3 L, pressure 5 atmospheres. Point C is at volume 7 L, pressure 5 atmospheres. Point D is at volume 7 L, pressure 2 atmospheres. A path goes from A up to B and across to C. Another path goes from A across to D and then up to C.
80.

A car tire contains 0.0380m30.0380m3 of air at a pressure of 2.20×105Pa2.20×105Pa (about 32 psi). How much more internal energy does this gas have than the same volume has at zero gauge pressure (which is equivalent to normal atmospheric pressure)?

81.

A helium-filled toy balloon has a gauge pressure of 0.200 atm and a volume of 10.0 L. How much greater is the internal energy of the helium in the balloon than it would be at zero gauge pressure?

82.

Steam to drive an old-fashioned steam locomotive is supplied at a constant gauge pressure of 1.75×106N/m21.75×106N/m2 (about 250 psi) to a piston with a 0.200-m radius. (a) By calculating pΔVpΔV, find the work done by the steam when the piston moves 0.800 m. Note that this is the net work output, since gauge pressure is used. (b) Now find the amount of work by calculating the force exerted times the distance traveled. Is the answer the same as in part (a)?

83.

A hand-driven tire pump has a piston with a 2.50-cm diameter and a maximum stroke of 30.0 cm. (a) How much work do you do in one stroke if the average gauge pressure is 2.4×105N/m22.4×105N/m2 (about 35 psi)? (b) What average force do you exert on the piston, neglecting friction and gravitational force?

84.

Calculate the net work output of a heat engine following path ABCDA as shown below.

The figure is a plot of pressure, p, in nuits of 10 to the 6 Newtons per meter squared on the vertical axis as a function of volume, V, in 10 to the minus 3 cubic meters on the horizontal axis. The horizontal volume scale runs from 0 to 4, and the vertical pressure scale runs from 0 to about 4. Four points, A, B, C, and D, are labeled on the plot and their pressures and volumes are labeled on the axes. Point A is at volume 1.0 times 10 to the -3 cubic meters, pressure 2.6 times 10 to the 6 Newtons per meter squared. Point B is at volume 4.0 times 10 to the -3 cubic meters, pressure 2.0 times 10 to the 6 Newtons per meter squared. Point C is at volume 4.0 times 10 to the -3 cubic meters, pressure 0.6 times 10 to the 6 Newtons per meter squared. Point D is at volume 1.0 times 10 to the -3 cubic meters, pressure 1.0 times 10 to the 6 Newtons per meter squared. A straight line connects A to B, another straight line B to C, another straight line C to D, and another straight line back to A.
85.

What is the net work output of a heat engine that follows path ABDA in the preceding problem with a straight line from B to D? Why is the work output less than for path ABCDA?

86.

Five moles of a monatomic ideal gas in a cylinder at 27°C27°C is expanded isothermally from a volume of 5 L to 10 L. (a) What is the change in internal energy? (b) How much work was done on the gas in the process? (c) How much heat was transferred to the gas?

87.

Four moles of a monatomic ideal gas in a cylinder at 27°C27°C is expanded at constant pressure equal to 1 atm until its volume doubles. (a) What is the change in internal energy? (b) How much work was done by the gas in the process? (c) How much heat was transferred to the gas?

88.

Helium gas is cooled from 20°C20°C to 10°C10°C by expanding from 40 atm to 1 atm. If there is 1.4 mol of helium, (a) What is the final volume of helium? (b) What is the change in internal energy?

89.

In an adiabatic process, oxygen gas in a container is compressed along a path that can be described by the following pressure in atm as a function of volume V, with V0=1LV0=1L: p=(3.0atm)(V/V0)−1.2p=(3.0atm)(V/V0)−1.2. The initial and final volumes during the process were 2 L and 1.5 L, respectively. Find the amount of work done on the gas.

90.

A cylinder containing three moles of a monatomic ideal gas is heated at a constant pressure of 2 atm. The temperature of the gas changes from 300 K to 350 K as a result of the expansion. Find work done (a) on the gas; and (b) by the gas.

91.

A cylinder containing three moles of nitrogen gas is heated at a constant pressure of 2 atm. The temperature of the gas changes from 300 K to 350 K as a result of the expansion. Find work done (a) on the gas, and (b) by the gas by using van der Waals equation of state instead of ideal gas law.

92.

Two moles of a monatomic ideal gas such as oxygen is compressed adiabatically and reversibly from a state (3 atm, 5 L) to a state with a pressure of 4 atm. (a) Find the volume and temperature of the final state. (b) Find the temperature of the initial state. (c) Find work done by the gas in the process. (d) Find the change in internal energy in the process. Assume CV=5RCV=5R and Cp=CV+RCp=CV+R for the diatomic ideal gas in the conditions given.

93.

An insulated vessel contains 1.5 moles of argon at 2 atm. The gas initially occupies a volume of 5 L. As a result of the adiabatic expansion the pressure of the gas is reduced to 1 atm. (a) Find the volume and temperature of the final state. (b) Find the temperature of the gas in the initial state. (c) Find the work done by the gas in the process. (d) Find the change in the internal energy of the gas in the process.

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